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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-05-27 to 2003-05-31
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Version / remarks:
1992
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(This study was not conducted under GLP but is a guideline study, of high scientific quality with considerable documentation.)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Samples were taken from all test concentrations at 0 and 72 h (fresh solutions), and at 24 and 96 hours (24 h old solutions).
- Sampling method: Samples were collected and immediately preserved with 30% (v/v) methanol, and an internal standard of deuterated C12-LAS was added to facilitate quantitation.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solution of C12 LAS was prepared in high quality water at 1 g/L. Stock solution was added to dilution water (a blend of well and reverse osmosis water).
- Controls: Prepared using a blend of well and reverse osmosis water.
- Evidence of undissolved material: No
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead Minnow
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Fathead minnow breeders were obtained from Aquatic Research Organisms (ARO, Hampton, NH, USA). Test organisms were reared from eggs from the in-house breeding culture.
- Age at study initiation: Not specified.
- Length at study initiation: Fork length; Average length: 14.1 mm, SD: 3.43 mm, Range: 10.37 - 14.64 mm
- Weight at study initiation: Average weight: 0.01256 g, SD: 0.00122 g, Range: 0.0096-0.0206 g
- Method of breeding: In-house breeding; continuous batch culture; 20 L culture vessels; blended water (mix of well and RO water) was culture water; Temp 20.6-21.4°C; DO 7.7-8.9; pH 7.26-8.21; Food - live brine shrimp, flake food; 16:8 hours light:dark.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Test organisms were bred/maintained under the same conditions as the test. The length of the 'acclimation' period was therefore the same as the age of the test organisms.
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: Live brine shrimp, flake food
- Feeding frequency: Twice daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): No mortality in the week prior to testing
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
Not available. But the blend of well and RO water has a hardness of ~180 mg CaCO3/L hardness
Test temperature:
Temperature ranged from 21.0 to 23.5⁰C
pH:
pH ranged as 7.48 to 8.03 . Details on pH measurements are provided in a table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
DO ranged as 6.8 to 8.2 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a table below.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 0, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 mg/L were based on the active ingredient in the test substance.
Measured concentrations: 0.047, 0.296, 0.629, 1.243, 2.45, 4.74 and 10.2 mg/L were based on the active ingredient.
Measured concentrations were 78.9 - 85% of nominal concentrations (see table below for details).
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: 1 L of the test solution in 1 L glass beakers.
- Aeration: Not available
- Renewal rate of test solution: Daily renewal (24, 48, 72 hours)
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 0.126 g fish/L

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: SWOW water (South west well water and reverse Osmosis water blended together)
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: Not available
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 360 - 400 μmhos/cm
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Temperature, DO, pH and conductivity measured daily in control and each test concentration.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 h light:8 h dark
- Light intensity: 7-10uE/m2.s

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of beginning of the test.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2.0
- Range finding study: No, but the test concentrations were based on historical data and institutional knowledge.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.63 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 1.49 - 1.78 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: There were no significant differences with respect to fish size for any of the materials.
- Other biological observations: None
- Mortality of control: None
- Mortality in test groups: 100% mortality was seen within 2 hours of initiation of test in 12 mg/L test group
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 (USEPA FORTRAN program modified for the PC based on Hamilton et al., 1977), and 96 hours LC50 estimates and confidence limits were generated.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Table 1: Acute Toxicity of 7 LAS Substances to Fathead Minnow in Study # 45725

Test Material 96 hr LC50 (mg/L) 95% CL (in mg/L)
C10 LAS 16.6 15.0 – 18.3
C11 LAS 7.08 6.76 – 7.42
C12 LAS 1.63 1.49 – 1.78
C13 LAS 0.63 0.55 – 0.71
C14 LAS 0.26 0.23 – 0.30
LAS Veneco (C10 -14) 2.22 2.02 – 4.35
LAS Pantera (C10 -14) 2.88 2.10 – 3.96

Results are based on measured test concentrations.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
Criteria of OECD 203: Mortality of controls <10%, conc. of dissolved oxygen >60%, exposure concentrations based on measured concentrations.
Conclusions:
The 96 hours LC50 of C12 Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C12 LAS) to Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) was 1.63 (95% CL: 1.49- 1.78) mg a.i./L, based on measured concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a semi static renewal 96-hours acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to C12 Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C12 LAS; SS1164.01; purity: 97.93%) at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 mg a.i./L. Measured concentrations were 0.047, 0.296, 0.629, 1.243, 2.45, 4.74 and 10.2 mg a.i./L. Measured concentrations were 78.9 - 85% of nominal concentrations.

 

100% mortality was seen within 2 hours of initiation of test in 12 mg a.i./L test group.

 

The 96 hour LC50 value of C12 Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (SS1164.01; purity: 97.93%) to Pimephales promelas, was 1.63 mg a.i./L with 95% confidence interval of 1.49 - 1.78 mg a.i./L, based on measured concentrations

 

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guidelines requirement for the OECD 203 fish acute toxicity study.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1974
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Fish Bioassay Procedure, Standard Methods (USPHA), 1970
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Version / remarks:
Deviations, reliability, and validity evaluated against current OECD guideline.
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
pre-dates GLPs
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
Samples were collected for analysis from three concentrations (0, 87, 180 and 420 mg active/L), and preserved with 1 mL formaldehyde (37%), but those results are not available in this study report.
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
Not reported
Test organisms (species):
Lepomis macrochirus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Blue gill
- Strain: Not reported
- Source: Commercial fish hatchery in Nebraska
- Test fish were observed in lab hatchery facilities for at least 30 days prior to testing. During that period, mortality was <2%, and the fish were judged to be in excellent physical condition.
- Age at study initiation: Not reported
- Length at study initiation (mean): 32 mm
- Weight at study initiation (mean): 0.9 g
- Method of breeding: Not reported
- Feeding during test Not reported

