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EC number: 203-396-5 | CAS number: 106-42-3
The study identified 500 mg/m^3 as a NOAEL for effects on foetal survival and foetal malformations or variation for rabbits.
The embryotoxic effects of mixed xylene and the o- , p- and m- xylene isomers were investigated in mice, rats and rabbits following a method similar to the OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study) Guideline.
Groups of CFY rats were exposed to the inhalation of mixed xylene at 250, 1900 or 3400 mg/m^3 for 24hday from day 7 - 15 of gestation. CFLP mice and NZ rabbbits were exposed to inhalation of 500 mg/m^3 ortho, meta- , para- xylene and 500 or 1000 mg/m^3 mixed xylene for 24h/day from gestation days 6 - 15 . Untreated animals served as controls, which inhaled pure air.
Mixed xylene and all the xylene isomers crossed the placenta and were found present in foetal blood and amniotic fluid. Maternal toxic effects at all solvent concentrations were moderate and dose- dependent. Mixed xylene increased post- implantation loss in rats. Mortality was observed in rats at 3400mg/m^3 mixed xylene and at 100mg/m^3 para- xylene and xylene in rabbits. No mortality was observed in mice exposed to mixed xylene or any of the xylene isomers. Mixed xylene and xylene isomers at 1000 mg/m^3 decreased maternal weight gain in rabbits and increased the number of foetal losses by abortion. A significant percentage of dead or resorbed foetus were seen in rats at 3400 mg/m^3 mixed xylene.
In terms of foetal effects, the highest concentrations of mixed xylene (≥3400 mg/m^3 = 13% (p<0.05) in rats caused a decrease in the body weight in male foetuses. Mixed xylene and all xylene isomers increased the incidence of weight retarded foetuses in mice, especially at the higher concentrations. When mixed xylene and xylene isomers were tested at 1000 mg/m^3 in rabbits, they caused a decrease in the weight of female foetuses and exposure at 500 mg/m^3 caused a moderate embryotoxic effect where there was an increased incidence of weight retardation.
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