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The results obtained from an in vitro gastric hydrolysis study (Yoder 2000) support the use of Dibutyltin Dichloride (DBTC) as an appropriate surrogate for mammalian toxicology studies of the corresponding DBT moiety. A study conducted via the oral route on the thioester DBT (2-EHMA) demonstrated this substance readily hydrolized to DBTC under physiological conditions (100% hydrolysis within 1hour).  Thus, it is considered that DBTC is an appropriate anchor compound and surrogate for the repeat dose toxicity, genotoxicity, reproduction and developmental toxicity and other long term toxicology endpoints, for all dibutyltin compounds when they are assessed following oral administration of the test material. Acute toxicity and irritation endpoints are not covered under the category approach and were evaluated individually for each dibutyltin compound. Sensitization, although not related to the hydrolysis discussion above, is considered acceptable to read across for Dibutyltin substances and as a group they are considered to be sensitisers.

An in-vitro study demonstrated that DBTO may be hydrolysed at a pH compatible with stomach acid to form other butyltin derivatives. Further data reviewed by the EU’s Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (EFSA/SPCFC) indicated that tributyl tin may be debutylated to dibutyl- and monobutyl tin, dibutyl tin acetate is further metabolised to monobutyltin. These data would suggest that the toxicity of all of the butylated tins can qualitatively be read across. The extent of metabolism would appear limited (for instance, only 3.5% of dibutyltin acetate being recovered as monobutyltin). The validity of any read-across from tributyltin to dibutyltin NOAELs is therefore limited. DNELs proposed in this CSR on the basis of robust toxicity data specifically for dibutyltin are entirely appropriate.

The EFSA/SPCFC review suggests that oral absorption of tributyl and dibutyltins is incomplete; a figure of 50% oral absorption is considered appropriate (based on 41% unmetabolised DBTacetate recovered from the faeces of mice). Existing dermal penetration data for organotin compounds indicates dermal absorption to be low. By read-across from available data, a value of 1% for dermal absorption is considered appropriate.

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