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 24 h
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test conditions
- Type and amount of food: Not reported
- Feeding frequency: Not reported
- Health during acclimation: Not reported
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Hardness:
Not reported. Calculated to be 22 mg CaCO3 equivalent/L, based on the composition of the reconstituted water.
Test temperature:
21 ±1 °C
pH:
6.8-7.2 (The reconstituted water had a pH of 7.1)
Dissolved oxygen:
Ranged from 8.6 initially to 4.8 mg/l at the end of the test
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentration: 0, 87, 140, 180, 240, 320, 420, and 560 mg active/L.
No measurement of test concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type: Open
- Material: 5-gallon glass vessels (fill volume not reported)
- Aeration: No
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration: 1
- No. of vessels per control: 1
- Biomass loading rate: Not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was reconstituted water prepared by adding 48 mg NaHCO3, 30 mg CaSO4, 30 mg MgSO4, and 2 mg of KCl per liter of deionized water.
- Total organic carbon: Not reported
- Particulate matter: Not reported
- Metals: Not reported
- Pesticides: Not reported
- Chlorine: Not reported
- Alkalinity: 35 ppm as CaCO3
- Ca/mg ratio: Not reported
- Conductivity: Not reported
- Culture medium different from test medium: Not reported
- Intervals of water quality measurements: At 0, 24, 96 hr

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality and physical abnormalities

RANGE FINDING STUDY: No
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
(APS-71.031) (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
220 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 181-280 mg/L
Details on results:
- 24 h LC50 value: 326 mg active/L (95% confidence limits: 268-397 mg/L)
- Physical abnormalities: Fish generally became dark and lethargic, lost equilibrium and expired
- Observations on body length and weight: Not reported
- Mortality of control: 0%
Results with reference substance (positive control):
96 h LC50: 3.7 mg active/L (confidence limits: 3.63-4.39). This is within the normal range for this substance.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The LC50, and its 95% confidence interval, was based on conversion of the concentrations tested and the corresponding observed percent mortalities to logs and probits respectively, and the subsequent mathematical calculation of a linear regression equation
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Table 1: Percent mortality observed with MTG-73.008 (Monoethanolamine) (study # 15729)

Concentration (mg active/L)

% Mortality observed

24 h

96 h

Control

0

0

87

0

0

140

0*

0*

180

0*

10*

240

10*

20*

320

40*

100

420

60*

100

560

100

100

* Fish displayed dark coloration.

Table 2: Results of reference substance APS-71.031 (Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) (study # 15729)

Concentration (mg active/L)

% Mortality observed

24 h

96 h

Control

0

0

2.8

0

0

3.2

0

0

3.7

0

10

4.2

10

50

4.9

80

100

5.6

90

100

7.5

100

100

*Fish displayed dark coloration

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Remarks:
not enough details in the study report to determine if validity criteria were fulfilled
Conclusions:
The 96 h LC50 of Monoethanolamine (MEA) to bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus) was 220 mg/L, based on nominal test concentration.
Executive summary:

The 96 h LC50 of Monoethanolamine (MEA) to bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus) was determined under static conditions, following the procedures described in Fish Bioassay Procedure, Standard Methods (USPHA), 1970.

The nominal test concentrations were 0, 140, 180, 240, 320, 420 and 560 mg a.i/L. The effect parameters observed were mortality, and any physical
abnormalities (i.e., loss of equilibrium, lethargic, darkened pigmentation).

There was no mortality at test concentrations of 87 and 140 mg/L test concentrations. There was 10 and 20% mortality observed at concentrations of 180 and 240 mg a.i/L respectively. 100% mortality was observed at concentrations of 320 -560 mg a.i./L. Fish generally became dark and lethargic, lost equilibrium and died.

The 96 h LC50 of MEA (monoethanolamine) to bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus) was 220 mg/L, based on nominal test concentration.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
28 March 2017
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with adequate and reliable documentation / justification
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Version / remarks:
QSAR is built on 96 hr fish toxicity studies following OECD 203 guidelines.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Experimental toxicity data for 5 pure chain length LAS were used to generate this QSAR. This model is suitable for predicting the acute toxicity of LAS to fish with chain lengths ranging from 10 to 14 carbons long. This model is also suitable for predicted the toxicity of LAS with non-integer average chain lengths (e.g. C11.75), as demonstrated experimentally within Belanger et al, 2016. This QSAR has an r-square of 0.997 and a p-value of <0.0001. This is a local QSAR model that encompasses LAS with carbon chain lengths ranging from 10 to 14.
log(LC50) = -0.462x +5.858, where x is the chain length of the alkyl carbon backbone.
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Water media type:
freshwater
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
3.15 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
other: Predicted based on experimental results of LAS homologues with chain lengths C10-14
Details on results:
The result is predicted for an average LAS chain length of 11.6 carbons. Experimental toxicity data was used to generate this QSAR.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

This experimental toxicity data was used to generate this QSAR.

 Chain length of LAS (carbons)  96 hour LC50 (mg/L)  95% CI
 C10  16.58  15.03 -18.3
 C11  7.08  6.76 -7.42
 C12  1.63  1.49 -1.78
 C13  0.63  0.55 -0.71
 C14  0.26  0.23 -0.30
Conclusions:
The 96 hour LC50 to freshwater fish (Pimephales promelas) is predicted to be 3.15 mg/L for MEA-LAS with an average chain length of 11.6 carbons.
Executive summary:

The 96 hour LC50 to freshwater fish (Pimephales promelas) is predicted to be 3.15 mg/L for MEA-LAS with an average chain length of 11.6 carbons. Experimental toxicity data for 5 pure chain length LAS were used to generate this QSAR. This model is suitable for predicting the acute toxicity of LAS to fish with chain lengths ranging from 10 to 14 carbons long. This model is also suitable for predicted the toxicity of LAS with non-integer average chain lengths (e.g. C11.75), as demonstrated experimentally within this publication.

log(LC50) = -0.462x +5.858, where x is the chain length of the alkyl carbon backbone.

