Registration Dossier

Toxicological information

Toxicity to reproduction

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Remarks:
based on test type (migrated information)
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Tolyltriazole has similar reproductive and developmental dose toxicity compared to the analogue Benzotriazole resulting in similar no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), because Benzotriazole was tested for fertility or developmental toxicity in a Reproscreen study (OECD 421) up to toxic doses and did not show reproductive and developmental dose toxicity. The source chemical Benzoltriazole is sufficiently similar to read-across towards Tolyltriazole.
Justification for type of information:
Tolyltriazole has similar reproductive and developmental dose toxicity compared to the analogue Benzotriazole resulting in similar no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), because Benzotriazole was tested for fertility or developmental toxicity in a Reproscreen study (OECD 421) up to toxic doses and did not show reproductive and developmental dose toxicity. The source chemical Benzoltriazole is sufficiently similar to read-across towards Tolyltriazole.
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Reference
Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Remarks:
based on test type (migrated information)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP Guidance study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 421 (Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River, Sandhofer Weg 7, 97633 Sulzfeld, Germany
- Age at study initiation: P 10-11 wks
- Weight at study initiation: (P) Males: 294- 351 g; Females: 196 - 225 g;
- Fasting period before study: non
- Housing: females single, males in groups of three
- Diet: ad libitum
- Water: ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 6 to 9 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22+-3°C
- Humidity (%): 30-70%
- Air changes (per hr):10
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light):12/12
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
polyethylene glycol
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
Instructions for test item preparation:
1. Weigh required amount of the test item into an appropriate vial on an analysis scale.
2. Add PEG400 up to the required volume to produce the application suspension as
stated in the laboratory work sheets.
3. Stir until suspension is a consistent emulsion; vortex if necessary.
4. Stir immediately before each dose will be drawn into the application syringe.
According to the Sponsor the test item is stable in PEG400 for seven days at concentrations
of 12,5 g/l and 50 g/l. The highest concentration of the test item suspension was prepared
once every 6 or 7 days and stored in a dark place at room temperature. Daily, a serial
dilution (1 in 4) of the highest concentration was made to produce the further application
solutions. The test item preparation was intended for an application volume of 4 ml per kg
body weight.

VEHICLE
- Justification for use and choice of vehicle (if other than water):
As the test item’s solubility in water and corn oil is poor, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400)
will be used as an organic solvent. PEG400 has already been used as vehicle for the
subacute oral toxicity study of the surrogate substance Methylbenzotriazole. PEG400 is a
commonly used pharmaceutical excipient (e.g. suppositories, capsules or tablets) and also
frequently used in toxicological work to improve the solubility of otherwise poorly soluble
compounds. The LD50 of PEG is 51,3 g/kg body weight, and the maxiumum recommended
daily uptake is a quarter of the LD50.
- Concentration in vehicle: 50 g/l
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 4 ml/kg
- Lot/batch no. (if required): K43386003
- Purity: Not applicable
Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1.0
- Length of cohabitation: 14 days
- Proof of pregnancy: vaginal plug / sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
- After 14 days of unsuccessful pairing replacement of first male by another male with proven fertility.
- Further matings after two unsuccessful attempts: no
- After successful mating each pregnant female was caged: single
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Depending on the female performance at least 46 days:
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Details on study schedule:
14 days pre-mating
up to 14 days until mating
an average of 21 days of gestation
between 8-14 days of lactation
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
12.5 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
nominal conc.
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
50 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
nominal conc.
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
200 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
nominal conc.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
12
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale:
In a previously performed dose range finding study4, the test item was administered at three
doses up to 200 mg/kg body weight over a time period of at least six weeks which produced
no acute toxic effects in the test animals. In accordance with the Study Monitor, 200 mg/kg
was determined as high dose for this study followed by two graduated (1 in 4) serial dilutions
thereof (50 mg/kg, 12,5 mg/kg) assigned as medium and low dose.
The high dose was chosen based on following arguments:
In an acute toxicological assessment quoted in the material safety sheet on the test item,
560 mg/kg wasdetermined as the LD50. A subacute oral toxicity study for the surrogate substance Methylbenzotriazole (study report indicates LD50 value at 720 mg/kg) showed signs of toxicity at a dose level of 450 mg/kg. Thus, 200 mg/kg were determined as high dose for the dose range finding study. Two graduated 1:2 v/v) serial dilutions thereof (100 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg) were assigned as medium and low dose for this assay.
Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: once weekly

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study):
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: once weekly

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: once weekly
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
Parameters examined in P male parental generations:
testis weight, epididymis weight
Litter observations:
STANDARDISATION OF LITTERS
- Performed on day 4 postpartum: yes
- If yes, no maximum set for pups/litter.

