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Endpoint:
sediment toxicity: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 225 (Sediment-Water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment)
Version / remarks:
2007
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
SOURCE OF TEST MATERIAL
- Appearance: light yellow / light yellow to slightly greenish, clear, high viscous liquid
- Source and lot/batch No.of test material: 19.04.2017
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: 19 Apr 2022
- Purity test date: 100% UVCB
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
The test item concentrations and the controls were confirmed by analytical verification via UPLC-MS/MS on day 0, 7 and 28 using additional replicates, each. Determination of the test item was performed for the sediment, pore water and the overlying water in the controls and all test item concentrations under GLP.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on sediment and application:
PREPARATION OF SPIKED SEDIMENT
- Method of mixing: The respective test item amount was weighed out for a stock solution and dissolved in Acetone. The stock solution was further diluted with Acetone to receive the respective spiking solutions. The appropriate amount of spiking solution (2.5 mL per replicate) was thoroughly mixed with a subset of the artificial sediment (10 g per replicate). After complete evaporation of the solvent, the spiked portion of artificial sediment was thoroughly mixed with the remaining sediment. Demineralised water was added to the artificial sediment to adjust the humidity of the artificial sediment to a moisture of 30 %. Subsequently, the test medium was thoroughly mixed to ensure a homogenous distribution.
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): acetone
- Evaporation of vehicle before use: yes
Test organisms (species):
Lumbriculus variegatus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde (BfG), Koblenz, Germany
- Breeding conditions: Breeding is performed at the test facility at 20  2 °C and diffuse light (100 - 500 lx, 16 h photoperiod daily). The dissolved oxygen concentration is > 70 % of the air saturation value corresponding to 6.2 mg O2/L. Breeding of L. variegatus is performed on quartz sand in reconstituted water containing 125 mL from each stock solution poured in a can and filled up to 25 L with demineralised water.
- Age of animals at beginning of exposure: The worms were synchronized 14 days prior to insertion to minimize uncontrolled reproduction and regeneration. Synchronization was achieved by artificial fragmentation of large healthy worms.
- Feeding during test
- Food type: Powder of Urtica dioica (stinging nettle, HEINRICH KLENK GMBH & CO KG, 97525 Schwebheim, Germany) was mixed into the sediment at the day of application.
- Amount: 0.4 % of the sediment dry weight
Study type:
laboratory study
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Type of sediment:
artificial sediment
Limit test:
no
Duration:
28 d
Exposure phase:
total exposure duration
Hardness:
370 - 404 mg/L as CaCO3 (test start)
371 - 450 mg/L as CaCO3 (test end)
Test temperature:
19.2 - 22.2 °C
pH:
7.32 - 7.90
Dissolved oxygen:
7.27 - 9.09 mg/L (> 70%$ saturation)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 1.0, 3.2, 10, 32 , 100 and 320 mg/kg soil dry weight
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): 250 mL glass beakers (6 cm diameter)
- Sediment volume: 45 g dry weight per vessel
- Overlying water volume: 150 mL
- Depth of sediment and overlying water: ca. 1.0 - 3.0 cm from the ground
- Aeration: yes
- Aeration frequency and intensity: Gentle aeration via Pasteur pipettes. Aeration was checked at least each working day.
- Replacement of evaporated test water, if any: Water levels were topped up with demineralised water at least each working day during the study to compensate losses due to evaporation, therefore water levels did not change by more than 10 %.

EXPOSURE REGIME
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per control / vehicle control: 6
- Type and preparation of food: Powder of Urtica dioica (stinging nettle, HEINRICH KLENK GMBH & CO KG, 97525 Schwebheim, Germany) was mixed into the sediment at the day of application.
- Amount of food: The amount was 0.4 % of the sediment dry weight.

OVERLYING WATER CHARACTERISTCS
- Type of water (e.g. deionized, ground water, sea water, Elendt medium acc. to OECD 219): reconsituted water acc. to guideline

CHARACTERIZATION OF ARTIFICIAL SEDIMENT
- % dry weight of sphagnum moss peat: 4.2%
- Composition (if artificial substrate): 20 % kaolin, with a kaolinite content > 30 %; 5 % quartz sand (> 50 % particles sized 50-200 µm); 0.40 % calcium carbonate (CaCO3) to achieve a pH of 6.62
- Moisture: 30 %
- Total organic carbon (%): 2.19%

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 h light, 8 h dark
- Light intensity: 100 - 500 lx

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Visual observations of behavioural differences to the control were recorded three times per week. The endpoints of the study as determined after day 28 were the number of surviving worms per replicate and the total dry biomass of worms per replicate.

