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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The purpose of the present study was to compare the acute toxicity of solvents towards three ages of Artemia salina.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Artemia salina
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Brine shrimp
- Source: San Francisco Bay Brand, Inc. (Division of Metaframe Co., Menlo Park, CA, USA)
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): nauplius larvae of Artemia salina aged 24-, 48- and 72-hr.
- Method of breeding: The method of Persoone et al. (1989) was applied and modified. The Artemia Salina were obtained from 100mg eggs and were hydrated in distilled water at 4°C for 12 hr. Washing separated the sinkers from floaters. The cysts that sank were collected on a Buchner funnel and washed with cold distilled water, followed by synthetic seawater prepared by mixing 35 %0 of Synthetica seasalt (Waterlife Research Ltd., England), with distilled and deionized (Milli-Q) water, stirring for 24 hr, with suitable aeration and successive filtration with thick cellulose filters. They were then incubated in a graduated glass cylinder for about 24 hr at 25°C, with continuous side illumination (15-W fluorescent lamp), in 100 mL of synthetic seawater, at pH 8.6, and with a slight aeration maintained by a small tube in contact with the bottom of the cylinder. The nauplii produced were aspired with Pasteur pippettes and transferred to a glass flask containing 200 mL of the synthetic seawater.

Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 h
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM: 1 mL of synthetic seawater
- Test vessel: plastic 16 -mm petri dishes
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10 larvae
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3 - 5
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 5

REPLICATES
All experiments were repeated five times.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Light intensity: dark
- Temperature: 25°C


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED : Mortality. Larvae were considered dead if they did not exhibit any internal or external movement during 10 sec of observation.
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
641 mg/L
Remarks on result:
other: 24-hr larvae
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
521 mg/L
Remarks on result:
other: 48-hr larvae
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
400 mg/L
Remarks on result:
other: 72-hr larvae

Artemia salina 24-, 48and 72-hr old demonstrated that there is an increase in toxicity of acetonitrile following longer development of Artemia salina. Artemia salina 72-hr old was more sensitive towards acetonitrile than was Artemia salina 24-hr old. There is no statistically significant difference between the toxicity of acetonitrile to Artemia salina 24- and 48hr old, however, there is a statistically significant difference between the toxicity of acetonitrile to Artemia salina 24- and 72-hr old.

Executive summary:

Barahona-Gomeriz et al (1994) reported a 24 -hour, static LC50 value of 400 mg/L for acetonitrile in 72 -hour larvae of Artemia salina (Brine shrimp).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
No information available
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
other: Palaemonetes kadiakensis
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Grass shrimp
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): juveniles
Test type:
not specified
Water media type:
freshwater
Test temperature:
23 degree C.
Duration:
18 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
5 140 mg/L
Executive summary:

Bowman et al (1981) reported an 18 -hour EC50 value equivalent to 5140 mg/L for acetonitrile in Grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes kadiakensis)

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
No information available
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
other: Culex restuans
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: White dotted mosquito
Test type:
not specified
Water media type:
freshwater
Test temperature:
23 degree C.
Duration:
18 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
8 250 mg/L
Executive summary:

Bowman et al (1981) reported an 18 -hour EC50 value equivalent to 8250 mg/L for acetonitrile in White spotted mosquito, (Culex restuans).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
No information available
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia pulex
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): <24 hours old
Test type:
not specified
Water media type:
freshwater
Test temperature:
23 degree C.
Duration:
18 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
5 810 mg/L
Executive summary:

Bowman et al (1981) reported an 18 -hour EC50 value equivalent to 5810 mg/L for acetonitrile in Water flea, (Daphnia pulex).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 38412 Part II
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The test method was that of DIN 38412 Part II (undated).
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 24 hours old
Test type:
not specified
Water media type:
freshwater
Hardness:
70 mg CaCO3/l.
Test temperature:
20-22 degree C
pH:
7.6 - 7.7
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
5 000 mg/L
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 10 000 mg/L
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC100
Effect conc.:
> 10 000 mg/L
Executive summary:

Bringmann and Kuhn (1982) reported a 24 -hour EC50 value of >10,000 mg/L for acetonitrile in Daphnia magna (Water flea).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The method evaluates the potential of a substance to cause acute aquatic effects in seven juvenile aquatic species simultaneously.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Dugesia tigrina
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Flatworm
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): Juvenile
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
130 mg CaCO3/l.
Test temperature:
19-21 degree C.
pH:
6.5 - 8.5
Dissolved oxygen:
>=40% original value.
Salinity:
alkalinity 93 mg CaCO3/l.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Executive summary:

