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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Justification for grouping of substances and read-across

There are no studies available to assess the potential of the substance 2,2-bis[[(1-oxoheptyl)oxy]methyl]propane-1,3-diyl bisheptanoate (CAS 25811-35-2), to induce effects on genetic toxicity. In order to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annex VII-VIII, 8.4.1-3 in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, read-across from structurally related substances was conducted. In accordance with Article 13 (1) of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 “information on intrinsic properties of substances may be generated by means other than tests, provided that the conditions set put in Annex XI are met”. In particular for human toxicity, information shall be generated whenever possible by means other than vertebrate animal tests, which includes the use of information from structurally related substances (grouping or read-across).

Overview of genetic toxicity

CAS

In vitro gene mutation in bacteria

In vitro cytogenicity in mammalian cells

Mammalian gene mutation

Genetic toxicity in vivo

25811-35-2

Target substance

RA CAS 67762-53-2

RA CAS 189200-42-8

RA CAS 189200-42-8

RA CAS 15834-04-5

 

RA CAS 189200-42-8

67762-53-2

negative

--

--

--

189200-42-8

negative

negative

--

negative

15834-04-5

--

--

negative

--

The above mentioned substances are considered to be similar on the basis of structural similarity resulting in similar properties and/or activities. The available endpoint information is used to predict the same endpoints for 2,2-bis[[(1-oxoheptyl)oxy]methyl]propane-1,3-diyl bisheptanoate (CAS 25811-35-2).

A detailed analogue approach justification is provided in the technical dossier (see IUCLID Section 13).

In vitro gene mutation in bacteria

CAS 67762-53-2

The mutagenic potential of Fatty acids, C5-9, tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS 67762-53-2) was tested in a reverse mutation assay according to OECD Guideline 471 and under GLP conditions (Mecchi, 1999). Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98, TA100 and E. coli WP2 uvrA were used. Tester strains were incubated with test material dissolved in ethanol at concentrations of 33.3, 100, 333, 1000, 3330 and 5000 µg/plate with and without the addition of a metabolic activation system (Aroclor 1254 induced rat liver S9 mix). Vehicle and appropriate positive controls were included into the study design. Positive control materials induced statistically significant increases in the frequency of revertant colonies indicating the satisfactory performance of the test and the activity of the metabolizing system. No increase in the frequency of revertant colonies compared to concurrent negative controls was observed in all strains treated with the test material, neither in the presence nor in the absence of metabolic activation. Thus, Fatty acids, C5-9, tetraesters with pentaerythritol did not induce point mutations by base-pair changes or frame-shifts in the genome of the strains tested.

CAS 189200-42-8

The mutagenic potential of Fatty acids C8-10, mixed esters with dipentaerythritol, isooctanoic acid, pentaerythritol and tripentaerythritol (CAS 189200-42-8) was tested in a reverse mutation assay comparable to OECD Guideline 471 and under GLP conditions (Przygoda, 1995). The following Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98, TA100 and TA1538 were used. Tester strains were incubated with the test material dissolved in acetone at concentrations of 0.5, 5, 50, 500, 5000 µg/plate in the first experiment and 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 µg/plate in the repeat experiment with and without the addition of a metabolic activation system (Arochlor 1254 induced rat liver S9 mix). Vehicle, negative and appropriate positive controls were included into the study design. Positive control materials induced statistically significant increases in the frequency of revertant colonies indicating the satisfactory performance of the test and the activity of the metabolizing system. No increase in the frequency of revertant colonies compared to concurrent negative controls was observed in all strains treated with the test material, neither in the presence nor in the absence of metabolic activation. No cytotoxicity was observed but beading of the test substance occured in the initial assay and repeat assay at 500 µg/plate and above with and without metabolic activation in all strains. Thus, Fatty acids C8-10, mixed esters with dipentaerythritol, isooctanoic acid, pentaerythritoland tripentaerythritoldid not induce point mutations by base-pair changes or frame-shifts in the genome of the strains tested.