PARAMETERS EXAMINED
The following parameters were examined in F1 offspring:
number and sex of pups, stillbirths, live births, postnatal mortality, presence of gross anomalies, weight gain
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
SACRIFICE
- Male animals: All surviving animals approximately four weeks post-mating
- Maternal animals: All surviving animals between days 8 and 14 post-partum

GROSS NECROPSY
- Gross necropsy consisted of external and internal examinations including the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal viscera.

HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGHTS
The tissues indicated below were prepared for microscopic examination and weighed, respectively:
Epididymides, Testes, Ovaries, Uterus, Adrenal glands, Lymph nodes, Heart
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
no postmortem examinations of offspring
Statistics:
Spread sheet calculations were performed using Microsoft® Excel® 2011 for Mac.
Food- and water consumption of male animals were documented sorted by experimental
groups, whereas the body weight was documented for each animal individually. Body weight,
food- and water consumption, litter size and litter weight were documented for each female
animal individually.

Descriptive statistics
The arithmetic mean, standard deviation and median were calculated for all grouped
numerical data originating from monitoring the body weight, food- and water consumption,
organ weights (gross pathology) and litter size and weight (for details see appendix). Where
appropriate, detailed column statistics were applied (minimum / maximum data, 25%
quantiles, standard error, upper and lower confidence interval 95%).

Deductive statistics
If appropriate, the respective test item groups were compared to the vehicle group by
assessing statistical significance using a two-tailed unpaired Student´s t-test. For all
calculations, the significance level was set to 0,05.
For some analysis parameters that returned statistical significances in the t-test, further
deductive statistics were applied as outlined in the schematic decision tree displayed in the
appendix. Most statistical hypotheses in this study were best characterised as “many to
one”– a vehicle control vs. three treatment groups, respectively. Therefore the adequate
analysis method was a One-Way ANOVA (Analysis of variance), followed by a post hoc
Dunnett´s t-test. In case a sufficient number of values per group were available a Bartlett´s
test for equal variances was applied on the data. For all calculations, the significance level
was set to 0,05. These further deductive statistics then were performed using Graph Pad
Prism for Mac, Version 5.01. Statistical data and analyses were documented in the appendix.
Reproductive indices:
not calculated
Offspring viability indices:
not calculated
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
no effects observed
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not examined
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
> 200 mg/kg bw/day
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: overall effects
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Sexual maturation:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings:
not examined
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
> 200 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: overall effects
Reproductive effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
The Reproduction Toxicity was examined in a Screening study.
Up to the highest dose of 200 mg/kg bw/day, no effects on the reproduction were observed
Executive summary:

In the present study toxic effects of the test item 1,2,3-Benzotriazole-REACH 01 at a

maximum dose of 200 mg/kg body weight on the development and reproduction of Wistar

rats after oral administration were under examination.

Mild discomfort throughout the whole application period was observed for the animals treated

with the high and the medium dose of the test item (wiping of nose and mouth through the

cage bedding, salivation after application, bleeding of mucous membranes at nose and

mouth, respirators sounds). A biological and particularly toxicological relevance of those

observations could not be excluded completely.

Regarding the body weight and the body weight gain, no significant differences were

observed between all test item treated animals (male and female) and their respective

vehicle control animals. Occasional differences observed for the females were assumed to

be of natural origin based on the pregnancy status of the animals.

The food consumption of the female animals was not effected by the administration of the

test item whereas the amount of water consumption was either enhanced (high and low dose

group) or reduced (medium dose group) when compared to the vehicle control animals. An

impact of the test item administration on the food and water consumption of the male animals

could not be observed.