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Potassium chloride
Key result
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
32 mg/kg sediment dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
100 mg/kg sediment dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Details on results:
- Mortality of test animals at end of exposure period: No mortality of worms was observed in the controls and the test item concentrations 1.0 to 100 mg/kg soil dry weight after exposure to the test item over 28 days. However, at the test item concentration 320 mg/kg soil dry weight a mortality of 2.5 % occurred after 28 days of exposure.
- Total biomass per replicate: At test start the worms had a body weight of 9.7 mg dry weight/10 worms (mean weight of two determinations). At test end, the mean biomass dry weight of the worms was not statistically significantly different at the test item concentrations 1.0 to 100 mg/kg soil dry weight compared to the pooled control. However, at the test item concentration 320 mg/kg soil dry weight the mean biomass dry weight of the worms was statistically significantly reduced
- Behavioural abnormalities: No evident changes in the worm behaviour or pathological symptoms were observed in the control as well as in the test item concentrations 1.0 to 32 mg/kg soil dry weight during the 28 days of exposure. However, at the test item concentrations 100 and 320 mg/kg soil dry weight worms on the soil surface were observed more often
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? yes
- Relevant effect levels: EC50 = 2.17 – 4.31 mg/L
- EC50: 3.04 mg/L

Since no statistically significant difference was determined between the control and the solvent control, both controls were pooled for further evaluation.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The test substance shows a NOEC value of 32 mg/kg sediment for reproduction at chronic exposure.
Endpoint:
sediment toxicity: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2002
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 218 (Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
study notes minor modifications to guideline, but does not specify
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The study was performed according to the 1998 draft version of the guideline.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
SEDIMENT
- Concentrations: Sediment from each treatment was collected.

OVERLYING WATER
- Concentrations: Overlying water from each treatment was collected.
Vehicle:
no
Details on sediment and application:
PREPARATION OF SPIKED SEDIMENT
- Method of mixing: 1g of test substance was directly added to 250 g wet sediment (50% water content) and mixed with 250 mL of water. The mixture was shaken for 20 h and left to settle for 72 h. Sediment was then separated from water by centrifugation.
- Details of spiking: Spiked sediment generated by mixing stock sediment with reference sediment
- Controls: yes
Test organisms (species):
Chironomus riparius
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source:on-site cultures maintained for several generations, originally collected from River Lambro in Milan, Italy
- Breeding conditions: 21 ± 1 °C in dechlorinated tap water under daily photoperiod in 40 L aquaria with control sediment.
- Details on collection: egg ropes transferred from culture to glass vessels containing culture water. First instar hatch occurred within 3 days at 21 ° C.
- Age of animals at beginning of exposure: first instar
- Feeding during test: yes
- Food type: Tetramin
- Amount: 3.5 mL/ test chamber
- Frequency: every 3 days

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: none needed as cultured in lab
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): same dilution water
Study type:
laboratory study
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Type of sediment:
natural sediment
Limit test:
no
Duration:
28 d
Exposure phase:
total exposure duration
Hardness:
320 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
21 ± 1 °C
pH:
not provided, but varied by 0.2 during test
Dissolved oxygen:
not provided, but test chambers were aerated for 2 h prior to test initiation, at test termination the saturation was 65%
Ammonia:
< 0.02 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Test 1: 270, 290, 320, 410 and 580 µg/g dw
Nominal: test 2: 290, 520, 735, 960 and 1100 µg/g dw
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): 250 mL glass beakers covered with petri dish
- Weight of wet sediment with and without pore water: 70 g (50% water)
- Overlying water volume: 200 mL
- Aeration: gentle aeration for 2h before test
- Replacement of evaporated test water, if any: yes

EXPOSURE REGIME
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 5
- No. of replicates per control / vehicle control: 5
- Feeding regime: every 3 days
- Type and preparation of food: Tetramin suspension
- Amount of food: 3.5 mL

OVERLYING WATER CHARACTERISTCS
- Type of water: dechlorinated tap water
- Temperature, pH, and DO were measured in all beakers before and end of test.

