Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Description of key information

Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test – NOAEL ≥ 1000 mg/kg for rats (OECD 422)

Repeated Dose Oral 90d - NOAEL ≥ 5000 mg/kg bw/day for rats (OECD 408)

Repeated Dose Inhalation 90d – NOAEC ≥ 10400 mg/m3 for rats (similar to OECD TG 413)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1995
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: According to or similar to guideline study OECD 422: GLP
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
yes
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on oral exposure:
Males were treated from day 14 prior to the mating phase until the end of the mating phase and then killed, Females were treated from day 14 prior to mating, through day 4 of lactation and then killed.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males were treated from day 14 prior to the mating phase until the end of the mating phase and then killed, Females were treated from day 14 prior to mating, through day 4 of lactation and then killed.
Frequency of treatment:
7days/week
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0, 25, 150, or 1000 mg/kg/day (10 ml/kg dosing volume)
Basis:
other: gavage
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 male, 10 female per group
Control group: 10 male, 10 female, 0.5% methylcellulose
Control animals:
yes
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
Effects on general toxicity, neurobehavioral activity, clinical chemistry, and hematology were evaluated. Gross necropsies and histopathologic examination of tissues were conducted with emphasis on the male reproductive tract.
Sacrifice and pathology:
All surviving animals were sacrificed following dosing
Statistics:
Adult body and organ weight, food consumption, clinical chemistry, open field activity and hematologic data (raw or transformed) were compared using either parametric or nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) ANOVA depending on whether the data were found to be homogeneous or nonhomogeneous using Bartlett's homogeneity of variance procedure. If ANOVA analysis indicated significant differences, Dunnett's test and Mann Whitney's U test, for parametric and nonparemetric data, respectively, were used to analyze for differences between the various dose groups.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
No deaths or clinical signs of toxicity or behavioral changes were noted. No significant differences in body weights or feed consumption were observed. Startle reflex, open field test, and forelimb grip reflex performance data also revealed no treatment-related findings.
There were also no treatment-related changes in hematology or blood chemistry parameters, organ weights or gross pathology. An apparent treatment-related, slight to moderate hyperplasia of the non-glandular mucosa of the stomach, associated with degeneration, hyperkeratosis and submucosal subacute inflammation and, in a few cases, with erosion, was seen in animals of all treated groups. This effect was considered an artifact of the dosing method and not directly related to the toxicity of the test material. No other treatment related histological changes were observed.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No treatment-related mortality or significant adverse clinical effects occurred.
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
Based on these data, the no-observable- adverse effect level (NOAEL) for repeated dose toxicty was >= 1000 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested.
Executive summary:

Groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague Dawley rats were dosed with decane daily by gavage at exposure levels of 0, 25, 150, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Males were dosed from the 14th day prior to mating, during mating until the end of the mating period. Females were dosed from the 14th day prior to the start of the mating phase to day 4 of lactation.  Oral dosing of decane produced no evidence of any adverse effects on clinical observations, organ weights, gross pathology, neurobehavioral activity, clinical chemistry or hematology endpoints. Evidence of irritation of the nonglandular mucosa of the stomach was observed, but was considered an artifact of the dosing method and not attributed to the inherent toxicity of the test material.  Based on these data, the no-observable- adverse effect level (NOAEL) for repeated dose toxicty was >=1000 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested. 

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1996
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: According to or similar to guideline study OECD 422:GLP.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Crj: CD(SD)
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
Number of Animals: Males, 48; females, 48 (total)
Crj:CD (SD strain) SPF male and female rats 8 weeks old were purchased from Nippon Charles River Co., Ltd., and quarantined for 14 days. The administration was started when the animals were 10 weeks old, and the mean body weight (body weight range) of males at the start of administration was 400.3 g (374-431 g), and that of females was 226.5 g (192-255 g).

The animals were individually placed in metal bracket cages with a metal mesh floor before mating, one male and one female per cage during mating, one mother animal per cage during gestation, and a mother and her newborns after birth.

Animals were maintained in a barrier-isolated room with a temperature of 23 +/- 3°C, humidity of 55 +/- 10%, ventilation changes of 10-15 times per hour, and an illumination of 12 hr/day. After the 17th day of gestation, the metal mesh floor was changed to a stainless steel pan spread with a floor-covering material for experimental animals. Solid feed (CRF-1, manufactured by Oriental Yeast Industry Co., Ltd.), and tap water (tap water of the City of Sapporo) were given freely.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
olive oil
Details on oral exposure:
The administration of the test substance was carried out by oral gavage. The volume administered was 5 mL per kg of body weight, and it was calculated based on the results of body weight measured on the day closest to the day of administration. The administration period was 46 days, which included 14 days before mating and during the mating period for males. The administration period for the female rats began 14 days before mating and continued until after the first 3 days of nursing. The administration was started when the animals were 10 weeks old, and the mean body weight (body weight range) of males at the start of administration was 400.3 g (374-431 g), and that of females was 226.5 g (192-255 g).
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The administration period was 46 days, which including 14 days before mating and during the mating period for males. The administration period for the female rats began 14 days before mating and continued until after the first 3 days of nursing.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Once per day
Dose / conc.:
0 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
Vehicle
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Female: 12; Male: 12 per dose
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
General conditions, body weight and feed intake:
For all cases, the general conditions were observed once a day throughout the study term. The body weight measurements were carried out on the 1st (before administration), 2nd, 5th, 7th, 10th and 14th day after administration and subsequently, every 7 days (including the last day of administration) as well as 0th, 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, 17th and 20th day of gestation and the 0th, 1st and 4th day of nursing for females. In addition, the body weight gain and rate were calculated from the 1st day of administration to the 46th day for males and for females, from the 1st day to the 14th day, 0th day to the 20th day of gestation and 0th day to the 4th day of nursing. The amount of feed intake was measured on the same days as those of body weight measurements except mating period and dissection day for males and 0th day of gestation and 0th day of nursing for females. Incidentally, with respect to the number of day of pregnancy, the successful copulation day was set as the 0th day of gestation, and in the case of lactation, the day of delivery completion was set as the 0th day of nursing.