The result is a local QSAR that encompasses LAS with carbon lengths ranging from 10 to 14.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-05-27 to 2003-05-31
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
This study was not conducted under GLP but is a guideline study, of high scientific quality with considerable documentation.
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Samples were taken from all test concentrations at 0 and 72 hours (fresh solutions), and at 24 and 96 hours (24 hours old solutions).
- Sampling method: Samples were collected and immediately preserved with 30% (v/v) methanol, and an internal standard of deuterated C12-LAS was added to facilitate quantitation.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solution of C10 LAS was prepared in high quality water at 1 g/L. Stock solution was added to dilution water (a blend of well and reverse osmosis water).
- Controls: Prepared using a blend of well and reverse osmosis water.
- Evidence of undissolved material: No
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead Minnow
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Fathead minnow breeders were obtained from Aquatic Research Organisms (ARO, Hampton, NH, USA). Test organisms were reared from eggs from the in-house breeding culture.
- Age at study initiation: Not specified.
- Length at study initiation: Fork length; Average length: 14.1 mm, SD: 3.43 mm, Range: 10.37 - 14.64 mm
- Weight at study initiation: Average weight: 0.01256 g, SD: 0.00122 g, Range: 0.0096-0.0206 g
- Method of breeding: In-house breeding; continuous batch culture; 20 L culture vessels; blended water (mix of well and RO water) was culture water; Temp 20.6-21.4°C; DO 7.7-8.9; pH 7.26-8.21; Food - live brine shrimp, flake food; 16:8 hours light:dark.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Test organisms were bred/maintained under the same conditions as the test. The length of the 'acclimation' period was therefore the same as the age of the test organisms.
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: Live brine shrimp, flake food
- Feeding frequency: Twice daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): No mortality in the week prior to testing
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
Not available. But the blend of well and RO water has a hardness of ~180 mg CaCO3/L hardness
Test temperature:
Temperature ranged from 21.1 to 23.1⁰C
pH:
pH ranged as 7.31 to 8.01 . Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below
Dissolved oxygen:
DO ranged as 6.5 to 8.6 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal and measured concentrations
Nominal concentrations 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/L were based on the active ingredient in the test material.
Measured concentrations 0.047, 3.375, 6.208, 13.05, 25.35, 47.8, 101, 203 and 423 mg/L were based on the active ingredient.
Measured concentrations were 93.4 - 108% of nominal (see table below for details).
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: 1 L of the test solution in 1 L glass beakers.
- Aeration: Not available
- Renewal rate of test solution: Daily renewal (24, 48, 72 hours)
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 0.126 g fish/L

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: SWOW water (South west well water and reverse Osmosis water blended together)
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: Not available
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 300 - 395 μmhos/cm
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Temperature, DO, pH and conductivity measured daily in control and each test concentration.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 h light:8 h dark
- Light intensity: 7-10uE/m2.s

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of beginning of the test.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2.0
- Range finding study: No, but the test concentrations were based on historical data and institutional knowledge.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
16.58 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 15.03 - 18.3 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: There were no significant differences with respect to fish size for any of the materials.
- Other biological observations: None
- Mortality of control: None
- Mortality in test groups: 100% mortality was observed within 2 hours of initiation of test in 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/L test substance concentrations.
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 (USEPA FORTRAN program modified for the PC based on Hamilton et al., 1977), and 96 hours LC50 estimates and 95% confidence limits were generated.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Table 1: Acute Toxicity of 7 LAS Substances to Fathead Minnow in Study # 45725

Test Material 96 hr LC50 (mg/L) 95% CL (in mg/L)
C10 LAS 16.6 15.0 – 18.3
C11 LAS 7.08 6.76 – 7.42
C12 LAS 1.63 1.49 – 1.78
C13 LAS 0.63 0.55 – 0.71
C14 LAS 0.26 0.23 – 0.30
LAS Veneco (C10 -14) 2.22 2.02 – 4.35
LAS Pantera (C10 -14) 2.88 2.10 – 3.96

Results are based on measured test concentrations.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
Criteria of OECD 203: Mortality of controls <10%, conc. of dissolved oxygen >60%, exposure concentrations based on measured concentrations.
Conclusions:
The 96 hours LC50 of C10 Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C10 LAS) to Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) was 16.58 (95% CL: 15.03 – 18.3) mg a.i./L, based on measured concentrations.
Executive summary:

In a semi static renewal 96-hours acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to C10 Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C10 LAS; SS1162.01; purity:97.20%) at nominal concentrations of 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg a.i./L. Measured concentrations were 0.047, 3.375, 6.208, 13.05, 25.35, 47.8, 101, 203 and 423 mg a.i./L. Measured concentrations were 93.4 - 108% of nominal.

 

100% mortality was observed within 2 hours of initiation of test in 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg a.i./L test substance concentrations

 

The 96 hour LC50 value of C10 Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (SS1162.01; purity: 97.20%) to Pimephales promelas, was 16.58 mg a.i./L with 95% confidence interval of 15.03 to 18.3 mg a.i./L, based on measured concentrations

 

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guidelines requirement for the OECD 203 fish acute toxicity study.


Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-05-27 to 2003-05-31
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(This study was not conducted under GLP but is a guideline study, of high scientific quality with considerable documentation.)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Samples were taken from all test concentrations at 0 and 72 h (fresh solutions), and at 24 and 96 h (24 h old solutions).
- Sampling method: Samples were collected and immediately preserved with 30% (v/v) methanol, and an internal standard of deuterated C12-LAS was added to facilitate quantitation.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solution of C11 LAS material was prepared in high quality water at 1 g/L. Stock solution was added to the dilution water (ESD blended water, a blend of well and reverse osmosis water).
- Controls: Prepared using a blend of well and reverse osmosis water.
- Evidence of undissolved material: No
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead Minnow
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Breeders obtained from Aquatic Research Organisms (ARO, Hampton, NH, USA). Test organisms were reared from eggs from the in-house breeding culture
- Age at study initiation: Not specified.
- Length at study initiation: Fork length; Average length: 14.1 mm, SD: 3.43 mm, Range: 10.37-14.64 mm
- Weight at study initiation: Average weight: 0.01256 g, SD: 0.00122 g, Range: 0.0096-0.0206 g
- Method of breeding: In-house breeding; continuous batch culture; 20 L culture vessels; blended water (mix of well and RO water) was culture water; Temp 20.6-21.4°C; DO 7.7-8.9; pH 7.26-8.21; Food - live brine shrimp, flake food; 16:8 hr light:dark.
- Feeding during test: No