SOURCE OF NATURAL SEDIMENT
- Location and description of sampling site: Lake Monate Northern Italy. Sediment was collected with an Ekman grab at a lake depth of ~ 10 m. The sediment was wet sieved in the lab through a 250 µm-mesh using dechlorinated tap water. After 24h of settling the overlying water was removed and the sediment centrifuged.
- Contamination history of site: unpolluted sediment. Chemical analysis confirmed NP was not present and other parameters were in range of previous suggestions by Salomons and Forstner (1984)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16h light/8h dark

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: The total number of fully emerged male and female midges was recorded daily throughout the test duration. Egg depositions during the test were recorded.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
203 mg/kg sediment dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
emergence rate
Remarks on result:
other: 59.1 - 235.2 mg/kg, result of test 2; test 1 result: 258.9 mg/kg dw
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
381 mg/kg sediment dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
emergence rate
Remarks on result:
other: 252 - 477 mg/kg dw, result of test 2; test 1 result: 385 mg/kg dw
Details on results:
Control beakers had 100% emergence for both tests.
Midges started to emerge after 14-16 days in all treatments and control with emergence period lasting 8-10 days in controls. Number of males vs females emerged was not significantly different between controls and treatments.

Study states that analytical measurements were generally within 20% of nominal concentrations but does not present actual data. It is not clear if the results were calculated based on nominal or actual concentrations. Overlying water concentrations were within 5 - 20 µg/L NP, depending on sediment concentration.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Executive summary:

The 28 day long-term toxicity test of 4-nonylphenol to Chironomus riparius was studied under semi-static conditions. Chironomids were exposed to nonylphenol at nominal concentrations of 270 to 1100 mg/kg sediment dw. The sublethal effects assessed included emergence and egg production. The most sensitive end point was emergence. The lowest 28-day EC10 value is determined to be 203 mg/kg dw.

Endpoint:
sediment toxicity: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
28d chronic sublethal sediment bioassay using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on sediment and application:
Sediment was collected from either CLIS (4l°08.040' N, 72°52.717' W) at a standard reference site used by the USEPA in toxicity testing or from Flax Pond (40°57.778' N, 73°08.216' W), a sparsely populated coastal inlet on the north shore of Long Island. A Ponar grab was used to remove the top 5 cm of sediment from the surface of each of four grabs and homogenized into a single composite sample. This was then sieved to 500 µm and stored for up to 1 year at 4 °C until use. Study references Fay et al (2000) for amending reference sediment with the test substance. Spiking solutions of toxicant were added to glass jars. Sediment and seawater were added to each jar to create a 50% sediment water slurry mix. Jars were shaken for 7 days on a shaker at 125 rpm. After 7 days, sediments were centrifuged to remove excess seawater and were homogenized.
Test organisms (species):
Leptocheirus plumulosus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: laboratory cultures
- Age of parental stock (mean and range, SD): < 2 weeks ols, juvenils
- Feeding during test: via available sediment

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: none (lab culture)
Study type:
laboratory study
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Type of sediment:
natural sediment
Limit test:
no
Duration:
28 d
Exposure phase:
total exposure duration
Test temperature:
23 ± 1 °C
pH:
not specified
Dissolved oxygen:
not specified
Salinity:
20 ppt
Ammonia:
not specified
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Measured: 2.1, 4.5, 10.5, 27.2 and 61.5 mg/kg dw
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): 250mL chamber
- Sediment volume: 50 mg
- Weight of wet sediment with and without pore water: 50g ww
- Overlying water volume: 200 mL
- Depth of sediment: 2cm

EXPOSURE REGIME
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 15
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 5
- No. of replicates per control / vehicle control: 5
- Feeding regime: 3 times a week
- Type and preparation of food: "gorp" - mixture of TetraMin, dried alfalfa, wheat grass powder and shrimp maturation feed
- Amount of food: 1mg per organism

OVERLYING WATER CHARACTERISTCS
- Type of water (e.g. deionized, ground water, sea water, Elendt medium acc. to OECD 219): synthetic seawater
- Salinity: 20ppt

SOURCE OF NATURAL SEDIMENT
- Location and description of sampling site: "Flax Pond", a sparsely populated coastal inlet on north shore of Long Island
- Contamination history of site: used as reference site
- Total organic carbon (%): 2.6%

HANDLING OF NATURAL SEDIMENT
The top 5 cm were collected from surface of four grabs from Ponar grab and homogenized. Sediment was sieved to 500 um and stored for up to 1 year at 4 deg C until use.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16h light/ 8h dark