Urinary tests:
In the final week (43rd-44th day of administration) during the administration term, 6 male cases of each group were placed in metabolism-measurement cages, and their urine samples were collected under non-starvation conditions. For urine samples, collected in about 3 hr, pH, protein, glucose, ketone, urobilinogen, bilirubin, occult blood reaction, and sedimentation (microscopic observation) were tested, and for urine samples collected for 21 hr, volume, and specific gravity were measured. In addition, the amount of drinking water (weight) in urine samples was also measured.

Hematological tests:
Before dissection, all male animals were starved for about 16 hr, blood samples were collected from the femoral vein under ether anesthesia, and EDTA•2K-treated blood samples were used to measure the erythrocyte count, mean erythrocyte volume, platelet count, leucocyte count, hemoglobin content (cyanmethemoglobin method), hematocrit (calculated from erythrocyte count and mean erythrocyte volume), mean erythrocyte hemoglobin content (calculated from erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content), mean erythrocyte hemoglobin concentration (calculated from hematocrit and hemoglobin content), reticulocyte proportion (Brecher method) and leucocyte fraction (microscopic observation). In addition, untreated blood samples were used to measure coagulation time (fluid viscosity change air pressure measurement, Gryner Microcogulometer). Furthermore, plasma samples, which were prepared by collecting blood samples from the abdominal aorta, treating with sodium citrate and subsequently carrying out centrifugation at 3,000 rpm for 10 min, were used to measure prothrombin time (thromboplastin method) and activated partial thromboplastin time (ellagic acid method).

Hematobiochemical test:
After the hematological tests, serum samples of all male cases, which were prepared by collecting from the abdominal aorta, were used to measure GOT, GPT (IFCC method), GPT (glutamyl-p-nitroanilide substrate clathrate method), choline esterase (butyrylthiocholine iodide substrate method), blood glucose (hexokinase method), total cholesterol and phospholipids (enzymatic method), triglyceride (free glycerol deduction method), total bilirubin (azobilirubin method), urea nitrogen (urease-indophenol method), creatinine (Yaffe method), calcium (OCPC method), inorganic phosphorus (Fiske-Subbarow method), total protein (Biuret method) and albumin (BCG method) (Hitachi automated analyzer, Model 7150); sodium and potassium (flame photometry: Corning flame photometer, Model 480); chlorine (coulometric titration method: Hiranuma chloride counter, Model CL-6M); A/G ratio (calculated from total protein and albumin); and protein fraction (cellulose acetate electrophoresis).
Sacrifice and pathology:
Dissection and organ weight measurement:
After the 46th day of administration, all males were sacrified ex sanguine under ether anesthesia after blood sampling and dissected. Any newborns that died were dissected immediately after discovery. Females that successfully copulated were sacrificed on the 4th day of nursing. Female rats who did not successfully copulate on the 25th day of gestation (infertile cases) on the 26th day of gestation were sacrified. The implantation sites in the uterus and corpus luteum of pregnancy in the ovaries were counted. In addition, the weight measurements were carried out for the liver, kidney, thymus gland, adrenal gland, testes, epididymis and ovary, and the ratio to body weight was calculated.