The most prevalent findings during necropsy were reddened and swollen lymph nodes and

effects on the digestive system. All other findings were observed with low incidences and

without any test item related tendency. They were thus regarded to be spontaneous in

nature.

Histopathological examination of the ovaries as well as of the epididymides/testes did not

produce any evidence of pathomorphological findings that are considered to be due to a toxic

effect of the test item.

Regarding the reproduction and developmental parameters gathered in this study no

statistical significant changes were observed that were definitely treatment-related.

Reproduction success (achievement of pregnancy after indication of copulation, litter size

and survival rate of pups) was comparable between test item treated animals and the vehicle

control group. While the amount of live young born showed no significant differences in the

high dose group, the mean pup weight of the young born in this dose group was (although

not statistically significant) reduced compared to the vehicle control animals. Nonetheless, in

the absence of other findings regarding the developmental parameters a test item related

effect could be excluded with high probability.

A daily oral administration of the test item 1,2,3-Benzotriazole-REACH 01 to male Wistar rats

at dose levels of 12,5 mg, 50 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight over a time period of 39 to 50

days did not produce any pathological evidence for toxic effects on the reproduction

performance of male rats. However, an effects of the spermatogenesis may not have had an

adequate time to become evident (such as reduced sperm counts affecting the fertility) as

chemical exposure does not cover a complete cycle of spermatogenesis in male test

animals.

A daily oral administration of the test item to female Wistar rats at dose levels of 12,5 mg,

50 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight over a time period of 46 to 70 days did not produce any

pathological evidence for toxic effects on the reproduction performance of female rats

regarding the achievement of pregnancy, litter size and survival rate of pups.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2012

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 421 (Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
other: needles
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): 1,2,3-Benzotriazole-REACH 01
- Molecular formula (if other than submission substance): C6H5N3
- Molecular weight (if other than submission substance): 119.14 g/mol
- Smiles notation (if other than submission substance): c12c(cccc1)N=NN2
- InChl (if other than submission substance): 1S/C6H5N3/c1-2-4-6-5(3-1)7-9-8-6/h1-4H,(H,7,8,9)
- Structural formula attached as image file (if other than submission substance):

- Substance type: organic
- Physical state: solid
- Analytical purity: 99.87 %
- Lot/batch No.: 111254/112649
- Expiry date: November 2012
- Storage condition of test material: room temperature

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River, Sandhofer Weg 7, 97633 Sulzfeld, Germany
- Age at study initiation: P 10-11 wks
- Weight at study initiation: (P) Males: 294- 351 g; Females: 196 - 225 g;
- Fasting period before study: non
- Housing: females single, males in groups of three
- Diet: ad libitum
- Water: ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 6 to 9 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22+-3°C
- Humidity (%): 30-70%
- Air changes (per hr):10
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light):12/12

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
polyethylene glycol
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
Instructions for test item preparation:
1. Weigh required amount of the test item into an appropriate vial on an analysis scale.
2. Add PEG400 up to the required volume to produce the application suspension as
stated in the laboratory work sheets.
3. Stir until suspension is a consistent emulsion; vortex if necessary.
4. Stir immediately before each dose will be drawn into the application syringe.
According to the Sponsor the test item is stable in PEG400 for seven days at concentrations
of 12,5 g/l and 50 g/l. The highest concentration of the test item suspension was prepared
once every 6 or 7 days and stored in a dark place at room temperature. Daily, a serial
dilution (1 in 4) of the highest concentration was made to produce the further application
solutions. The test item preparation was intended for an application volume of 4 ml per kg
body weight.