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: At the end of the 28d exposure, the adults and juvenils were differentially sieved from the sediment and the number of young per surviving female was determined.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: 0, 62.5, 118.8, 200, 400 mg/kg
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 61.5 mg/kg sediment dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: and mortality
Details on results:
A significant negative correlation (P<0.034) was observed between NP sediment concentration and the number of young produced per female, but it explained only 12% of the variance. Reproductive output in animals exposed to 61.5 mg/g NP was reduced by 40% of control values, but this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.299).
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Reproductive output in the 28-d field sediment exposures was analyzed using a two-sample, two-tailed T-test after square root transformation to equalize variance.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Remarks:
some information missing
Conclusions:
A 28d long-term toxicity test showed no significant effects of 4-nonylphenol to reproduction and mortality of the marine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus up to the highest tested concentration of 61.5 mg/kg sediment dw.
Executive summary:

A 28-day long-term toxicity test of 4-nonylphenol to the benthic crustacean, Leptocheirus plumulosus,was performed under static conditions. Crustaceans were exposed to control and 4-nonylphenol at average measured concentrations of 2.1, 4.5, 10.5, 27.2 and 61.5 mg/kg dw. A significant negative correlation (p < 0.034) was observed between 4 -nonylphenol sediment concentration and the number of young produced per female, but it explained only 12% of the variance. Reproductive output in animals exposed to 61.5 mg/g NP was reduced by 40% of control values, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.299). Thus, the 28d-NOEC value is determined to be >= 61.5 mg /gg dw based on reproduction and mortality.

Endpoint:
sediment toxicity: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: OECD guideline 225
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
minor deviations are mentioned but not specified
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on sediment and application:
PREPARATION OF SPIKED SEDIMENT
- Method of mixing: 1g of the test substance was directly added to 250 g wet sediment (50% water content) and mixed with 250 mL of water. The mixture was mixed for 20 h and left to settle for 72 h. Sediment was then separated from water by centrifugation.
- Details of spiking: Spiked sediment generated by mixing stock sediment with reference sediment
- Controls: yes
Test organisms (species):
Tubifex tubifex
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source:on-site cultures started from adults collected in Lake Suviana, Italy
- Breeding conditions: kept in the dark at 21 °C in glass containers half filled with sterilized sand and dechlorinated tap water, 25 adults per beaker. Fed frozen spinach thawed to room temperature
- Details on collection: cocoons removed from sand every week
- Age of animals at beginning of exposure: approximately 6 weeks, at their first reproductive event
- Feeding during test: yes
- Food type: Tetramin during test
- Amount: 80 mg dry power/ test chamber
- Frequency: food mixed with sediment before test initiation

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: none needed as cultured in lab
Study type:
laboratory study
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Type of sediment:
natural sediment
Limit test:
no
Duration:
28 d
Exposure phase:
total exposure duration
Hardness:
320 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
21 ± 1 °C
pH:
not provided, but varied by 0.2 during test
Dissolved oxygen:
not provided, but test chambers were aerated for 2 h prior to test initiation, at test termination the saturation was 65%
Ammonia:
< 0.02 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: Test 1: 0, 180, 380, 420, 460 and 650 mg/kg dw
Nominal: Test 2: 0, 90, 190, 310, 430, 610 mg/kg dw
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): 250 mL glass beakers covered with petri dish
- Weight of wet sediment with and without pore water: 70 g 50% water
- Overlying water volume: 150 mL
- Aeration: yes- 2h before test and during test continuously
- Replacement of evaporated test water, if any: yes, every 2 days, if needed

EXPOSURE REGIME
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 4
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 5
- No. of replicates per control / vehicle control: 5
- Feeding regime: at test initiation
- Type and preparation of food: Tetramin powder
- Amount of food: 80mg powdered food per chamber

OVERLYING WATER CHARACTERISTCS
- Type of water (e.g. deionized, ground water, sea water, Elendt medium acc. to OECD 219): dechlorinated tap water
- Temperature, pH, and DO were measured in all beakers before and at the end of the test.

