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Acute Toxicity: inhalation

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acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1991-08-15 to 1991-08-29
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Minor deviations from the guideline without effects on the results: - No acclimatisation period was stated. - According to the guideline, an inhalation equipment to substain a dynamic air flow of 12 to 15 air changes per hour should be used. In this report it was only stated that the air flow was 1, 500 l/h. - According to the guideline, the duration of the exposure should be at least 4 hours after equilibrium of the chamber concentration. In this study it was not stated if exposure started after an equilibration period. -According to the guideline the equipment for measuring temperature should be stated, which was not done in this study.

Data source

Reference Type:
study report
Report date:

Materials and methods

Test guideline
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 403 (Acute Inhalation Toxicity)
Version / remarks:
see "rational for reliability"
GLP compliance:
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Manganese alumina pink corundum
EC Number:
EC Name:
Manganese alumina pink corundum
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Mn(x)Al(2-x)O3 0,01≤x≤0,25
Manganese alumina pink corundum
Test material form:
Details on test material:
- Physical state: pink, solid
- Storage condition of test material: room temperature

Test animals

Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
- Source: Dr. K. Thomae GmbH, D-W7950 Biberach, FRG)
- Age at study initiation: approx. 8 - 9 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: mean weight males: 271 +/- 7.8 g; mean weight females: 195 +/- 9.7 g
- Housing: Rats were housed singly in cages type DK III of becker, without bedding.
- Diet (ad libitum): KLIBA rat/mouse/hamster laboratory diet 24-343-4 10 mm pellets, Klingentalmühle AG, CH-4303 Kaiseraugst, Switzerland during the post-exposure observation period.
- Water (ad libitum): Drinking water during the post-exposure observation period.

- Temperature: 20 - 24 °C
- Relative humidity: 30 - 70 %
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
inhalation: dust
Type of inhalation exposure:
nose/head only
Details on inhalation exposure:
- Exposure apparatus: Head-nose inhalation system INA 20 (glass-steel construction, BASF Aktiengesellschaft, volume V approx. 55 l): the animals were restrained in tubes and their snouts projected into the inhalation chamber.

- System of generating particulates/aerosols: The aerosol was produced with a dosing-wheel dust generator (Gericke/BASF) and compressed air. A glass cyclonic separator (BASF) was connetced downstream with the generator. An air air flow (supply air) of 1,500 l/h was set. The exposure system was placed in air-conditioned laboratory.
By means of an exhaust air system to pressure ratios in the inhalation system were adjusted in such a way that the amount of exhaust air was about 10 % lower (excess pressure). This ensured that the mixture of test substance and air was not diluted with laboratory air in the breathing zones of the animals.

- Method of particle size determination: 30 minutes after the beginning of the test at the earliest, one sample was taken per test group for the particle size analysis.
Before the sampling, the impactor was equipped with glass-fiber collecting discs and a backup particle filter. The impactor was connected to the pump and the test apparatus, and one sample (9 l) was taken.
The impactor was taken apart, and the collecting discs and the backup particle filter were weighed.
The content of the pre-impactor as well as the amounts of the material adsorbed on the walls of the impactor and in the sampling probe (wall losses) were also determined quantitatively.
-Stack Sampler Mark III (Andersen)
- Vacuum Compressed Air Pump (Millipore)
-Sampling probe (internal diameter 6.9 mm)
- Balance: Sartorius M3P and Mettler AE 240
- Evaluation unit (IBM-PC with software PGA)

- Method of determination of the nominal concentration: The nominal concentration was calculated from the amount of substance consumed and the air flow.

- Temperature, humidity, pressure in air chamber: The humidity in the inhalation system was not measured due to technical reasons. It is assumed that deviations of humidity values from the guideline requirements (especially low humidity in dust aerosol) did not influence the test results, because of the relative short exposure time.
The temperature in the inhalation system was measured continuosly and recorded once.

- Brief description of analytical method used: Gravimetric determination of the inhalation atmosphere concentration (Equipment: balance: Mettler AT 250). The preweighed filter was placed into the filtration equipment. By means of a vacuum compressed air pump a volume of the dust aerosol was drwan through the filter.
The dust concentration in mg/l was calculated from the difference between the preweight of the filter and the weight of the filter after sampling, with reference to the sample volume of the inhalation atmosphere.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes
- Vacuum compressed air pump (Millipore)
- Filtration equipment with probe, internal diameter: 4 mm, (Millipore)
- Filter: MN 85/90 Bf (d = 4.7 cm)
- Sampling velocity: 1.25 m/s
- Sampling amount: 2 l
-Sampling frequency: 1 sample about hourly

- MMAD / GSD: 1.8 µm (GSD: = 3.0)
Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:
see "details on inhalation exposure" above
Duration of exposure:
4 h
Nominal concentration: 57.4 mg/l
Actual concentration: 6.2 +/- 0.63 mg/l
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5 males / 5 females
Control animals:
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Frequency of observations and weighing: The body weight of the animals was checked before the beginning of the test, after 7 days and at the end of the observation period. Clinical findings were recorded for each animal separately several times during exposure and at least once on each workday in the observation period. A check for dead animals was made daily.
- Necropsy of survivors performed: Yes
At the end of the 14-day observation perid the animals were sacrificed with CO2 and were subjected to gross-pathological examination.
The statistical evaluation of the dose-response relationship was carried out using FORTRAN program AKPROZ: depending on the data of the dose-response relationship obtained by way of experiment, this program is used to estimate the LC50 or to perform a Probit analysis (FINNEY, D.J. (1971): "Probit Analysis", Cambridge University Press). Estimation of the LC50 will produce types LC50 greater, LC50 about, or LC50 smaller. if the results are Type LC50 greater or LC50 smaller, an additional binominal test is carried out (WITTING, H. (1974): "Mathematical Statistik" B.G. Teubner, Stuttgart, pp. 32 -35), in order to verify these statements statistically, if necessary.
The calculation of the particle size distribution was carried out in the Department of Toxicology of BASF Aktiengesellschaft on the basis of mathematical methods for evaluating particle measurements (DIN 66141: Darstellung von Korngrößenverteilungen, DIN 66151: Partikelgrößenanalyse (Beuth-Vertrieb GmbH, D-W1000 Berlin 30 and D-5000 Köln 1).

Results and discussion

Effect levels
Key result
Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
> 6.2 mg/L air (analytical)
Based on:
test mat.
Exp. duration:
4 h
Remarks on result:
other: The statistical reliability is 99 %.
No deaths occurred.
Clinical signs:
other: Clinical examination showed accelerated respiration in all animals during the exposure period. No abnormalities were detected post exposure besides a discolouration of the fur due to the test substance after exposure on exposure day.
Body weight:
Body weight gain was slightly retarded in male and female animals in the first post exposure week but recovered in the second.
Gross pathology:
During necropsy no pathologic findings were noted.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
No mortality occured at the limit concentration of 6.2 mg/l. Therefore the LC50 is > 6.2 mg/l.
According to the EC Regulation No. 1272/2008 and subsequent regulations, the test item is not classified as acute toxic by the inhalation route.