Histopathological observation:
The following tissues were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin or with oil red O staining/ luxol fast blue-Bodian double stain to conduct a histopathological examination: the liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), hypophysis, thymus gland, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, stomach (anterior stomach and glandular stomach), duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, testes, epididymis, prostate gland, ovary and abnormal sites.
Statistics:
Fisher’s accuracy probability test was carried out to compare the control and undecane-administered groups for the sexual cycle, copulation index, fertility index, gestation index and nursing index. Other test parameters were analyzed by using Bartlett’s homogeneity of variance and subsequently single dimensional configuration variance analysis or Kruskal-Walls method. If the results were found to be significant, the Dunnett ‘s method or Mann-Whitney U-test method was used to compare the undecane-administered groups from the control group. However, those qualitative items in urinary tests were analyzed by using the Kruskal-Walls method and Mann-Whitney U-test method. The viability of newborns on the 4th day and body weight were analyzed using the litter as a unit and the results were compared with the control group. A significance level of less than 5% was considered to be statistically significant.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
not examined
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
In males given 1000 mg/kg a decrease in hemoglobin concentration and an increase in white blood cell count was observed; however, no corresponding findings in females, autopsy, or histopathology were observed.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
In males given 1000 mg/kg a decrease in albumin, and increases in a2-globulin, GPT, cholinesterase and total cholesterol were observed; however, no corresponding findings in females, autopsy, or histopathology were observed.
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not specified
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
no effects observed
Details on results:
In the repeat dose toxicity test, salivation was observed in males and females given 300 and 1000 mg/kg. Body weight gain was suppressed in males given 1000 mg/kg, and body weights were increased in females given 1000 mg/kg during the lactation period. Food consumption was decreased in males given 300 and 1000 mg/kg in the first half of the administration period, increased in males given 1000 mg/kg in the second half of the administration period, and increased in females given 1000 mg/kg in the second half of pregnancy and during the lactation period. Hematological and blood chemical examinations revealed a decrease in hemoglobin concentration, an increase in the white blood cell count, a decrease in albumin, and increases in a2-globulin, GPT, cholinesterase and total cholesterol in males given 1000 mg/kg. Relative liver weights and absolute and relative thymus weights were increased in males given 1000 mg/kg, and absolute and relative liver weights were elevated in females given 1000 mg/kg. No effects were detected in the autopsy or histopathology findings. Due to the lack of effects in both sexes and the lack of corresponding histopathology, these effects are determined not to be toxicologically relevant. The NOAEL for repeat dose toxicity is considered to be 1000 mg/kg/day for both sexes.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No effects noted at highest dose tested.
Critical effects observed:
no
Conclusions:
The NOAEL for repeat dose toxicity is considered to be >=1000 mg/kg/day for both sexes. The NOAELs for reproductive performance is considered to be >=1000 mg/kg/day.
Executive summary:

In the repeat dose toxicity test, male and female rats were given 0, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg orally by gavage. Male rats were dosed from the 14thday prior to mating and during the mating period. Female rats were dosed from the 14thday prior to mating until after the 3rdday of nursing. Salivation was observed in males and females given 300 and 1000 mg/kg. Body weight gain was suppressed in males given 1000 mg/kg, and body weights were increased in females given 1000 mg/kg during the lactation period. Food consumption was decreased in males given 300 and 1000 mg/kg in the first half of the administration period, increased in males given 1000 mg/kg in the second half of the administration period, and increased in females given 1000 mg/kg in the second half of pregnancy and during the lactation period. Hematological and blood chemical examinations revealed a decrease in hemoglobin concentration, an increase in the white blood cell count, a decrease in albumin, and increases in a2-globulin, GPT, cholinesterase and total cholesterol in males given 1000 mg/kg. Relative liver weights and absolute and relative thymus weights were increased in males given 1000 mg/kg, and absolute and relative liver weights were elevated in females given 1000 mg/kg. No effects were detected in the autopsy or histopathology findings. Due to the lack of effects in both sexes and the lack of corresponding histopathology, these effects are determined not to be toxicologically relevant. The NOAEL for repeat dose toxicity is considered to be 1000 mg/kg/day for both sexes.

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1991
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: According to or similar to OECD guideline 408: GLP
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 408 (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents)
GLP compliance:
yes
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Harlan Sprague Dawley Inc.
- Age at study initiation: Approximately 6 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: Males: 156.2-223.2 g; Females: 136.2-170.9 g
- Housing: Individually
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 16 days


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°F): maintained range of 68-76
- Humidity (%): maintained range of 40-70
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12


IN-LIFE DATES: From: October 24, 1990 To: September 27, 1991
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
corn oil
Details on oral exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
The test material was diluted in vehicle at the following concentration to ensure a 5ml/kg dose volume at all dose levels:
-Group 2=0.1g/kg (2.0% w/v)
-Group 3= 0.5g/kg (10% w/v)
-Group 4 and 5= 1.0g/kg (20.0% w/v)

VEHICLE
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 5ml/kg
Duration of treatment / exposure:
13 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
The test material mixtures and control were administered by oral gavage at a dose volume of 5ml/kg, 7 days per week for a period of 13 weeks.
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0.1g/kg (2.0w/v)
Basis:
actual ingested
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0.5g/kg 10% w/v)
Basis:
actual ingested
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
1.0g/kg (20% w/v)
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
All groups consisted of 20 mice (10males; 10 females)
Group 1=Control group (
Group 2= 0.1g/kg (2.0% w/v)
Group 3= 0.5g/kg (10% w/v)
Groups 4=1.0g/kg (20% w/v).
Group 5 (satellite)= 1.0g/kg (20% w/v).
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Rationale for selecting satellite groups: observed for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects
- Post-exposure recovery period in satellite groups: 28 days
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Clinical observations were made daily. Clinical laboratory studies were performed on all animals pre-dose, interim (day 32 for males, and day 33 for females), and at main study termination. For the satellite animals, clinical laboratory studies were also performed on the day of recovery sacrifice.


BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: prior to dosing (pretest), on the day of dose initiation (Day 0), and weekly thereafter. Body weights were also recorded at sacrifice or death.