SOURCE OF NATURAL SEDIMENT
- Location and description of sampling site: Lake Monate Northern Italy
- Contamination history of site: unpolluted sediment. Chemical analysis confirmed NP was not present and other parameters were in range of previous suggestions by Salomons and Forstner (1984)

HANDLING OF NATURAL SEDIMENT
- Water depth: 10 m
- Storage conditions: stored in the dark at 4 °C

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- test performed in the dark

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Adult survival, number of cocoons and young worms were assessed after 28 days exposure time. Qualitative observations included "reworking activity" and gonadal malformations.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
335 mg/kg sediment dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks:
number of young worms
Remarks on result:
other: 311.6 - 360.3 mg/kg, result of test 1; test 2 result: 382.8 mg/kg dw
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
336.7 mg/kg sediment dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks:
number of cocoons
Remarks on result:
other: 295.0 - 384.4 mg/kg, result of test 1; test 2 result: 382.7 mg/kg dw
Details on results:
The production of cocoons and young worms per adult among the controls from both experiments was not significantly different. In both bioassays breeding adults started to die at 600 mg/kg dw. With increasing concentrations of 4NP in sediments, a reduced reworking activity in sediments of adult worms was observed based on decreased number of galleries. The decrease of adult worm health was supported by histological analyses of the clitellum area of Tubifex tubifex at two 4NP concentrations compared to those of the control. This analysis of Tubifex kept in control sediments revealed completely developed male and female gonads. Large spermatozeugmi were present in every spermatheca and a great number of paraspermatozoons and euspermatozoons could be observed in the spermatic sacs. Ovaries were well developed with several ovocytes. A similar situation was found in worms exposed to 190 mg/kg dw. Midges started to emerge after 14-16 days both in control and in treatments. The emergence period was more prolonged (8-10 days) for control and for organisms exposed to 290 mg/kg dw compared to that for the other treatments (4-6 days). The number of females seemed to be slightly greater than the number of males in the control beakers (55 and 55.5%, respectively), while the opposite was observed in presence of 4NP, where the number of males became higher than 60%. Nevertheless, the observed differences were not statistically significant.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Executive summary:

The 28 day long-term toxicity test of nonylphenol to Tubifex tubifex was studied under semi-static conditions. Tubifex were exposed to 4-nonylphenol at nominal concentrations of 90 - 650 mg/kg sediment dw. The sublethal effects assessed included production of cocoons and young worms per adult. The most sensitive end point was number of young worms per adult. The lowest 28-day EC10 value is determined to be 335 mg/kg dw.

Description of key information

NOEC (28d) = 32 mg/kg sediment dw (nominal) for reproductive output of freshwater annelid Lumbriculus variegatus (OECD 225)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater sediment:
32 mg/kg sediment dw

Additional information

One study assessing the long-term toxicity of Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched (CAS 174333-80-3) to sediment organisms is available. The study was conducted according to GLP and OECD guideline 225 using Lumbriculus variegatus as test organism (Winkelmann 2019). Nominal concentrations between 1.0 and 320 mg/kg soil dry weight were tested. The test item concentrations and the controls were confirmed by analytical verification via UPLC-MS/MS on day 0, 7 and 28 using additional replicates, each. Determination of the test item was performed for the sediment, pore water and the overlying water in the controls and all test item concentrations. The measured concentrations of the peak groups B and C in the sediment were in the range from 80% to 98% at day 0, from 77% to 102% at day 7 and from 40 to 63% at day 28, compared to the respective recoveries of the peak groups during method calibration. Minor recoveries of the concentrations of the test item in the aqueous phase and pore water could be determined. Control and solvent control samples were < LOQ. Since the peak recoveries cannot easily be transferred into test substance concentrations, the effect values are related to the nominal concentration. No mortality of worms was observed in the controls and the test item concentrations 1.0 to 100 mg/kg soil dry weight, but at 320 mg/kg soil dry weight a mortality of 2.5 % occurred after 28 days of exposure. Based on reproduction a 28d-NOEC value is determined to be 32 mg /kg dw based.

This result is supported by sediment toxicity data available for 4-nonylphenol. In accordance to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 Annex XI, 1.5 Grouping of substances, a read-across to Phenol, 4 -nonyl-,branched was conducted, which is a secondary component and structurally similar to the main component of the substance. The only structural difference between the source substance and the target substance is the lack of an aldoxime group at the phenol ring of the molecule. The read across is justified due to the following reasons: 

1) The similarity of structure and functional groups and accordingly similar physico-chemical properties result in similar environmental behavior and fate.