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Test organisms were bred/maintained under the same conditions as the test. The length of the 'acclimation' period was therefore the same as the age of the test organisms.
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: Live brine shrimp, flake food
- Feeding frequency: Twice daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): No mortality in the week prior to testing
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
Not available. But the blend of well and RO water has a hardness of ~180 mg CaCO3/L hardness.
Test temperature:
Temperature ranged from 21.2 to 23.3 Degree C
pH:
pH ranged from 7.39 to 7.99. Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
DO ranged from 6.6 to 8.2 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L were based on the active ingredient in the test material.
Measured concentrations 0, 2.472, 3.818, 5.31, 9.9, 19.3 and 37.6 mg/L were based on the active ingredient.
Measured concentrations were 94-198% of nominal. See Table below for details.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: 1 L of the test solution in 1 L glass beakers.
- Aeration: Not available
- Renewal rate of test solution: Daily renewal (24, 48, 72 h)
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 0.126 g fish/L

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: SWOW water (South west well water and reverse Osmosis water blended together)
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not Available
- Metals: Not Available
- Pesticides: Not Available
- Chlorine: Not Available
- Alkalinity: Not Available
- Ca/mg ratio: Not Available
- Conductivity:320-390 umhos/cm
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Temperature, DO, pH and conductivity measured daily in control and each test concentration.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 h light:8 h dark
- Light intensity: 7-10uE/m2.s

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2.0
- Range finding study: No, but the test concentrations were based on historical data and institutional knowledge.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.08 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95%CL: 6.76-7.42 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: There were no significant differences with respect to fish size for any of the materials.
- Other biological observations: None
- Mortality of control: None
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 (USEPA FORTRAN program modified for the PC based on Hamilton et al., 1977), and 96 hr LC50 estimates and 95% confidence limits were generated.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Table 1: Acute Toxicity of 7 LAS Substances to Fathead Minnow in Study # 45725

Test Material 96 hr LC50 (mg/L) 95% CL (in mg/L)
C10 LAS 16.6 15.0 – 18.3
C11 LAS 7.08 6.76 – 7.42
C12 LAS 1.63 1.49 – 1.78
C13 LAS 0.63 0.55 – 0.71
C14 LAS 0.26 0.23 – 0.30
LAS Veneco (C10,12,14) 2.22 2.02 – 4.35
LAS Pantera (C10,11,12,13) 2.88 2.10 – 3.96

Results are based on measured test concentrations.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
Criteria of OECD 203: Mortality of controls <10%, conc. of dissolved oxygen >60%, exposure concentrations based on measured concentrations.
Conclusions:
The 96 hr LC50 of C11 Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C11 LAS) to Fathead minnows was 7.08 mg a.i./L, based on mean measured concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a static renewal 96 h acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to C11 Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C11 LAS; purity 95.76%) at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg a.i./L. Measured concentrations were 0, 2.47, 3.828, 5.31, 9.9, 19.3 and 37.6 mg a.i./L. Measured concentrations were 94 -198% of nominal.

The 96 h LC50 value, based on measured concentrations, was 7.08 mg a.i./L with 95% confidence interval of 6.76 to 7.42 mg a.i./L.

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guidelines requirement for the OECD 203 fish acute toxicity study.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-05-27 to 2003-05-31
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test), 1992
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Mesured concentration was not in range of 80-120% of nominal concentrations, as recommended by OECD guideline 203
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
This study was not conducted under GLP but is a guideline study, of high scientific quality with considerable documentation.
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Samples were taken from all test concentrations at 0 and 72 h (fresh solutions), and at 24 and 96 h (24 h old solutions).
- Sampling method: Samples were collected and immediately preserved with 30% (v/v) methanol, and an internal standard of deuterated C12-LAS was added to facilitate quantitation.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solution of C13 LAS material was prepared in high quality water at 1 g/L. Stock solution was added to dilution water (ESD blended water, a blend of well and reverse osmosis water).
- Controls: Prepared using a blend of well and reverse osmosis water.
- Evidence of undissolved material: No
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead Minnow
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Breeders obtained from Aquatic Research Organisms (ARO, Hampton, NH, USA). Test organisms were reared from eggs from the in-house breeding culture.
- Age at study initiation: Not specified.
- Length at study initiation: Fork length; Average length: 14.1 mm, SD: 3.43 mm, Range: 10.4-14.6 mm
- Weight at study initiation: Average weight: 0.0126 g, SD: 0.00122 g, Range: 0.0096-0.0206 g
- Method of breeding: In-house breeding; continuous batch culture; 20 L culture vessels; blended water (mix of well and RO water) was culture water; Temp 20.6-21.4°C; DO 7.7-8.9; pH 7.26-8.21; Food - live brine shrimp, flake food; 16:8 hr light:dark.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Test organisms were bred/maintained under the same conditions as the test. The length of the 'acclimation' period was therefore the same as the age of the test organisms.
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: Live brine shrimp, flake food
- Feeding frequency: Twice daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): No mortality in the week prior to testing
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
Not available. But the blend of well and RO water has a hardness of ~180 mg CaCO3/L hardness.
Test temperature:
Temperature ranged from 20.8 to 23.1 Degree C
pH:
pH ranged as 7.46 to 7.99 . Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
DO ranged as 6.3 to 8.2 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/L were based on the active ingredient in the test material.
Measured concentrations 0, 0.121, 0.58, 0.82, 1.13 and 3.45 mg/L were based on the active ingredient.
Measured concentrations were 48-116% of nominal (see Table below for details).
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: 1 L of the test solution in 1 L glass beakers.
- Aeration: Not available
- Renewal rate of test solution: Daily renewal (24, 48, 72 h)
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 0.126 g fish/L

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: SWOW water (South west well water and reverse Osmosis water blended together)
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: Not available
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 355-395 umhos/cm
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Temperature, DO, pH and conductivity measured daily in control and each test concentration.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 h light:8 h dark
- Light intensity: 7-10uE/m2.s

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2.0
- Range finding study: No, but the test concentrations were based on historical data and institutional knowledge.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.63 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95%CL: 0.55-0.71 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: There were no significant differences with respect to fish size for any of the materials.
- Other biological observations: None
- Mortality of control: None
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 (USEPA FORTRAN program modified for the PC based on Hamilton et al., 1977), and 96 hr LC50 estimates and 95% confidence limits were generated.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Table 1: Acute Toxicity of 7 LAS Substances to Fathead Minnow in Study # 45725