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Prior to study initation and during the final week of the main study
- Dose groups that were examined: all dose groups

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: pre-dose, interim (day 32 for males, and day 33 for females), and at main study termination. Also on day of recovery sacrifice for the satellite animals.
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes-methoxyflurane
- Animals fasted: yes
- How many animals: all animals

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: pre-dose, interim (day 32 for males, and day 33 for females), and at main study termination. Also on day of recovery sacrifice for the satellite animals.
- Animals fasted: yes
- How many animals: all animals

URINALYSIS: No data

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No data
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
The necropsy included an examination of the external surface of the body, all orifices, and the cranial, thoracic, and abdominal cavities and their contents. The kidneys, liver, ovaries, tested, adrenals, and brain were weighed prior to fixation.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes
-erythrocyte count
-hematocrit
-hemoglobin
-leukocyte count
-mean corpuscular volume
-mean corpuscular hemoglobulin
-mean corpuscular hemoglobulin concentration
-platelets
-reticulocyte count

SERUM CHEMISTRY:
-total bilirubin
-albumin
-blood urea nitrogen
-calcium
-cholesterol
-creatinine
-electrolytes
-glucose
-total protein
-triglycerides
-phosphorous
-gamma glutamyl transferase
-serum aspartate aminotransferase
-serum alanine aminotransferase
Statistics:
The following parameters were statistically analyzed for significant differences:
-mean hematology parameters
-mean serum chemistry parameters
- mean organ weights
- mean organ to body weight ratios
- mean body weights
- mean food consumption.
Comparisons were limited to within sex analysis.

Statistical evaluation of equality of means was done by an appropriate one way analysis of variance and a test for ordered response in the dose groups. Bartlett's test was performed first. If the dose groups had equal variance, a parametric method was used. Otherwise, nonparametric techniques were used.

Parametric procedures involved a standard one way ANOVA using the F distribution. If significant differences among the means were indicated, Dunnett’s test was used to determine significant differences from control. In addition, a standard regression analysis for linear response in the dose groups and linear lack of fit were performed.

Nonparametric procedures involved the test of equality of means using the Kruskal-Wallis test. If significant differences were indicated, Dunn’s Summed Rank test was used. In addition, Jonckheere’s test for monotonic trend in the dose response was performed.

The statistical t-test was used to compare the satellite group’s main study termination and recovery termination values. In addition, the t-test was used to compare the satellite group’s and the high dose group's relative organ weights. The t-test was also used to evaluate recovery.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC
Microscopic changes were observed in the kidneys and liver of male rats and in the livers of female rats. The treatment-related effects in the kidney were characterized predominantly by accumulations of hyaline droplets in the cytoplasm of the proximal tubules of the cortex. An increased incidence of multifocal cortical tubular basophilia with changes consistent with both degeneration and regeneration of the tubular epithelium also was present as well as dilated medullary tubules with granular casts. These renal changes were observed only in males in all doses necropsied immediately after the 90-day treatment period. The incidence and severity of these changes generally occurred in a dose-related manner. After the reversibility period, there were still residual changes but of a lesser degree. Dilated tubules with granular casts in the medulla and an increased incidence of multifocal cortical tubular basophilia were noted. No-treatment related microscopic changes were observed in the kidneys of the female rats.

Changes in the liver consisted of a minimal to slight centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy in the high dose male rats and in the female rats of the mid and high dose groups. The centrilobular areas were more prominent and the hepatocytes were larger with an increased amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm. Centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy was not observed in any of the satellite group rats.

OTHER FINDINGS
Two control female rats died prior to study termination. One rat had diffuse fibrinopurulent pleuropneumonia and pericarditis. These changes are believed to be related to a dosing accident with perforation of the esophagus in the thoracic cavity. The cause of death in the second control female included bacterial nephritis and an associated mucosal hyperplasia and distention of the ureter and urinary bladder.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No treatment-related clinical in-life signs of toxicity and no mortality were observed at the highest dose tested.
Critical effects observed:
not specified

Microscopic changes in the male kidneys characterized by hyaline droplet accumulation in the cytoplasm of the proximal tubules of the cortex and an increased incidence of multi-focal cortical tubular basophila with changes consistent with both degeneration and regeneration of the tubular epithelium and dilated medullary tubules with granular casts are typical of a syndrome that occurs specifically in male rats and is unlikely to have a correlation to humans.  The syndrome, Alpha-2u-Globulin Nephropathy or Light Hydrocarbon Nephropathy is related to the accumulation of alpha-2u globulin in the lysosomes of the kidney.

 

Treatment-related microscopic change in the liver (centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy) of the mid-dose females and the high dose of both sexes in the absence of necrosis is typical of an adaptive change probably related to the livers' metabolism of large volumes of test material.  This observation is supported by the increase in relative liver weights in these animals which is typical of an adaptive change.