VEHICLE
- Justification for use and choice of vehicle (if other than water):
As the test item’s solubility in water and corn oil is poor, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400)
will be used as an organic solvent. PEG400 has already been used as vehicle for the
subacute oral toxicity study of the surrogate substance Methylbenzotriazole. PEG400 is a
commonly used pharmaceutical excipient (e.g. suppositories, capsules or tablets) and also
frequently used in toxicological work to improve the solubility of otherwise poorly soluble
compounds. The LD50 of PEG is 51,3 g/kg body weight, and the maxiumum recommended
daily uptake is a quarter of the LD50.
- Concentration in vehicle: 50 g/l
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 4 ml/kg
- Lot/batch no. (if required): K43386003
- Purity: Not applicable
Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1.0
- Length of cohabitation: 14 days
- Proof of pregnancy: vaginal plug / sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
- After 14 days of unsuccessful pairing replacement of first male by another male with proven fertility.
- Further matings after two unsuccessful attempts: no
- After successful mating each pregnant female was caged: single
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Depending on the female performance at least 46 days:
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Details on study schedule:
14 days pre-mating
up to 14 days until mating
an average of 21 days of gestation
between 8-14 days of lactation
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
12.5 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
nominal conc.
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
50 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
nominal conc.
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
200 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
nominal conc.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
12
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale:
In a previously performed dose range finding study4, the test item was administered at three
doses up to 200 mg/kg body weight over a time period of at least six weeks which produced
no acute toxic effects in the test animals. In accordance with the Study Monitor, 200 mg/kg
was determined as high dose for this study followed by two graduated (1 in 4) serial dilutions
thereof (50 mg/kg, 12,5 mg/kg) assigned as medium and low dose.
The high dose was chosen based on following arguments:
In an acute toxicological assessment quoted in the material safety sheet on the test item,
560 mg/kg wasdetermined as the LD50. A subacute oral toxicity study for the surrogate substance Methylbenzotriazole (study report indicates LD50 value at 720 mg/kg) showed signs of toxicity at a dose level of 450 mg/kg. Thus, 200 mg/kg were determined as high dose for the dose range finding study. Two graduated 1:2 v/v) serial dilutions thereof (100 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg) were assigned as medium and low dose for this assay.

Examinations

Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: once weekly

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study):
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: once weekly

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: once weekly
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
Parameters examined in P male parental generations:
testis weight, epididymis weight
Litter observations:
STANDARDISATION OF LITTERS
- Performed on day 4 postpartum: yes
- If yes, no maximum set for pups/litter.

PARAMETERS EXAMINED
The following parameters were examined in F1 offspring:
number and sex of pups, stillbirths, live births, postnatal mortality, presence of gross anomalies, weight gain
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
SACRIFICE
- Male animals: All surviving animals approximately four weeks post-mating
- Maternal animals: All surviving animals between days 8 and 14 post-partum

GROSS NECROPSY
- Gross necropsy consisted of external and internal examinations including the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal viscera.

HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGHTS
The tissues indicated below were prepared for microscopic examination and weighed, respectively:
Epididymides, Testes, Ovaries, Uterus, Adrenal glands, Lymph nodes, Heart
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
no postmortem examinations of offspring
Statistics:
Spread sheet calculations were performed using Microsoft® Excel® 2011 for Mac.
Food- and water consumption of male animals were documented sorted by experimental
groups, whereas the body weight was documented for each animal individually. Body weight,
food- and water consumption, litter size and litter weight were documented for each female
animal individually.

Descriptive statistics
The arithmetic mean, standard deviation and median were calculated for all grouped
numerical data originating from monitoring the body weight, food- and water consumption,
organ weights (gross pathology) and litter size and weight (for details see appendix). Where
appropriate, detailed column statistics were applied (minimum / maximum data, 25%
quantiles, standard error, upper and lower confidence interval 95%).

Deductive statistics
If appropriate, the respective test item groups were compared to the vehicle group by
assessing statistical significance using a two-tailed unpaired Student´s t-test. For all
calculations, the significance level was set to 0,05.
For some analysis parameters that returned statistical significances in the t-test, further
deductive statistics were applied as outlined in the schematic decision tree displayed in the
appendix. Most statistical hypotheses in this study were best characterised as “many to
one”– a vehicle control vs. three treatment groups, respectively. Therefore the adequate
analysis method was a One-Way ANOVA (Analysis of variance), followed by a post hoc
Dunnett´s t-test. In case a sufficient number of values per group were available a Bartlett´s
test for equal variances was applied on the data. For all calculations, the significance level
was set to 0,05. These further deductive statistics then were performed using Graph Pad
Prism for Mac, Version 5.01. Statistical data and analyses were documented in the appendix.
Reproductive indices:
not calculated
Offspring viability indices:
not calculated