In vitro cytogenicity in mammalian cells

CAS 189200-42-8

An in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test was performed with Fatty acids C8-10, mixed esters with dipentaerythritol, isooctanoic acid, pentaerythritol and tripentaerythritol (CAS 189200-42-8) in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells) comparable to OECD Guideline 473 and under GLP conditions (Przygody, 1995). Duplicate cultures of CHO cells were evaluated for chromosome aberrations in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (rat liver S9-mix). In the first experiment, cells were exposed to the test substance for 3 hours and for 16 hours followed by 16 hours expression time with and without metabolic activation, respectively. The test substance was dissolved in acetone and used at concentrations of 40, 80 and 160 µg/mL. In the second experiment cells were again exposed for 3 hours and for 16 hours followed by 16 hours expression time with and without metabolic activation, respectively. Additionally, cells were exposed for 3 and 16 hours followed by 40 hours expression time with and without metabolic activation, respectively. The same substance concentrations as in first experiment were used. The test substance did not induce cytotoxicity but a precipitate was visible in the second experiment at 160 µg/mL after 16 hours incubation without metabolic activation. Vehicle (solvent) controls induced aberration frequencies within the range expected for normal human lymphocytes. N-Methyl-N-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine and 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene were used as positive control materials inducing statistically significant increases in aberration frequencies indicating the satisfactory performance of the test and of the activity of the metabolizing system. Evaluation of 100 well-spread metaphase cells from each culture for structural chromosomal aberrations revealed no increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations and polyploid cells at any dose level tested in comparison to the negative controls. The test material was therefore considered to be non-clastogenic to CHO cells in vitro.

In vitro gene mutation in mammalian cells

CAS 15834-04-5

An in vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Assay according to OECD Guideline 476 and GLP was performed with 2,2-bis[[(1-oxopentyl)oxy]methyl]propane-1,3-diyl divalerate (CAS 15834-04-5) in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells (Verspeek-Rip, 2010). In the first experiment, the cells were treated for 3 hours with 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 33, 100 µg/mL in the presence or absence of S9-mix (8% (v/v)). In the second experiment, test concentrations of 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 33, 100 µg/mL were applied with metabolic activation (12%, v/v) for 3 h and 0.1, 1, 3, 10, 33, 100, 200, 250 µg/mL without metabolic activation for 24 hours. The test substance was tested up to precipitating concentrations (100 µg/mL and above). Cyclophosphamide and methylmethanesulfonate were used as positive controls with and without S9 mix, respectively. No toxicity was observed and all dose levels were evaluated in the absence and presence of S9-mix. Positive and negative controls were valid and in range of historical control data. No significant increase in the mutation frequency at the TK locus was observed after treatment with the test substance either in the absence or in the presence of S9-mix. It was concluded that 2,2-bis[[(1-oxopentyl)oxy]methyl]propane-1,3-diyl divalerate is not mutagenic in the mouse lymphoma L5178Y test system under the experimental conditions described.

Genotoxicity in vivo

CAS 189200-42-8

Fatty acids C8-10, mixed esters with dipentaerythritol, isooctanoic acid, pentaerythritol and tripentaerythritol (CAS 189200-42-8) were found to be not genotoxic in the micronucleus assay in vivo after intraperitoneal application. Three single intraperitoneal injections were given to groups of 5 male and 5 female mice at dose levels of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw. Bone marrow samples were taken 24 hours after dosing.

No statistically or biologically significant increases in the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes over the vehicle control values were seen in either sex at either of the sampling doses.

Comparison of the percentage of polychromatic erythrocytes showed no significant differences between the male and female animals treated with the vehicle control or with the test material. The positive control induced statistically significant and biologically meaningful increases in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, compared to the vehicle control values, thus demonstrating the sensitivity of the test system to a known clastogen (Przygoda, 1995).


Justification for selection of genetic toxicity endpoint
No study was selected, since all available studies were negative.

Short description of key information:
Negative results in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 1538, TA 102 and E.coli WP2 uvr A with and without metabolic activation (OECD 471, GLP, analogue approach).
Negative results in mammalian chinese hamster ovary (OECD 473, GLP, analogue approach)
Negative results in mammalian cell gene mutation tests using mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells, with and without metabolic activation (OECD 476, GLP, analogue approach).
Negative results in in-vivo micronucleus assay in mouse (OECD 474, analogue approach).

Endpoint Conclusion: No adverse effect observed (negative)

Justification for classification or non-classification

Available data on structural related substances on genetic toxicity do not meet the classification criteria according to Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 or Directive 67/548/EEC, and are therefore conclusive but not sufficient for classification.

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