Conclusions:
Oral administration via gavage for 90 days produced no treatment-related clinical in-life signs of toxicity and no mortality at the highest dose tested. The no observable adverse effect level for MRD-90-868 is > 1000 mg/kg.
Executive summary:

A 90-day subchronic study was conducted in rats to assess the toxicity of MRD-90-868. The test mixture was administered by oral gavage at a dose of 0, 100, 500, or 1000 mg/ kg 7 days per week for a period of 13 weeks.  The control animals received a carrier (corn oil) dose and a satellite group was dosed at 1000 mg/ kg, 7 days/week for 13 weeks and was then observed for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects for 28 days post-treatment.  Observations were made as to the nature, onset, severity, and duration of toxicological signs. There were no deaths attributed to the oral administration of MRD-90-868 (two control group females died prior to termination).  The majority of animals in all groups displayed no observable abnormalities during the test period.  The most frequently noted observations included broken/maloccluded incisors, alopecia, and scabs, all of which were considered incidental.  Body weight, food consumption, and hematology data displayed no biologically significant trends for either males or females during the test period.  The most remarkable finding was a treatment-related microscopic change in the liver of the mid-dose females and the high dose of both sexes.  This change was minor and is typical of an adaptive change probably related to the livers metabolism of large volumes of test material and was reversible upon microscopic evaluation of the tissues from the satellite recovery group.  Microscopic changes were also observed in the male kidneys at all doses.  These changes are characteristic of kidney changes produced in male rats by hydrocarbons and are considered to be a male rat specific phenomenon without human significance.  Based on the data recorded in this study, the NOAEL for MRD-90 -868 is >1000mg/kg.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
5 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subchronic
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
2 short-term studies (1 key and 1 weight of evidence) and 1 key sub-chronic study available from structural analogues

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: inhalation
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
a short-term toxicity study does not need to be conducted because a reliable sub-chronic (90 days) or chronic toxicity study is available, conducted with an appropriate species, dosage, solvent and route of administration
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1980
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well-documented study report equivalent or similar to OECD guideline 413.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 413 (Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: albino
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Shell Toxicology Laboratory Breding Unit
- Age at study initiation: 10-13 weeks
- Housing: three of one sex per cage
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum except during exposure
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum

During the period of the test the laboratory temperature varied between 19.4°C and 26.1°C and the relative humidity between 37% and 74%.
Barometric pressure was within the range 753 to 768 mm Hg


Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
other: no data
Details on inhalation exposure:
The atmospheres were generated by completely evaporating the solvent into the streams of ventilating air entering the chambers using micrometering pumps and vaporizers. The vaporizers consisted of electrically heated quartz tubes whose surface temperatures were adjusted during preliminary experiments to the minimal for complete evaporation of the solvent.

Each chamber was constructed of aluminum, with a volume of 1 m3 and was ventilated by air drawn from the laboratory through dust filters. The exhaust ducts from each chamber entered a common exhaust duct through which the air was drawn by a fan situated on the roof of the laboratory.

The total air flow rate through the main duct exhausting all four chambers was recorded continuously throughout the test by means of an electro—anemometer mounted in the duct. Slight adjustments were made as required to compensate for the effects of wind at the efflux point. The total flow rate was maintained at 2.0 + 0.03 m3 ∙min- 1. The individual flow rates through each chamber were balanced before the exposures began but were not checked further throughout the test since any significant changes would have been detected by the resulting changes in toxicant concentration. The flow rates were adjusted to 0.50 m3 ∙min- 1.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The test atmospheres were analyzed sequentially by means of a total hydrocarbon analyzer fitted with a flame-ionisation detector (Beckman 109A). The analyzer was calibrated during the test by means of known concentrations of SHELLSOL TD, prepared in a Teflon FEP gas sampling bag.

The recorder traces from the analyser were examined daily and a ‘daily mean concentration’ value was estimated by visual inspection. The daily mean concentrations for each of the test atmospheres were then ‘pooled’ to give weekly mean concentrations. The overall means of the weekly mean concentrations are given below:
Nominal concentration Observed concentration
(mg/m3) (mg/m3) (ppm)
10400* 10186 SD 327 1444
5200 5200 SD 207 737
2600 2529 SD 116 359
*83% saturated.

The desired concentrations of solvent in the test atmospheres were reached within 10 mm of the start of each exposure period. They then stayed remarkably constant throughout the 6 h exposure period.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Six hours/day
Frequency of treatment:
five days/week for 13 weeks
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0, 2600, 5200, 10400 mg/m3
Basis:
nominal conc.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
6 animals/sex/dose (total of 12 animals/dose)
Control animals:
yes, sham-exposed
Details on study design:
The start and finish of the experiment was staggered in order that the optimum number of animals could be examined histopathologically after exposure. On each of four consecutive days, four male and four female rats per chamber were started on the experiment. The remaining two males and two females were started the next day. Thirteen weeks later, four male and four female rats per chamber were removed from the experiment for pathological examination on each of four consecutive days. The remaining two males and two females were removed the next day.
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes


BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly


FOOD CONSUMPTION:
- Food consumption for each animal determined weekly: Yes


FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Yes / No / No data


WATER CONSUMPTION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly


OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No



HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: 18h after the last 13 week exposure
- How many animals: all


CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: 18h after the last 13 week exposure
- How many animals: all



URINALYSIS: Yes / No / No data
- Time schedule for collection of urine:
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: Yes / No / No data
- Animals fasted: Yes / No / No data
- Parameters checked in table [No.?] were examined.


NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No



OTHER:
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes for all animals exposed to the high and medium concentrations, plus the control animals. Kidneys of low concentration males were also examined.
Other examinations:
Organ weights
After post-mortem examinations the following organs were weighed:
Brain
Liver
Heart
Spleen
Kidneys
Testes

Histopatholgy. Tissues taken for histological examination were:

Mammary gland (posterior site with skin)
Mesenteric lymph node
Pancreas
Stomach
Intestine at 5 levels
Caecum
Spleen
Liver (middle, left and triangular lobes)
Adrenals
Kidneys
Ovaries or testes
Uterus or prostate
Seminal vesicles
Urinary bladder
Thyroid (with oesophagus and trachea)
Trachea (mid course and bifurcation)
Heart
Lungs
Nasal cavity
Thymus
Eye and lacrimal glands
Salivary gland (submaxillary)
Brain
Spinal cord (thoracic)
Pituitary
Tongue
Sciatic nerves
Muscle (femoral)
Knee joint and femur
Plus any other macroscopic lesion in any tissues.
The samples marked were held in 4% neutral formalin and only processed for histological examination if indicated by clinical or other pathological findings.
Statistics:
Body and organ weights were analysed by covariance analysis using initial body weight as the covariate. Reported means were adjusted for initial body weight if a significant covariance relationship existed: where no significant covariance relationship was found, unadjusted means were reported.

Organ weights were further examined by covariance analysis using the terminal body weight as the covariate. The organ weight means are reported as adjusted for terminal body weight if a significant covariance relationship existed. Although not a true covariance analysis (because the terminal body weights are dependent upon treatment), the analysis does provide an aid to the interpretation of organ weights when there are differences in terminal body weights. The analysis attempts to predict what the organ weights would have been, had all the animals had the same terminal body weight.
Clinical, chemical and haematological parameters were examined using analysis of variance.

The analysis allowed for the fact that animals were multihoused. Differences in response can be affected by cage environment as well as by treatment but this effect is minimal in a study of this duration.
The significance of any difference between treated and control group means was tested using the Williams t test (1971, 1972). However, if a monotonic dose response could not be assumed Dunnett’s test (1964) was used.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
no effects observed
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
No deaths were recorded and clinical signs of toxicity were absent in the low and medium exposure groups; the high exposure groups were slightly lethargic when examined up to one hour after cessation of exposure. Body weight gain was slightly reduced in all female groups and in high exposure males. Water intake was increased in the high exposure males only.

Female aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase were decreased in all female groups exposed to SHELLSOL-TD. No pathological changes were detected which could explain the observed decreases in these enzymes. In view of this lack of supporting evidence and the fact that the control values for these two parameters were high when compared with historical controls in the laboratory, these changes were not considered toxicologically significant.

Male alkaline phosphatase, potassium, chloride and albumin were increased at the high exposure level. These were considered to represent biological variation in the rat and were not considered treatment-related.

Male kidney weights were increased at all exposure levels. Hyaline intracytoplasmic inclusions and an increased incidence of tubular degeneration and/or dilatation were seen in the cortical tubules of all exposed males. These are a common effect observed in repeated-dose animal studies with hydrocarbon solvents. These kidney changes have been identified to result from an alpha2u-globulin-mediated process that because of its sex and species specificity, is not regarded as relevant to humans.

A low grade anemia was evident in all males exposed to SHELLSOL TD, characterized by slight reductions in haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte counts. Splenic weight was increased in the high concentration males. These changes were not seen in females and were not considered dose-related and therefore considered not toxicologically relevant.

Male and female liver weights were increased at the high and medium exposures, and male liver weights at the low exposures also. No lesions were identified histologically in the livers of treated animals that could account for the increased weight. This change was considered a physiological response to exposure rather than a toxic response and as such is not of toxicological significance.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Effect level:
> 10 400 mg/m³ air (nominal)
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No treatment-related mortality or significant adverse clinical effects occurred.
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
The NOAEC for SHELLSOL TD is 10186 mg/m3 (actual) (1444 ppm) under the test conditions of this study.
Executive summary:

SHELLSOL TC was administered by inhalation to albino rats for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks at nominal vapor concentrations of 10400 mg/m3, 5200 mg/m3, and 2600 mg/m3 to assess inhalation toxicity.  No mortality or treatment-related effects in any of the hematology and serum chemistry values were observed.  Liver and kidney weights were increased in male rats at all exposure levels, male heart weights were increased at the highest exposure level and liver and kidney weights were increased in female rats at 10400 mg/m3.  In addition, the male rats exposed to SHELLSOL TC at all concentrations showed tubular degeneration and hyaline inclusion-droplets in the epithelium.  There was also scattered degeneration of the proximal renal tubules which showed cytoplasmic pallor and shrinkage. Occasionally the degenerate tubules were surrounded by a lymphocyte infiltrate. Many tubules also showed dilatation of the cortico-medullary junction, the dilated tubule being filled with a flocculent eosinophilic material. The kidney effects observed in male rats are indicative of alpha-2u-globulin nephropathy.  Alpha-2u-globulin nephropathy, also known as hyaline droplet nephropathy, results from the formation of complexes with a naturally occurring protein (alpha-2u-globulin) in the kidneys of male rats.  These complexes can accumulate in the proximal renal tubule and may produce species-specific histopathological changes.  These kidney effects are specific to male rats and are not considered to be of biological relevance to humans.  Histopathological examination did not reveal any abnormalities that were considered treatment related.  As there were no pathologic changes, changes in organ weights mentioned above were judged to have been compensatory rather than toxic effects.  Based on these results, the No Observed Adverse Effect Concentration (NOAEC) was greater than or equal to 10400 mg/m3.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
10 400 mg/m³
Study duration:
subchronic
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
1 key and 3 supporting read across studies available from structural analogues.