2) Based on a profound ecotoxicological data set available for Phenol, 4-nonyl-,branched it can be concluded that Phenol,4-nonyl-,branched exhibit an equal to higher aquatic toxicity compared to Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched (see table below). Therefore, using data from Phenol, 4-nonyl-,branched to assess the intrinsic hazard of Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched is considered to be a very conservative approach (worst case scenario).

Substance

Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched

Phenol, 4-nonyl, branched*

CAS number

174333-80-3

84852-15-3

Structure

see attachment (chapter 6.3)

 see attachment (chapter 6.3)

Molecular formula

C16O2NH25

C15H24O

Molecular weight

~ 263 g/mole

~ 220.35 g/mole

PC parameter

 

 

Water solubility

0.4 mg/L (EU method A.6)

5.7 mg/L (ASTM E 1148-02)

Partition coefficient

5.5 (EU method A.8)

5.4 (OECD 117)

Vapour pressure

0.37 Pa at 20 °C (OECD 104)

~1 Pa at 20 °C (ASTM-D 2879)

Environmental fate

 

 

Biodegradability

0 % in 28 days (OECD 302c)

non-adapted inoculum:

0 % in 28 days (OECD 301B)

 

adapted inoculum:

48.2-62 % in 28 days (OECD 301B)

Adsorption [log KOC]

3.7 (OECD 121)

4.35 - 5.69 (EPA OTS 796.2750)

Hydrolysis

not relevant

Ecotoxicology

 

 

Short-term toxicity to fish

[96h-LC50]

1.1 mg/L (EU method C.1)

0.05 – 0.22 mg/L (different methods)

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

[NOEC]

0.005 mg/L (OECD 210)

0.006 mg/L (ASTM E 1241-05)

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

[48h-EC50]

2.7 mg/L (EU method C.2)

0.08 – 0.14 mg/L (different methods)

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

[21d-NOEC]

0.189 mg/L (OECD 211)

0.024 - 0.116 mg/L (different methods)

Short-term toxicity to algae

[72h-EC50]

36.3 mg/L (OECD 201)

0.33 - 1.3 mg/L (different methods)

Long-term toxicity to algae

[72h-NOEC/EC10]

14.9 mg/L (OECD 201)

0.5 mg/L (Algal growth inhibition test according to UBA 1984)

Toxicity to microorganisms

[EC50]

200.4 mg/L (OECD 209)

950 mg/L (OECD 209)

* Data were taken from Phenol, 4-nonyl-,branched (CAS 84852-15-3) dossier published on the ECHA data base

 

Three long-term toxicity tests are available investigating the effect of 4-nonylphenol on the reproductive output on sediment dwelling organisms:

A 28-day long-term toxicity test of 4-nonylphenol to the marine benthic crustacean, Leptocheirus plumulosus was performed under static conditions (Zulkosky et al. 2002). Crustaceans were exposed to control and 4-nonylphenol at average measured concentrations of 2.1, 4.5, 10.5, 27.2 and 61.5 mg/kg dw. A significant negative correlation (p < 0.034) was observed between 4 -nonylphenol sediment concentration and the number of young produced per female, but it explained only 12% of the variance. Reproductive output in animals exposed to 61.5 mg/g NP was reduced by 40% of control values, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.299). Thus, the 28d-NOEC value is determined to be >= 61.5 mg /gg dw based on reproduction and mortality.

A second study investigated the 28-day long-term toxicity of 4-nonylphenol to Chironomus riparius under semi-static conditions (Bettinetti and Provini 2002). Chironomids were exposed to nonylphenol at nominal concentrations of 270 to 1100 mg/kg sediment dw. The sublethal effects assessed included emergence and egg production. The most sensitive endpoint was emergence. The lowest 28-day EC10 value is determined to be 203 mg/kg dw.

The third study investigated the 28-day long-term toxicity of nonylphenol to Tubifex tubifex under semi-static conditions (Bettinetti and Provini 2002). Tubifex were exposed to 4-nonylphenol at nominal concentrations of 90 - 650 mg/kg sediment dw. The sublethal effects assessed included production of cocoons and young worms per adult. The most sensitive end point was number of young worms per adult. The lowest 28-day EC10 value is determined to be 335 mg/kg dw.

Based on the available data, the 28d-NOEC value of 32 mg/kg sediment dw for reproductive output of freshwater annelid Lumbriculus variegatus will be used for the PNEC derivation. The additional data available for 4-phenol are considered to be suitable to adapt the assessment factor accordingly.