Test Material 96 hr LC50 (mg/L) 95% CL (in mg/L)
C10 LAS 16.6 15.0 – 18.3
C11 LAS 7.08 6.76 – 7.42
C12 LAS 1.63 1.49 – 1.78
C13 LAS 0.63 0.55 – 0.71
C14 LAS 0.26 0.23 – 0.30
LAS Veneco (C10,12,14) 2.22 2.02 – 4.35
LAS Pantera (C10,11,12,13) 2.88 2.10 – 3.96

Results are based on measured test concentrations.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
Criteria of OECD 203: Mortality of controls <10%, conc. of dissolved oxygen >60%, exposure concentrations based on measured concentrations.
Conclusions:
The 96 hr LC50 of C13 Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C13 LAS) to Fathead minnows was 0.63 mg a.i. /L, based on mean measured concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a static renewal 96 h acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to C13 Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C13 LAS) at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg a.i./L. Measured concentrations were 0, 0.121, 0.58, 0.82, 1.13 and 3.45 mg a.i./L. Measured concentrations were 48 -116% of nominal.

The 96 h LC50 value, based on measured concentrations, was 0.63 mg a.i./L with 95% confidence interval of 0.55 to 0.71 mg a.i./L.

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guidelines requirement for the OECD 203 fish acute toxicity study.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-05-27 to 2003-05-31
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test), 1992
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Mesured concentration was not in range of 80-120% of nominal concentrations, as recommended by OECD guideline 203
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
This study was not conducted under GLP but is a guideline study, of high scientific quality with considerable documentation.
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Samples were taken from all test concentrations at 0 and 72 h (fresh solutions), and at 24 and 96 h (24 h old solutions).
- Sampling method: Samples were collected and immediately preserved with 30% (v/v) methanol, and an internal standard of deuterated C12-LAS was added to facilitate quantitation.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solution of C14 LAS material was prepared in high quality water at 1 g/L. Stock solution was added to the dilution water (ESD blended water, a blend of well and reverse osmosis water).
- Controls: Prepared using a blend of well and reverse osmosis water.
- Evidence of undissolved material: No
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead Minnow
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Breeders obtained from Aquatic Research Organisms (ARO, Hampton, NH, USA). Test organisms were reared from eggs from the in-house breeding culture.
- Age at study initiation: Not specified.
- Length at study initiation: Fork length; Average length: 14.1 mm, SD: 3.43 mm, Range: 10.4-14.6 mm
- Weight at study initiation: Average weight: 0.0126 g, SD: 0.00122g, Range: 0.0096-0.0206 g
- Method of breeding: In-house breeding; continuous batch culture; 20 L culture vessels; blended water (mix of well and RO water) was culture water; Temp 20.6-21.4°C; DO 7.7-8.9; pH 7.26-8.21; Food - live brine shrimp, flake food; 16:8 hr light:dark.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Test organisms were bred/maintained under the same conditions as the test. The length of the 'acclimation' period was therefore the same as the age of the test organisms.
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: Live brine shrimp, flake food
- Feeding frequency: Twice daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): No mortality in the week prior to testing
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
Not available. But the blend of well and RO water has a hardness of ~180 mg CaCO3/L hardness
Test temperature:
Temperature ranged from 20.7 to 23.4 Degree C
pH:
pH ranged as 7.47 to 8.01. Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
DO ranged as 6.4 to 8.0 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg/L were based on the active ingredient in the test material.
Measured concentrations 0, 0.016, 0.056, 0.297, 0.293, 0.624 and 1.21 mg/L were based on the active ingredient.
Measured concentrations were 32-148% of nominal (see Table below for details).
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: 1 L of the test solution in 1 L glass beakers.
- Aeration: Not available
- Renewal rate of test solution: Daily renewal (24, 48, 72 h)
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 0.126 g fish/L

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: SWOW water (South west well water and reverse Osmosis water blended together)
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: Not available
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 350-395 umhos/cm
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Temperature, DO, pH and conductivity measured daily in control and each test concentration.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 h light:8 h dark
- Light intensity: 7-10uE/m2.s

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2.0
- Range finding study: No, but the test concentrations were based on historical data and institutional knowledge.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.26 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95%CL: 0.23-0.30 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: There were no significant differences with respect to fish size for any of the materials.
- Other biological observations: None
- Mortality of control: None
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 (USEPA FORTRAN program modified for the PC based on Hamilton et al., 1977), and 96 hr LC50 estimates and 95% confidence limits were generated.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Table 1: Acute Toxicity of 7 LAS Substances to Fathead Minnow in Study # 45725

Test Material 96 hr LC50 (mg/L) 95% CL (in mg/L)
C10 LAS 16.6 15.0 – 18.3
C11 LAS 7.08 6.76 – 7.42
C12 LAS 1.63 1.49 – 1.78
C13 LAS 0.63 0.55 – 0.71
C14 LAS 0.26 0.23 – 0.30
LAS Veneco (C10,12,14) 2.22 2.02 – 4.35
LAS Pantera (C10,11,12,13) 2.88 2.10 – 3.96

Results are based on measured test concentrations.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
Criteria of OECD 203: Mortality of controls <10%, conc. of dissolved oxygen >60%, exposure concentrations based on measured concentrations.
Conclusions:
The 96 hr LC50 of C14 Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C14 LAS) to Fathead minnows was 0.26 mg a.i./L, based on mean measured concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a static renewal 96 h acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to C14 Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C14 LAS) at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg a.i./L. Measured concentrations were 0, 0.016, 0.056, 0.297, 0.293, 0.624 and 1.21 mg a.i./L. Measured concentrations were 32 -148% of nominal.

The 96 h LC50 value, based on measured concentrations, was 0.26 mg a.i./L with 95% confidence interval of 0.23 to 0.30 mg a.i./L.

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guidelines requirement for the OECD 203 fish acute toxicity study.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1978-05-01 to 1978-08-01
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.1075 (Freshwater and Saltwater Fish Acute Toxicity Test)
Version / remarks:
US EPA,1975
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
study pre-dates GLPs
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Water samples for determination of test concentrations were collected at the beginning and end of each test.
- Sampling method: Samples were preserved with 1% formalin.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared by solubilizing the materials in deionized water to the desired concentrations.
- Controls: Prepared using dilution water.
- Evidence of undissolved material: No.
Test organisms (species):
Lepomis macrochirus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Bluegill
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Not available
- Age at study initiation: Juvenile
- Length at study initiation: Mean standard length: 4.2 cm, range: 3.0-5.1 cm
- Weight at study initiation: Average: 1.1 g, range: 0.5-1.9 g
- Method of breeding: Not available
- Feeding during test: Not fed

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: At least 10 days
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: Not available
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
Total hardness was 137 mg/L as CaCO3.
Test temperature:
Temperature was maintained at 20 +/- 2 degree C.
pH:
The pH varied from 7.8 to 8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
Dissolved oxygen in the fish tests averaged 9.0 (ranged 8.4-9.6) mg/L.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Details of nominal and measured test concentrations are not available in the study report. Measured concentrations were 79% of nominal concentrations. Results are based on measured concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: 15 liter glass aquaria containing 10 liters of dilution water.
- Aeration: Not available
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1
- Biomass loading rate: approx 11 g fish/10 L, or 1.1 g fish/L.

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was a blend of well water and deionized water, mixed to the desired hardness.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: 10 heavy metals were measured, all were <0.2 mg/L. See report.
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: Not available
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: Not available
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Dissolved oxygen, pH and hardness were monitored twice during the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 hours illumination
- Light intensity: Not available

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED : Fish mortality recorded 1, 3 and 5 hours after test initiation, and daily until test termination.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: Not available
- Range finding study: No
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.67 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 1.58-1.77mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: None
- Other biological observations: None
- Mortality of control: None
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Probit analysis of all mortality data in this study followed the procedures of Finney (1971).
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
(All the criteria of USEPA OPPTS 850.1075, 1996 were met)
Conclusions:
The 96 h LC50 of C11.8 LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) to bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) was 1.67 mg/L, based on mean measured concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 96 h acute toxicity study, Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to C11.8 LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, an anionic surfactant) under static conditions. Nominal concentrations were not specified in the report. Measured concentrations were 79 % of nominal concentrations.

The 96 h LC50 value, based on measured concentration, was 1.67 mg a.i./L, with 95% CL 1.58 to 1.77 mg/L.

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for the current USEPA OPPTS 850.1075 (1996) acute fish toxicity study.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From May 01, 2003 to May 05, 2003
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
This study was not conducted under GLP but is a guideline study, of high scientific quality with considerable documentation.
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Samples were taken from all test concentrations at 0 and 72 h (fresh solutions), and at 24 and 96h (24 h old solutions).
- Sampling method: Samples were collected and immediately preserved with 30% (v/v) methanol and an internal standard of deuterated C12-LAS was added to facilitate quantitation.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions of LAS material were prepared in high quality water at 1 g/L. Stock solutions were neutralized to a pH of 8.6 using NaOH. Test solutions were prepared by dilution of the stock solution in the dilution water (a blend of well and reverse osmosis water)
- Controls: A blend of well water and reverse osmosis water.
- Evidence of undissolved material: No
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead Minnow
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Breeders were obtained from Aquatic Research Organisms (ARO, Hampton, NH, USA).
- Age at study initiation: Juveniles were used for the study
- Length at study initiation: Average length: 2.74 cm, SD-0.264cm, Range-2.30-3.22 cm
- Weight at study initiation: Average weight: 0.189 g, SD-0.0615g, Range-0.101-0.317 g
- Method of breeding: Fishes were raised from eggs from an in-house breeding facility to juvenile hood. They were cultured in blended water (mix of well and RO water) in 20 L tanks under flow through system.
- Food: live brine shrimp and flake food
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Test organisms were bred/maintained under the same conditions as the test. The length of the 'acclimation' period was therefore the same as the age of the test organisms.
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: Live brine shrimp, flake food
- Feeding frequency: live brine shrimp was provided for 4-8 weeks and mixture of flake and brine shrimp was given to 6 weeks old daily for period of 2 days
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): No mortality in the week prior to testing.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
Not available. But the blend of well and RO water has a hardness of ~180 mg/L as CaCO3.

Test temperature:
LAS-Pantera: range 20.5-21.8°C
LAS-Veneco: range 20.6-22.8°C
pH:
LAS-Pantera: range 7.55-8.27
LAS-Veneco: range 7.26-8.31
Further details are provided under tables 3 and 4 of “Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables” section.
Dissolved oxygen:
LAS-Pantera: range 7.3-8.5 mg/L
LAS-Veneco: range 7.4-8.6 mg/L
Further details are provided under tables 1 and 2 of “Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables” section
Conductivity:
LAS-Pantera: 370-400 µmhos/cm
LAS-Veneco: 370-395 µmhos/cm
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations were same for both LAS Pantera and LAS Veneco: 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg a.i./L
Measured concentrations:
i) LAS-Pantera: 0, 0.24, 0.57, 0.98, 2.1, 3.96, 7.61, 13.9 mg a.i./L
ii) LAS-Veneco: 0, 0.24, 0.44, 1.09, 2.02, 4.35, 7.41, 14.7 mg a.i./L
Measured concentrations were 87-114% and 88-109% of nominal concentrations for LAS Pantera and Veneco, respectively
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: 19 L glass aquaria, 10 L of solution
- Aeration: Not available
- Renewal rate of test solution: Daily renewal (24, 48, 72 h)
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2 replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2 replicates
- Biomass loading rate: 0.19 g/L (individual fish weight was approx.0.19 g and 10 fishes were exposed to 10L volume of test solution during the experiment, therefore biomass loading rate is 0.19*10/10 =0.19 g/L)

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: South west well water and reverse Osmosis water blended together
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not Available
- Metals: Not Available
- Pesticides: Not Available
- Chlorine: Not Available
- Alkalinity: Not Available
- Ca/mg ratio: Not Available
- Conductivity: 370-400 and 370-395 µmhos/cm for LAS-Pantera and LAS-Veneco, respectively
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Temperature, DO, pH and conductivity measured daily in control and each test concentration.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 h light :8 h dark
- Light intensity: 7-10µE/m2