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: dermal
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
a short-term toxicity study does not need to be conducted because a reliable sub-chronic (90 days) or chronic toxicity study is available, conducted with an appropriate species, dosage, solvent and route of administration
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: dermal
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
other:
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

There is no repeated dose toxicity data for Tetradecane. However, short-term studies are available for structural analogues Decane and Undecane. Sub-chronic data is available for structural analogues Hydrocarbons, C9 -C11, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics, Hydrocarbons, C10 -C12, isoalkanes, Hydrocarbons, C11-C14, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics, and Isododecane. Additionally, OECD Guideline 408 (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents) tests are proposed for structural analogues, Hydrocarbons, C9-C11, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C14-C19, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics. This data is read across to based on analogue read across and a discussion and report on the read across strategy is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.

This endpoint will be updated subsequent to ECHA's approval of the testing proposals and availability of data upon completion of the studies.

 

Oral:

 

Decane

In a key study (Sasol, 1995) groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague Dawley rats were dosed with decane daily by gavage at exposure levels of 0, 25, 150, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Males were dosed from the 14th day prior to mating, during mating until the end of the mating period. Females were dosed from the 14th day prior to the start of the mating phase to day 4 of lactation.  Oral dosing of decane produced no evidence of any adverse effects on clinical observations, organ weights, gross pathology, neurobehavioral activity, clinical chemistry or hematology endpoints. Evidence of irritation of the nonglandular mucosa of the stomach was observed, but was considered an artifact of the dosing method and not attributed to the inherent toxicity of the test material.  Based on these data, the no-observable- adverse effect level (NOAEL) for repeated dose toxicty was >=1000 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested. 

 

Undecane

In an OECD Guideline 422 study (MHW, 1996), male and female rats were given 0, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg orally by gavage. Male rats were dosed from the 14th day prior to mating and during the mating period. Female rats were dosed from the 14th day prior to mating until after the 3rd day of nursing. Salivation was observed in males and females given 300 and 1000 mg/kg. Body weight gain was suppressed in males given 1000 mg/kg, and body weights were increased in females given 1000 mg/kg during the lactation period. Food consumption was decreased in males given 300 and 1000 mg/kg in the first half of the administration period, increased in males given 1000 mg/kg in the second half of the administration period, and increased in females given 1000 mg/kg in the second half of pregnancy and during the lactation period. Hematological and blood chemical examinations revealed a decrease in hemoglobin concentration, an increase in the white blood cell count, a decrease in albumin, and increases in a2-globulin, GPT, cholinesterase and total cholesterol in males given 1000 mg/kg. Relative liver weights and absolute and relative thymus weights were increased in males given 1000 mg/kg, and absolute and relative liver weights were elevated in females given 1000 mg/kg. No effects were detected in the autopsy or histopathology findings. Due to the lack of effects in both sexes and the lack of corresponding histopathology, these effects are determined not to be toxicologically relevant. The NOAEL for repeat dose toxicity is considered to be 1000 mg/kg/day for both sexes.

 

Hydrocarbons, C11-C14, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics

A key 90-day sub-chronic study (ExxonMobil, 1991) was conducted in rats to assess the toxicity of the test material (Hydrocarbons, C11-C14, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics). The test mixture was administered by oral gavage at a dose of 0, 100, 500, or 1000 mg/ kg 7 days per week for a period of 13 weeks.  The control animals received a carrier (corn oil) dose and a satellite group was dosed at 1000 mg/ kg, 7 days/week for 13 weeks and was then observed for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects for 28 days post-treatment.  Observations were made as to the nature, onset, severity, and duration of toxicological signs. There were no deaths attributed to the oral administration of test material (two control group females died prior to termination).  The majority of animals in all groups displayed no observable abnormalities during the test period.  The most frequently noted observations included broken/maloccluded incisors, alopecia, and scabs, all of which were considered incidental.  Body weight, food consumption, and hematology data displayed no biologically significant trends for either males or females during the test period.  The most remarkable finding was a treatment-related microscopic change in the liver of the mid-dose females and the high dose of both sexes.  This change was minor and is typical of an adaptive change probably related to the livers metabolism of large volumes of test material and was reversible upon microscopic evaluation of the tissues from the satellite recovery group.  Microscopic changes were also observed in the male kidneys at all doses.  These changes are characteristic of kidney changes produced in male rats by hydrocarbons and are considered to be a male rat specific phenomenon without human significance.  Based on the data recorded in this study, the NOAEL for Hydrocarbons, C11-C14, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics is >1000mg/kg. 

