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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Description of key information

Various studies are summarised in the WHO (2002) review. 24-h LD50 values were 50 mg/kg body weight for 1-day-old European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) chicks and 17 mg/kg body weight for 16-day-old nestlings.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

The World Health Organisation reviewed several studies that investigated fluoride toxicity in birds.

In birds, the 24-h LD50was 50 mg/kg body weight for 1-day-old European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) chicks and 17 mg/kg body weight for 16-day-old nestlings. Growth rates were significantly reduced at 13 and 17 mg fluoride/kg body weight (the highest doses at which growth was monitored).

Kestrels were fed a diet to which flour contaminated with fluoride (10, 50 or 500 mg/kg) had been applied. The birds receiving the highest fluoride dose died within 6 days. Fluoride at the lower doses had no effect on clutch size, hatchability or fledging success but was associated with a higher fertility. Eggs laid by kestrels at 50 mg/kg had significantly thicker shells. Lower reproductive success of eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) was noted when birds were fed 90 mg fluoride/kg diet wet weight (as sodium fluoride), but not when fed 18 mg fluoride/kg diet