Ewell et al (1996) reported a 96 -hour LC50 value of >100 mg/L for acetonitrile in Flatworm, (Dugesia tigrina).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The method evaluates the potential of a substance to cause acute aquatic effects in seven juvenile aquatic species simultaneously.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Asellus intermedius
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Pillbug
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): juvenile
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
130 mg CaCO3/l.
Test temperature:
19-21 degree C.
pH:
6.5 - 8.5
Dissolved oxygen:
>=40% of the original value.
Salinity:
Alkalinity 93 mg CaCO3/l.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Executive summary:

Ewell et al (1996) reported a 96 -hour LC50 value of >100 mg/L for acetonitrile in Pillbug, (Asellus intermedius).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The method evaluates the potential of a substance to cause acute aquatic effects in seven juvenile aquatic species simultaneously.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Helisoma trivolvis
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ramshorn snail
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): juvenile
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
130 mg CaCO3/l.
Test temperature:
19-21 degree C.
pH:
6.5 - 8.5
Dissolved oxygen:
>=40% initial level.
Salinity:
alkalinity 93 mg CaCO3/l.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Executive summary:

Ewell et al (1996) reported a 96 -hour LC50 value of >100 mg/L for acetonitrile in Ramshorn snail, (Helisoma trivolvis).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The method evaluates the potential of a substance to cause acute aquatic effects in seven juvenile aquatic species simultaneously.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
other: Lumbriculus variegatus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Segmented worm
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): Juveniles
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
130 mg CaCO3/l.
Test temperature:
19-21 degree C.
pH:
6.5 - 8.5
Dissolved oxygen:
>=40% of the original value.
Salinity:
Alkalinity 93 mg CaCO3/l.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Executive summary:

Ewell et al (1996) reported a 96 -hour LC50 value of >100 mg/L for acetonitrile in Segmented worm, (Lumbriculus variegatus).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The method evaluates the potential of a substance to cause acute aquatic effects in seven juvenile aquatic species simultaneously.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Gammarus fasciatus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Sideswimmer
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): juvenile
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
130 mg CaCO3/l.
Test temperature:
19-21 degree C.
pH:
6.5 - 8.5
Dissolved oxygen:
>= 40% of initial value.
Salinity:
alkalinity 93 mg CaCO3/l.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Executive summary:

Ewell et al (1996) reported a 96 -hour LC50 value of >100 mg/L for acetonitrile in Sideswimmer, (Gammarus fasciatus).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The method evaluates the potential of a substance to cause acute aquatic effects in seven juvenile aquatic species simultaneously.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Water flea
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): juvenile
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
130 mg CaCO3/l.
Test temperature:
19-21 degree C.
pH:
6.5 - 8.5
Dissolved oxygen:
>= 40% of initial value.
Salinity:
alkalinity 93 mg CaCO3/l.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Executive summary:

Ewell et al (1996) reported a 96 -hour LC50 value of >100 mg/L for acetonitrile in Water flea, (Daphnia magna).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
23 October 1995 - 29 March 1996
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Physical state: colourless and transparent liquid
- Analytical purity: 100.0% (GC)
- Lot/batch No.: ESH3487
- Stability under test conditions: Stable
- Storage condition of test material: In the refrigerator
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Sampling: 0, 24h
- Sampling volume: 5.0 mL
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
A test solution used in this study was prepared by diluting the test substance with the dechlorinated tap water.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Source: National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan
- Age at study initiation: less than 24 hours at the start of the test
- Feeding during test: none


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 3 weeks
- Acclimation conditions: same as test
- Type and amount of food: Chlorella vulgaris, 0.1 - 0.2 mgC daphnid/day
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
19.8 - 20.7℃
pH:
8.0 - 8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
8.2 - 8.7 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 0, 1000 mg/L
measured: (0 h) <9, 1014 mg/L
(24 h) <9, 948 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Erlenmeyer flask with ground-in stopper
- Type: closed
- size: 100 mL (full volume: 125 mL)
- headspace: no
- fill volume: 125 mL
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency): 24h
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: dechlorinated tap water
- Hardness of dilution water: 50 mg/L (as CaCO3)
- pH of dilution water: 7.9



OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16h light/8h dark
- Light intensity: At room light


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 0, 1000 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: The percentage of immobilisation at 48h: 0, 0%.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: none
- Mortality of control: 0
- Other adverse effects control: none
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- 48h EC50: 0.14 mg/L
Conclusions:
The 48-hr EC50 (immobilization) value for acetonitrile in Daphnia magna is concluded to be >1000 mg/L (nominal conc.).
Executive summary:

In a guideline (OECD 202) and GLP study, MCSI of Japan (1996) reported the 48 -hr EC50 (immobilization) value for acetonitrile in Daphnia magna to be >1000 mg/L (nominal conc.).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: OECD Guidelines for Testing Chemicals (OECD 1987)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: Aquatic Organism Institute, Chinese National Academy of Science.
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): less than 48 hours old
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
1.86 +/- 0.08 ug (CaCO3)/L
Test temperature:
24 +/- 1 degree C
pH:
6.5-7.5
Dissolved oxygen:
7.5-8.0 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Chemical concentrations were not calculated.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): The test solution was changed once every day.

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: tap water dechlorinated by active carbon
- Intervals of water quality measurement: beginning and the end of each test by the standard methods (APHA-AWWA-WPCF 1985).

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality was measured at 48 hr and 48-hr LC50 were calculated.
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
3 600 mg/L
Conclusions:
The 48 hour LC50 for Daphnia magna was calculated to be 3600 mg/L
Executive summary:

Tong et al (1996) reported a 48 -hour, static renewal LC50 value of 3600 mg/L for acetonitrile in Water flea, (Daphnia magna).

Description of key information

The acute toxicity of acetonitrile on aquatic invertebrates has been studied by several investigators.  Reported LC50 values range from 400 mg/L to 8250 mg/L.  The lowest values were reported by Barahona-Gomeriz et al (1994), who studied the marine crustacean, Artemia salina and reported 24 -hour LC50 values in 24, 48 and 72-hr larvae exposed to acetonitrile of 641, 521 and 400 mg/L, respectively.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
3 600 mg/L

Marine water invertebrates

Marine water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
400 mg/L

Additional information

The acute toxicity of acetonitrile on aquatic invertebrates has been studied by several investigators. Data are summarized in the table below. Ewell et al. (1986) studied the acute effects of acetonitrile on six species from different taxonomic groups including Arthropoda, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca and Annelida; all LC50 values were reported as >100 mg/L. Additional acute data reported by Bowman et al. (1981) and Tong et al (1996) on (Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Culex restuans),and (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) indicate acute LC50 values in the g/L range.

Barahona-Gomeriz et al (1994) reported lower acute LC50 values in the marine crustacean, (Artemia salina). 24 -hour LC50 values in 24, 48 and 72-hr larvae exposed to acetonitrile were 641, 521 and 400 mg/L, respectively.

 

In a guideline (OECD 202) and GLP study, MCSI of Japan (1996) reported the 48 -hr EC50 (immobilization) value for acetonitrile in Daphnia magna to be >1000 mg/L (nominal conc.).

 

Toxicity of acetonitrile to aquatic invertebrates

SPECIES

TEST TYPE

DURATION

TOXICITY

END POINT

(mg/l)

REFERENCE

Daphnia magna

(fresh water crustacean)

Static renewal, nominal concentration

48 hr

LC50= 3600

Tong et al., (1996)

Daphnia magna

(fresh water crustacean)

Static renewal, nominal concentration

48 hr

EC5>1000

(immobilization)

MCSI, Japan (1996)

Artemia salina

(marine crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

24 hr

LC50= 400

Barahona-Gomeriz et al.,(1994)

Asellus intermedius

(fresh water crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

96 hr

EC50>100

Ewell et al., (1986)

 

Daphnia magna

(fresh water crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

24 hr

EC50> 10,000

Bringmann and Kuhn (1982)

Dapnia pulex

(fresh water crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

18 hr

EC50= 5810

Bownan et al., (1981)

Dapnia magna

(fresh water crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

96 hr

LC50> 100

Ewell et al (1986)

 

Gammarus fasciatus

(fresh water crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

96 hr

LC50> 100

Ewell et al., (1986)

 

Culex restuans

(insect larvae)

Static, nominal concentration

18 hr

EC50= 8250

Bownan et al., (1981)

Dugesia tigrina flatworus (Phatyhelminthe)

Static, nominal concentration

96 hr

LC50> 100

Ewell et al., (1986)

 

Helisoma trivolvis

(fresh water snail)

Static, nominal concentration

96 hr

LC50> 100

Ewell et al (1986)

Lumbriculus variegatus (segmented worm)

Static, nominal concentration

96 hr

EC50> 100

Ewell et al., (1986)

Palaemonetes kadiakensis(fresh water crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

18 hr

EC50= 5140

Bowman et al., (1981)