 

Inhalation:

 

Hydrocarbons, C9-C11, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics

In a supporting study (ExxonMobil, 1978), the test material (Hydrocarbons, C9-C11, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics) was administered by inhalation to Sprague-Dawley rats for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks at nominal vapor concentrations of 300 ppm and 900 ppm to assess subchronic inhalation toxicity.  Ten animals per sex per group were examined at 4 weeks, 8 weeks and all survivors were sacrificed and examined at 12 weeks. Male body weight gain was significantly decreased at 900 ppm.  There were no treatment-related effects in any of the hematology and serum chemistry values.  Liver and kidney weights were increased in male rats at 900 ppm, and adrenal weights were increased in female rats at 900 ppm.  The kidney effects observed in male rats are indicative of alpha-2u-globulin nephropathy.  Alpha-2u-globulin nephropathy, also known as hyaline droplet nephropathy, results from the formation of complexes with a naturally occurring protein (alpha-2u-globulin) in the kidneys of male rats.  These complexes can accumulate in the proximal renal tubule and may produce species-specific histopathological changes.  These kidney effects are specific to male rats and are not considered to be of biological relevance to humans.  Histopathological examination did not reveal any abnormalities that were considered treatment related.  As there were no pathologic changes, changes in organ weight to body weight ratios were judged to have been compensatory rather than toxic effects.  Based on these results, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) was greater than or equal to 900 ppm (>=5220 mg/m3).

 

Hydrocarbons, C10-C12, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics

In a key study (Shell, 1980), the test material (Hydrocarbons, C10-C12, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics) was administered by inhalation to albino rats for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks at nominal vapor concentrations of 10400 mg/m3, 5200 mg/m3, and 2600 mg/m3to assess inhalation toxicity.  No mortality or treatment-related effects in any of the hematology and serum chemistry values were observed.  Liver and kidney weights were increased in male rats at all exposure levels, male heart weights were increased at the highest exposure level and liver and kidney weights were increased in female rats at 10400 mg/m3.  In addition, the male rats exposed to the test material at all concentrations showed tubular degeneration and hyaline inclusion-droplets in the epithelium.  There was also scattered degeneration of the proximal renal tubules which showed cytoplasmic pallor and shrinkage. Occasionally the degenerate tubules were surrounded by a lymphocyte infiltrate. Many tubules also showed dilatation of the cortico-medullary junction, the dilated tubule being filled with a flocculent eosinophilic material. The kidney effects observed in male rats are indicative of alpha-2u-globulin nephropathy.  Alpha-2u-globulin nephropathy, also known as hyaline droplet nephropathy, results from the formation of complexes with a naturally occurring protein (alpha-2u-globulin) in the kidneys of male rats.  These complexes can accumulate in the proximal renal tubule and may produce species-specific histopathological changes.  These kidney effects are specific to male rats and are not considered to be of biological relevance to humans.  Histopathological examination did not reveal any abnormalities that were considered treatment related.  As there were no pathologic changes, changes in organ weights mentioned above were judged to have been compensatory rather than toxic effects.  Based on these results, the No Observed Adverse Effect Concentration (NOAEC) was greater than or equal to 10400 mg/m3.

 

In a supporting study (Exxon, 1978), the test material (C10-C12, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics) was administered by inhalation to rats at vapor concentrations of 300 or 900 ppm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks.  No treatment-related effects on mortality were observed and there were no significant alterations in hematology or clinical chemistry parameters.  Body weights were decreased and kidney weights were elevated in male rats at 300 and 900 ppm.  Relative mean liver weights were elevated in males at 900 ppm, but no changes were noted in histopathology.  Under the conditions of this study, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) is greater than 900 ppm (> 5220 mg/m3).

 

Isododecane

A supporting subchronic inhalation toxicity study (Bayer, 1981) with isododecane was carried out by exposing groups of twenty male and twenty female rats to atmospheres containing 0, 200, 600, or 1800 ppm isododecane 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, for a period of 13 weeks. No treatment-related effects on mortality were observed and there were no significant alterations in hematological, blood chemical or urinary values, or in organ weights, that were toxicologically relevant. An increased incidence of tubular nephrosis was found in the kidneys of males at all levels of exposure. These lesions were characterized by a loss of cytoplasmic eosinophilia and striation, a loss of brush border, and an increases cellular and nuclear size of epithelium of mainly the proximal tubules. The kidney effects observed in male rats are indicative of alpha-2u-globulin nephropathy.  Alpha-2u-globulin nephropathy, also known as hyaline droplet nephropathy, results from the formation of complexes with a naturally occurring protein (alpha-2u-globulin) in the kidneys of male rats.  These complexes can accumulate in the proximal renal tubule and may produce species-specific histopathological changes.  These kidney effects are specific to male rats and are not considered to be of biological relevance to humans.  Based on these results, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) was greater than or equal to 1800 ppm (10440 mg/m3).

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on available data, Tetradecane does not meet the criteria for classification for repeated dose toxicity (STOT-RE) under the new Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP).