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EC number: 809-896-5
CAS number: 60435-70-3
The information on toxicokinetics has been
read-across from a structural analogue, the linear isomer octan-1-ol.
viscous liquid that has a low water solubility and a strong odour.
aliphatic alcohol, 1-octanol is likely to be absorbed following exposure
by all common physiological routes (dermal, oral and inhalation) (OECD,
2006). The extent of absorption of aliphatic alcohols varies with chain
length. For example, in rats, the extent of dermal penetration increases
up to C7 (1-heptanol) and thereafter declines with longer carbon chain
lengths (Valette and Cavier, 1954). Dermal absorption studies using
hairless mice, and comparative in vitro skin permeation data, show that
for aliphatic alcohols with chain lengths varying from 8 to 16 carbon
atoms, there is an inverse relationship between absorption and chain
length with the short to intermediate chain alcohols (up to C12) having
a significant absorption potential. Thus approximately 50% of a dose of
radiolabelled n-[1-14C]octanol was absorbed upon skin
application to mice for 24 hours, a figure that decreased with
increasing chain length to about 7% for similarly labelled 1-decanol
(C10) and 2.84% for 1-dodecanol (C12) (Iwata et al. 1987).
substances that come into contact with the skin can readily penetrate
the lipid-rich stratum corneum by passive diffusion at a rate
proportional to their lipid solubility and inversely to their molecular
weight (Marzulli et al. 1965).
of absorption of aliphatic alcohols from the gastrointestinal tract also
depends upon chain length. Although no actual data ware found for
1-octanol, short-chain aliphatic alcohols are known to be rapidly and
extensively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (Aaes-Jorgensen et
al. 1959; Bandi et al. 1971a, 1971b), whereas long-chain saturated
alcohols (e.g. C18) are said to be poorly absorbed (CIR, 1985). The
presence of only <0.5% of an oral dose of1-octanol
in the faeces of rats (Miyazaki, 1955) supports the view that absorption
is likely to be extensive following ingestion.
1-octanol potentially could be widely distributed within the body (OECD,
2006). However, its rapid and efficient metabolism and elimination from
the body suggests that 1¿octanol is not expected to be retained or to
accumulate (Bevan, 2001; OECD, 2006). Short¿chain aliphatic alcohols
readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier, whereas longer chain alcohols
(C16-C18) cross this barrier in only trace amounts (Gelman and
As a primary
alcohol, absorbed 1-octanol will initially be metabolised (oxidised),
primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase, to the corresponding aldehyde
(octanal). The aldehyde is a transient intermediate that is rapidly
converted by further oxidation to the acid (octanoic acid) by aldehyde
dehydrogenase. Octanoic acid is then susceptible to degradation via
acyl-CoA intermediates by the mitochondrialb-oxidation
process. This mechanism removes C2 units in a stepwise process. The rate
to increase with increasing chain length (JECFA, 1999). Mice excretedmore
than 90% of the absorbed dose of a similar alcohol (radiolabelled
in expired air (evidently as carbon dioxide) following skin application,
suggesting that metabolism of absorbed 1¿octanol would also be extensive
(Iwata et al. 1987).
alternative metabolic pathway exists through microsomal or peroxisomal
degradation of the carboxylic acid metabolite (octanoic acid) viaw-
followed by ß-oxidation (Verhoeven et al. 1998). [This pathway provides
an efficient route for the degradation of branched-chain alcohols.]
probably not applicable to 1-octanol, it is noted that the acids formed
from longer¿chained aliphatic alcohols can also enter lipid biosynthesis
and may be incorporated in phospholipids and neutral lipids (Bandi et
al. 1971a, 1971b; Mukherjee et al. 1980).
function of the parent octanol and the carboxy function of the octanoic
acid metabolite may also undergo conjugation reactions to form sulphates
and/or glucuronides. For linear aliphatic alcohols, this pathway
generally accounts for less than 10% of the metabolism (Kamil et al.
1953; McIsaac and Williams, 1958).
the 24-hour application of the close analogue 1-dodecanol (radiolabelled
with14C on the 1¿carbon atom) to skin of hairless mice, more
than 90% of the absorbed dose was excreted in expired air and 3.5% was
eliminated in the faeces and urine after 24 hours; only 4.6% of the
absorbed dose [representing 0.13% of the applied dose] remained in the
body (Iwata et al. 1987). A similar general pattern of extensive and
rapid excretion would be expected for 1-octanol.
were given an oral dose of 1-octanol, only trace amounts (<0.5%) of
unchanged alcohol were detected in the faeces (Miyazaki, 1955). Faecal
recoveries of unchanged alcohol were 20 and 50%, respectively, when rats
were given an oral dose of the higher alcohols 1¿hexadecanol and
1-octadecanol (McIsaac and Williams, 1958; Miyazaki, 1955).
glucuronic acid conjugates formed during the metabolism of most
aliphatic alcohols are excreted in the urine (Wasti, 1978; Williams,
1-octanol, 9.5% of an oral dose was excreted by rabbits in urine as
glucuronide (Kamil et al. 1953).
lipophilic alcohols such as 1-octanol have the physiochemical potential
to accumulate in breast milk, rapid metabolism to the corresponding
carboxylic acid followed by further degradation suggests that breast
milk can only be, at most, a minor route of elimination from the body
have been read-across to 2-methyl-1-heptanol.
E, Privett OS and Holman RT (1959). Essential fatty acid activities of
hydrocarbons and alcohols analogous to linoleate and linolenate. Journal
of Nutrition 67, 413-421 (cited in Gelman and Gilbertson, 1975).
Mangold HK, Holmer G and Aaes-Jorgensen E (1971a). The alkyl and
alk-1-enyl glycerols in the liver of rats fed long chain alcohols or
alkyl glycerols. FEBS Letters 12, 217-220.
Aaes-Jorgensen E and Mangold HK (1971b). Metabolism of unusual lipids in
the rat. 1. Formation of unsaturated alkyl and alk-1-enyl chains from
orally administered alcohols. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 239, 357-367.
(2001). Monohydric Alcohols - C7 to C18, aromatic and other alcohols.
Patty¿s Toxicology. Eds E Bingham, B Cohrssen and CH Powell. 5th
Edition, Vol. 6, J. Wiley and Sons, New York (cited in OECD, 2006).
Doull (1991). Toxicology. The basic science of poisons. Eds MO Amdur, J
Doull and CD Klassen. 4thEdition, Pergamon Press, New York.
Final report on the safety assessment of stearyl alcohol, oleyl alcohol
and octyl dodecanol. Journal of the American College of Toxicology 4,
Final report on the safety assessment of ceteayl alcohol, cetyl alcohol,
isostearyl alcohol, myristyl alcohol and behenyl alcohol. Journal of the
American College of Toxicology 7, 359-413.
Monograph on stearyl alcohol. US Department of Commerce. NTIS PB-289
664. Food and Drug Administration, Washington DC.
and Gilbertson JA (1975). Permeability of the blood-brain barrier to
long-chain alcohols from plasma. Nutrition and Metabolism 18, 169-175.
Moriya Y and Kobayashi T (1987). Percutaneous absorption of aliphatic
compounds. Cosmetics and Toiletries 102, 53-68.
(1999). Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. 49thReport
of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Tech Rep
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Smith JN and Williams RT (1953). Studies in detoxication 46. The
metabolism of aliphatic alcohols. The glucuronic acid conjugation of
acyclic aliphatic alcohols. Biochemical Journal 53, 129-136 (cited in
McIsaac and Williams, 1958).
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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