Results and discussion

Results: P0 (first parental generation)

General toxicity (P0)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
no effects observed

Reproductive function / performance (P0)

Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not examined
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed

Effect levels (P0)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
> 200 mg/kg bw/day
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: overall effects

Results: F1 generation

General toxicity (F1)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Sexual maturation:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings:
not examined

Effect levels (F1)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
> 200 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: overall effects

Overall reproductive toxicity

Reproductive effects observed:
not specified

Any other information on results incl. tables

1.      Source Chemical(s)

 

Benzotriazoles have two fused rings, one 1,2,3-triazole and one benzene ring. In Tolyltriazole, the benzene ring is substituted with one methyl group, while in Benzotriazole all substituents are hydrogen.

The Benzotriazoles can be deprotonated at the Nitrogen, leading to the conjugated base as sodium salt.

The differences in the chemical structure (from Benzotriazole to Tolyltriazole) are not expected to change the toxicological properties significantly.

The sodium salts are more basic than the neutral substances (Benzotriazole and Tolyltriazole) and present therefore irritant and corrosive properties, as seen in in vivo studies. Nevertheless, systemic effects are expected to be comparable between the salts and the neutral substances due to the fact that in physiological environment (pH 6-8) protonation of the slat occurs and the neutral species is yielded.

2. Purity/impurities

 

The impurities in the target substance do not indicate toxicological relevence to this endpoint. The impurities are all below 1 %.

 

The excess sodium hydroxide of sodium benzotriazolate and sodium tolyltriazolate increases the toxicological irritation/corrosion properties as seen in valid in vivo tests. Further on, it is assumed that no other influence then the basic reservoir is changed by this impurity

 

3. Analogue approach justification (IUCLID: „Results and discussion“)

 

According to Annex XI, 1.5 a read-across approach can be used to fill the data gap when certain criteria are fulfilled. The fulfillment of these criteria is discussed below. The information from the REACH technical guidance document R.6 are used for this assessment as well as ECHA's Practical guide 6 on category and read-across approaches (ECHA REACH TGD; ECHA, 2009).

 

Quality of the experimental data of the analogues

 

The source chemical has been tested in a well-conducted study (according to OECD TG 421). The study results receive reliability 1.

 

Toxicokinetics

 

The source and target chemicals indicate similarity in toxicokinetic behavior based on the molecular weight (< 200), physical form (all are solids), vapor pressure (< 10 Pa) and Log POW(0-2).

 

The difference between the neutral species and the salts in respect to log POWis in the range of 1 and expected to be of minimal relevance. The charge of the Benzotriazolate anion in the salts will decrease the bioavailability but in contact with water the neutral species will be formed in dependence of the pH.

 

Reactivity towards proteins and DNA

 

(Q)SAR modeling

The (Q)SAR modeling as such is not used for predictivity but it is used for showing that the Benzotriazoles have the same toxicological profile according to these models.

The OECD (Q)SAR toolbox program is used to obtain the toxicological profile for the source and target substances.

The benzotriazole structures result in two alerts with regard to toxicity:

-         Toxic Hazard Classification by Cramer: High (Class III)

-         In vivo mutagenicity (Micronucleus) alerts by ISS: H-Acceptor-path 3-H-acceptor for DNA-binding for in vivo mutagenicity.

No alerts were found for DNA or protein binding.

 

The Toxic Hazard Classification by Cramer: High (Class III) is verified by the observed oral toxicity of the different benzotriazoles (data matrix).

 

The “in vivo mutagenicity (Micronucleus) alert by ISS” is a false positive alert as the available in vivo genetic toxicity data is negative for this endpoint.

 

Similarities in results for toxicological endpoints between the target and the source chemical(s) to support read-across for acute dermal toxicity

 

As it is presented in the data matrix the acute oral toxicity is in the same range for the target and source chemical(s).

 

The neutral substances (Benzotriazole and Tolyltriazole) show no skin irritation, skin sensitization properties and only mild eye irritation, the salts (Sodium benzotriazolate and sodium tolyltriazolate) show severe skin irritation / corrosion which is caused by the high basicity and the pH of a solution of these substances.

 

The negative genotoxicity profile is also similar between the source and the target chemical.

