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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Many high quality studies are available in the database of chronic toxicity to aquatic invertebrates. A lumped data set for nickel-based compounds was considered for enpoint coverage. The lowest EC10 was 1.4 µg Ni/L for freshwater invertebrates and 22.9 µg Ni/L for marine invertebrates.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect concentration:
1.4 µg/L

Marine water invertebrates

Marine water invertebrates
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect concentration:
22.9 µg/L

Additional information

Freshwater Nickel:


From the database of chronic nickel toxicity to freshwater invertebrates, many individual EC10or NOEC values for different individual species were selected. Chronic data on invertebrates belonging to different taxonomic groups being cladoceran (79% of the data points), amphipods (0.9% of the data), insects (7% of the data), hydrozoans (0.9% of the data), rotifers (5% of the data) and a mollusc (7% of the data). The NOEC/L(E) C10 varied between 1.4 μg/L for Lymnaea stagnalis (Schlekat et al., 2010) and 1,379µg/L for Brachionus calyciflorus (Schlekat et al., 2010). It is noted that the invertebrate data are heavily dominated by data on cladocerans.


 


The following table indicates those NOEC or EC10values of high quality that have been carried forward for the HC5-& PNEC derivation:


 
































































































































Key Study


(freshwater invertebrates)



Selected values for the most sensitive endpoints used for derivation of the freshwater HC5



Species



Endpoint



Value (s) (µg/L)



Deleebeecket al., 2008



Daphnia magna



NOEC/EC10



8.8-256



Kunhet al., 1989



Daphnia magna



NOEC



90



Munzinger, 1990



Daphnia magna



NOEC



40



Munzinger, 1994



Daphnia magna



NOEC



80



Keithlyet al., 2004



Ceriodaphnia dubia



NOEC



3.4-5.8



Wirtzet al., 2004



Ceriodaphnia dubia



EC10



2.8-7.6



Deleebeecket al., 2009b



Ceriodaphnia dubia



EC10



7.4-44.2



Nebekeret al., 1984



Clistorina magnifica



NOEC



66



Nebekeret al., 1986



Juga plicifera



NOEC



124



Santiago-Fandino, 1983



Hydra littoralis



NOEC



60



Keithlyet al., 2004



Hyalella azteca



NOEC



29



Deleebeecket al., 2006



Ceriodaphnia quadrangula



NOEC



2.0-12.7



Peracantha truncata



NOEC



2.5-25.8



Daphnia longispina



NOEC



26.6-29.0



Alona affinis



NOEC



25.0



Ceriodaphnia pulchella



NOEC



9.9-28.2



Simocephalus vetulus



NOEC



9.2-28.9



 


Schlekat et al., 2010



Lymnaea stagnalis



EC10



1.4 -19.5



Brachionus calyciflorus



EC10



498-1379



Chironomus tentans



EC10



404-782



 


 


Fresh water (Fluoride)


The lowestlevel for activity of fluoride is 4mg/L on Hyalella atzeca. This threshold is above the limit calculated for Nickel which is therefore the limiting factor


 


CONCLUSION EC10 1.4 µg/L Ni (= 2.3 µg/L NiF2)


 


Marine water (Nickel)


From the database of chronic nickel toxicity to marine invertebrates, many NOEC/EC10/LOEC values are reported. EC10values range from 22.5 μg Ni/L for reproduction of the polychaete,Neanthes arenaceodentata(DeForest and Schlekat, 2013), to 431 μg Ni/L for development of the bivalve,Crassostrea gigas(DeForest and Schlekat, 2013). The table below represents the NOEC, LOEC, or EC10values of high quality carried forward for derivation of HC5and aquatic marine PNEC:


 














































































Key Study


(marine invertebrates)



Selected values for the most sensitive endpoints used for derivation of the marine HC5



Species



Endpoint



Value (s) (µg/L)



 DeForest and Schlekat, 2013



Strongylocentrotus purpuratus



EC10



335



Dendraster excentricus



EC10



191



Huntet al., 2002



Mysidopsis intii



EC10



45.2



Haliotis rufescens



EC10



36.4



Gentileet al., 1982



Mysidopsis bahia



LOEC



141



Mysidopsis bahia



NOEC



 61



 DeForest and Schlekat, 2013



Mytilius galloprovincialis



EC10



269.7 (geomean)



 DeForest and Schlekat, 2013



Neanthes arenaceodentata



EC10



22.5



 DeForest and Schlekat, 2013



Crassostrea gigas



EC10



431



Novelliet al., 2003



Paracentrotus lividus



EC10



89



Pagano, 2007



Paracentrotus lividus



EC10



217



 


Marine water (Nickel)


The lowest level for activity of fluoride is 4.15 mg/L on Grandidierella lutosa and lignorum an estarine amphipods. This threshold is above the limit calculated for Nickel which is therefore the limiting factor.


 


CONCLUSION EC10 22.9 µg/L Ni (= 37.7 µg/L NiF2)


 


 

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