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2.0
- Range finding study: No, but the test concentrations were based on SAR predictions. The details of SAR prediction is provided in Table 7 of “Any other information on materials and methods incl. tables”

Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2.88 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 2.10-3.96 mg/L for LAS-Pantera
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2.22 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 2.02-4.35 mg/L for LAS-Veneco
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: No significant changes in body weight and length. The detailed information is provided in Table 4 in “Any other information on results incl. tables section”.
- Other biological observations: None
- Mortality of control: None
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
- The results in this study correlate with expectations as longer chain lengths exhibit greater toxicity, as-well-as SARs predicted that LAS-Veneco would display greater toxicity due to C14 chain length contribution.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
For LAS Pantera: Mortality results were summarized and 96 h LC50 estimates and 95% confidence limits were generated using the Binomial Probability Method .
For LAS-Veneco: Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 (US EPA FORTRAN program modified for the PC based on Hamilton et al., 1977), and 96 h LC50 estimates and 95% confidence limits were generated.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Table 1:  % Mortality and LC50 values in Acute Toxicity Test for LAS-Pantera (20 fish/test concentration) (Study#45725)

Time (h) Active Ingredient of Test Substance (measured concentration) mg/L LC50 (95% CL*) value (mg/L)
0 0.24 0.57 0.98 2.1 3.96 7.61 13.9
24 0 0 0 0 0 100 100 100 2.88
48 0 0 0 0 0 100 100 100 2.88
72 0 0 0 0 0 100 100 100 2.88
96 0 0 0 0 0 100 100 100 2.88 (2.10 -3.96)

*95% confidence limits not reliable by Trimmed spearman-karber method

Table 2: % Mortality and LC50 values in Acute Toxicity Test for LAS - Veneco (20  fish/test concentration) (Study #45725)

Time (h) Active Ingredient of Test Substance (measured concentration) mg/L LC50 (95% CL) value (mg/L)
0 0.24 0.44 1.09 2.02 4.35 7.41 14.7
24 0 0 0 0 0 100 100 100 2.96*
48 0 0 0 0 15 100 100 100 2.67 (2.39-2.98)
72 0 0 0 0 25 100 100 100 2.49 (2.18-2.85)
96 0 0 0 0 40 100 100 100 2.22 (2.02-4.35)

*95% confidence limits not reliable by Trimmed spearman-karber method

Table 3: Acute Toxicity of 7 LAS Substances to Fathead Minnow (Study # 45725)

Test Material 96 hr LC50 (mg/L) 95% CL (in mg/L)
C10 LAS 16.6 15.0 – 18.3
C11 LAS 7.08 6.76 – 7.42
C12 LAS 1.63 1.49 – 1.78
C13 LAS 0.63 0.55 – 0.71
C14 LAS 0.26 0.23 – 0.30
LAS Veneco (C10,12,14) 2.22 2.02 – 4.35
LAS Pantera (C10,11,12,13) 2.88 2.10 – 3.96 

Results are based on measured test concentrations.

Table 4: Fish weights at the termination of test (Study # 45725)

Test material Measured conc. (mg/L) Number of fishes Weight range (mg) Mean weight(per individual fish) (mg) SD
Data for characterization group of fishes at initiation of test - 10 100.8-317.1 189.3 61.5
Control 0 20 73.6- 198.7 130.9 34.6
LAS-Veneco 0.24 10 89.2- 165.5 126.2 28.7
0.44 20 75.2-213.9 140.7 33.2
1.09 20 85.4- 175.6 136.2 24.9
2.02 12 79.4- 165.2 122.6 26.2
LAS-Pantera 0.24 10 124.8 - 196.5 153 25.8
0.57 20 96.4 192.7 142.1 24.4
0.98 20 82.6 280.3 154.5 48.2
2.1 20 87.9-209.4 147.7 38.8
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
(Criteria of OECD 203: Mortality of controls <10%, conc. of dissolved oxygen >60%, exposure concentrations based on measured concentrations)
Conclusions:
The 96 h LC50 values of LAS Pantera and LAS Veneco to Fathead minnows were 2.88 and 2.22 mg a.i./L, respectively based on measured concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 96 h static renewal acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to LAS Pantera and LAS Veneco at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg a.i./L. Measured concentrations for LAS-Pantera and LAS-Veneco were 0 (control), 0.24, 0.57, 0.98, 2.1, 3.96,7.61, and 13.9 mg a.i./L and 0 (control), 0.24, 0.44, 1.09, 2.02, 4.35, 7.41 and 14.7 mg a.i./L, respectively.

Fishes were reared in a house breeding facility and were provided blended water (mix of well and RO water), with continuous batch cultures and kept under flow through system. Water quality parameters i.e. pH, dissolved oxygen temperature, conductivity were measured after every 24 h.

The 96 h LC50 values, based on measured test concentrations for LAS- Pantera and LAS-Veneco were 2.88 (95% CL: 2.10-3.96) and 2.22 (95% CL: 2.02-4.35) mg a.i./L, respectively.

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guidelines requirement for the OECD 203 fish acute toxicity study.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: EPA-660/3-75-009. Method for acute toxicity tests with fish, macroinvertebrates and amphibians with fish, macroinvertebrates and amphibians (1975).
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Test duration was 48 hours against guideline recommendation of 96 hours and only 5 organisms/concentration were used against guideline recommendation of using 10 organisms/concentration. No information on replicates was provided in source.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Predates GLP)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
No details on test solutions were provided in the source.
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
-Common name: Fathead minnow
No further details on test organisms were provided in the source.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
100 mg/L
Test temperature:
Not reported
pH:
Not reported
Dissolved oxygen:
Not reported
Salinity:
Not reported
Conductivity:
Not reported
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Not reported
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type of test system: Static
- No. of organisms per concentration: 5
No other details on test conditions were provided in the source.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
4.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Details on results:
The 24 hours LC50 value of 4.7 mg/L was also provided in the source.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The LC50 values and 95% confidence limits were calculated using a logit transformation computer program following the method of Litchfield & Wilcoxon.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The 48 hours LC50 value of C12 linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) for Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) was 4.7 mg/L, based on nominal concentration.
Executive summary:

A 48 hour acute fish toxicity study was performed to assess the effects of C12 linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on mortality of Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) was evaluated under static conditions.