For Benzotriazole the Ames test, the mammalian mutation test and the mouse micronucleus test are negative.

For Tolyltriazole the Ames test and the mouse micronucleus test are negative.

 

Systemic toxicity is seen for Benzotriazole in a two year study and for Tolyltriazole in a 28 days-repeated dose test. No target organ was identified.

A LOAELchronicof 325 mg/kg bw for Benzotriazole and a NOAELsub-acuteof 150 mg/kg bw for Tolyltriazole was established.

Toxicity to reproduction and fertility was tested in a Screening test according to OECD Guideline 421 for Benzotriazole. In this study, a NOAELReprotox-screeningof 200 mg/kg bw/day was found. Higher doses were not tested due to the systemic toxicity of the substance.

 

4. Data matrix (IUCLID: „Results and discussion“)

 

See separate document

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
For Benzotriazole a well-conducted in vivo study is available showing a NOAEL of 200 mg/kg bw for the reproductive and developmental dose toxicity. The study was designed as screening study and no higher doses were tested in this study.
This means that a similar result for Tolyltriazole can be anticipated.

Tolyltriazole has a NOAEL of 200 mg/kg bw for the screening for reproductive and developmental toxicity.

A DNEL for oral, dermal and/or inhalation route can be based on this information.
Classification and labeling are / are not needed for this endpoint.
A risk characterisation will be performed because the substance is classified for orale toxicity.
This human health risk characterization will further support safe use for the reproductive and developmental toxicity endpoints.
Executive summary:

In the present study toxic effects of the test item 1,2,3-Benzotriazole-REACH 01 at a

maximum dose of 200 mg/kg body weight on the development and reproduction of Wistar

rats after oral administration were under examination.

Mild discomfort throughout the whole application period was observed for the animals treated

with the high and the medium dose of the test item (wiping of nose and mouth through the

cage bedding, salivation after application, bleeding of mucous membranes at nose and

mouth, respirators sounds). A biological and particularly toxicological relevance of those

observations could not be excluded completely.

Regarding the body weight and the body weight gain, no significant differences were

observed between all test item treated animals (male and female) and their respective

vehicle control animals. Occasional differences observed for the females were assumed to

be of natural origin based on the pregnancy status of the animals.

The food consumption of the female animals was not effected by the administration of the

test item whereas the amount of water consumption was either enhanced (high and low dose

group) or reduced (medium dose group) when compared to the vehicle control animals. An

impact of the test item administration on the food and water consumption of the male animals

could not be observed.

The most prevalent findings during necropsy were reddened and swollen lymph nodes and

effects on the digestive system. All other findings were observed with low incidences and

without any test item related tendency. They were thus regarded to be spontaneous in

nature.

Histopathological examination of the ovaries as well as of the epididymides/testes did not

produce any evidence of pathomorphological findings that are considered to be due to a toxic

effect of the test item.

Regarding the reproduction and developmental parameters gathered in this study no

statistical significant changes were observed that were definitely treatment-related.

Reproduction success (achievement of pregnancy after indication of copulation, litter size

and survival rate of pups) was comparable between test item treated animals and the vehicle

control group. While the amount of live young born showed no significant differences in the

high dose group, the mean pup weight of the young born in this dose group was (although

not statistically significant) reduced compared to the vehicle control animals. Nonetheless, in

the absence of other findings regarding the developmental parameters a test item related

effect could be excluded with high probability.

A daily oral administration of the test item 1,2,3-Benzotriazole-REACH 01 to male Wistar rats

at dose levels of 12,5 mg, 50 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight over a time period of 39 to 50

days did not produce any pathological evidence for toxic effects on the reproduction

performance of male rats. However, an effects of the spermatogenesis may not have had an

adequate time to become evident (such as reduced sperm counts affecting the fertility) as

chemical exposure does not cover a complete cycle of spermatogenesis in male test

animals.

A daily oral administration of the test item to female Wistar rats at dose levels of 12,5 mg,

50 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight over a time period of 46 to 70 days did not produce any

pathological evidence for toxic effects on the reproduction performance of female rats

regarding the achievement of pregnancy, litter size and survival rate of pups.