The 48 hour LC50 value of C12 linear alkylbenzene sulfonate for Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) was 4.7 mg/L, based on nominal concentration.

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable, meets general scientific principles and acceptable for assessment.

Description of key information

MEA-LAS dissociates in water to MEA and LAS and the acute toxicity to fish of both compounds has been studied.

Study 1 (C10-13 LAS):

In a 96 h static renewal acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to C10-13 LAS, sodium salt (as ‘LAS-Pantera’ and ‘LAS-Veneco’) at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg a.i./L. Measured concentrations for LAS-Pantera and LAS-Veneco were 0, 0.24, 0.57, 0.98, 2.1, 3.96, 7.61 and 13.9 mg a.i./L and 0, 0.24, 0.44, 1.09, 2.02, 4.35, 7.41 and 14.7 mg a.i./L, respectively. Fish were reared in a house breeding facility, provided blended water (mix of well and RO water) with continuous batch cultures and kept under a flow through setup. Water quality parameters, i.e. pH, dissolved oxygen temperature and conductivity, were measured every 24 h. The 96 h LC50 values, based on measured concentrations for LAS-Pantera and LAS-Veneco, were 2.88 (95% CL: 2.10-3.96) and 2.22 (95% CL: 2.02-4.35) mg a.i./L, respectively (Belanger, 2006). 

Study 2 (MEA-LAS, (Q)SAR):

The 96 h LC50 to Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) was predicted to be 3.15 mg/L for MEA-LAS with an average chain length of 11.6 carbons. Experimental toxicity data for 5 pure chain length LAS were used to generate this (Q)SAR. This model is suitable for predicting the acute toxicity of LAS to fish with chain lengths ranging from 10 to 14 carbons long. This model is also suitable for predicted the toxicity of LAS with non-integer average chain lengths (e.g. C11.75), as demonstrated experimentally within this publication.

log(LC50) = -0.462x +5.858, where x is the chain length of the alkyl carbon backbone (Belanger, 2016).

Study 3 (C10 LAS):

In a semi-static renewal 96 h acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to C10 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg a.i./L according to OECD Guideline 203. Measured concentrations were 0, 0.047, 3.375, 6.208, 13.05, 25.35, 47.8, 101, 203 and 423 mg a.i./L, representing 93.4 - 108% of nominal values. Complete (100%) mortality was observed within 2 h of test initiation at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg a.i./L. The 96 h LC50 was 16.58 mg a.i./L, with a 95% confidence interval of 15.03 to 18.3 mg a.i./L, based on measured concentrations (Belanger, 2006).

Study 4 (C11 LAS):

In a static renewal 96 h acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to C11 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg a.i./L according to OECD Guideline 203. Measured concentrations were 0, 2.47, 3.828, 5.31, 9.9, 19.3 and 37.6 mg a.i./L, representing 94 - 198% of nominal values. The 96 h LC50 was 7.08 mg a.i./L, with a 95% confidence interval of 6.76 to 7.42 mg a.i./L, based on measured concentrations (Belanger, 2006).

Study 5 (C12 LAS):

In a semi-static renewal 96 h acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to C12 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 mg a.i./L according to OECD Guideline 203. Measured concentrations were 0.047, 0.296, 0.629, 1.243, 2.45, 4.74 and 10.2 mg a.i./L, representing 79 - 85% of nominal values. Complete (100%) mortality was seen within 2 h of test initiation in the 12 mg a.i./L group. The 96 h LC50 was 1.63 mg a.i./L, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.49 - 1.78 mg a.i./L, based on measured concentrations (Belanger, 2006).

Study 6 (C12 LAS):

A 48 hour acute fish toxicity study was performed to assess the effects of C12 LAS on mortality of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under static conditions. The 48 h LC50 value was equivalent to 4.7 mg/L, based on nominal concentration (Kimerle, 1977). 

Study 7 (C13 LAS):

In a static renewal 96 h acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to C13 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg a.i./L according to OECD Guideline 203. Measured concentrations were 0, 0.121, 0.58, 0.82, 1.13 and 3.45 mg a.i./L, representing 48 - 116% of nominal values. The 96 h LC50, based on measured concentrations, was 0.63 mg a.i./L, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.55 to 0.71 mg a.i./L (Belanger, 2006).

Study 8 (C14 LAS):

In a static renewal 96 h acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to C14 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg a.i./L according to OECD Guideline 203. Measured concentrations were 0, 0.016, 0.056, 0.297, 0.293, 0.624 and 1.21 mg a.i./L, representing 32 -148% of nominal values. The 96 h LC50, based on measured concentrations, was 0.26 mg a.i./L, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.23 to 0.30 mg a.i./L (Belanger, 2006).

Study 9 (C10-13 LAS):

In a 96 h acute toxicity study, Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to C10-13 LAS, sodium salt (average chain length C11.8) under static conditions, according to EPA OPPTS Guideline 850.1075. Measured concentrations were 79% of nominal values. The 96 h LC50, based on measured concentrations, was 1.67 mg a.i./L, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.58 to 1.77 mg/L (Lewis, 1979 and 1981).

Study 10 (MEA):

The 96 h LC50 of monoethanolamine (MEA) to bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus) was determined under static conditions following the procedures described in the Fish Bioassay Procedure, Standard Methods (USPHA), 1970. The nominal test concentrations were 0, 140, 180, 240, 320, 420 and 560 mg a.i/L. The effect parameters observed were mortality and any physical abnormalities (i.e. loss of equilibrium, lethargic, darkened pigmentation). There was no mortality at test concentrations of 87 and 140 mg/L. There was 10 and 20% mortality at concentrations of 180 and 240 mg a.i/L, respectively. Complete (100%) mortality was observed at 320 - 560 mg a.i./L. Fish generally became dark and lethargic, lost equilibrium and died. The 96 h LC50 was 220 mg/L, based on nominal test concentrations (Macek, 1974). 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
2.22 mg/L

Additional information

The point of departure for aquatic PNEC derivation is the 56 d NOEC of 0.268 mg/L from a mesocosm model ecosystem (Belanger, 1997, 2002 and 2004; Lowe, 1996).