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Environmental fate & pathways

Monitoring data

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
monitoring data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1996
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study meets basic scientific principles, with analytical. Not enough details to warrant Klimisch 1 rating. Non GLP

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1996
Report Date:
1996

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Deviations:
not applicable
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The samples of raw and settled sewage from six representative municipal activated sludge sewage treatment plants (STP) were collected and the concentration of test material in influent/effluent and removal of test material during sewage treatment was determined by highly specific MS/MS method.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of measurement:
background concentration
Media:
other: Influents and effluents of municipal activated sludge sewage treatment plants (receiving predominantly domestic waste)

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material: C12/14 Amine oxide. This study measured the level of C12 and C14 amine oxide in sewage plant influent and effluent. There was no “test material” added to the influent or effluent.
- Substance type: Pure active subtance
- Physical state: Not applicable
- Stability under test conditions: Not applicable
- Storage condition of test material: Not applicable

Study design

Details on sampling:
- Geographic coordinates: ca. 51° - 53° N, 4° - 7° E
- Known emission sources near sampling site: Not reported. Amine oxide enters sewage influent predominantly through domestic wastewater.
- Sampling sites: Influent/effluent samples were collected from the six STPs located at the following sites.
1. De Meern
2. Kralingseveer
3. Hostermeer
4. Eindhoven
5. Steenwijk
6. Bennekom
All STPs were equipped with accurate flow meters and flow proportional automatic samplers. These STPs were selected by the Dutch Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA) on the basis of treatment type, ratio of domestic input versus industrial input, organic loading, capacity, hydraulic and sludge retention time as well as logistic considerations. The characteristics of these STPs are described in 'Table 1', under 'Any other information on materials and method'
- Period of sampling: Between May and July, 1996
- Sampling: Samples of raw and treated sewage were collected during three consecutive days at all six STPs. Samples were taken by time proportional samplers. 24 samples were taken over each 24 h period. 24 h flow proportional samples were taken by automatic samplers for the analysis of plant water quality parameters COD, BOD, pH, nitrogen and phosphorus.
- Sample storage before analysis: All samples were frozen and stored in a freezer until analysis.
- Other: Formaldehyde (3% of a 37% active solution, v:v) was added to the sampling bottles prior to the start of the sample collection. Portions of the 24 hourly samples, proportional to the measured average hourly flow, were mixed in a container to prepare 24 h flow proportional composite samples. The samples were transferred in polyethylene bottles and 5 mg/L nonionic was added to prevent possible adsorption to the container walls. At each plant quality assurance samples were prepared by standard additions of known amounts of Amine oxide to selected environmental samples. Standard additions of 250 µg/L and of 5 µg/L were added to samples of raw sewage and treated sewage respectively.

Results and discussion

Concentrationopen allclose all
Country:
Netherlands
Location:
STP at De Meern
Substance or metabolite:
substance
Remarks:
Average concentration in effluent
Conc.:
0.3 µg/L
Remarks on result:
other: Average concentration in influent: 9 µg/L. The % removed was >96.7%.
Country:
Netherlands
Location:
STP at Kralingseveer
Substance or metabolite:
substance
Remarks:
Average concentration in effluent
Conc.:
0.43 µg/L
Remarks on result:
other: Average concentration in influent: 130 µg/L. The % removed was >99.5%.
Country:
Netherlands
Location:
STP at Hostermeer
Substance or metabolite:
substance
Remarks:
Average concentration in effluent
Conc.:
0.37 µg/L
Remarks on result:
other: Average concentration in influent: 14 µg/L. The % removed was >94.9%.
Country:
Netherlands
Location:
STP at Eindhoven
Substance or metabolite:
substance
Remarks:
Average concentration in effluent
Conc.:
0.4 µg/L
Remarks on result:
other: Average concentration in influent: 22 µg/L. The % removed was >97.8%.
Country:
Netherlands
Location:
STP at Steenwijk
Substance or metabolite:
substance
Remarks:
Average concentration in effluent
Conc.:
0.43 µg/L
Remarks on result:
other: Average concentration in influent: 68 µg/L. The % removed was >99.2%.
Country:
Netherlands
Location:
STP at Bennekom
Substance or metabolite:
substance
Remarks:
Average concentration in effluent
Conc.:
0.37 µg/L
Remarks on result:
other: Average concentration in influent: 44 µg/L. The % removed was >99.1%.
Details on results:
- The measured influent concentration for Amine oxide varied between 9 and 130 µg/L.
- The average effluent concentrations for Amine oxide ranged between < 0.3 and < 0.43 µg/L.
- The average total removal of Amine oxide during sewage treatment varied between >94.9 and >99.5 %.
- The BOD removal varied between 96.4 and >98.3 %.
Average influent/effluent concentrations are based on the three individual measurements made over 3 consecutive days in each STP.
For details, see 'table 1' under the section 'Any other information on results'

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 1: Removal of AO and BOD (C12/14 Amine oxide) (study # 67612)

WWTP  AO  BOD 
Influent (µg/L) Effluent (µg/L) Removal (%) Removal (%) 
De Meern 9±1 <0.30 ± 0.00 > 96.7± 0.4 > 96.9 +0.02
 Kralingseveer 130±81  < 0.43±0.06  > 99.5 ± 0.4  96.4±3.6 
Hostermeer 14±14  < 0.37 ±0.12  > 94.9 ± 4.5  96.8 ±1.7 
Eindhoven 22±8  < 0.40 ± 0.18  > 97.8 ± 1.8  > 98.3±0.3 
Steenwijk 68±38  < 0.43 ±0.15  > 99.2 ± 0.6  96.3±4.0 
Bennekom  44±3  < 0.37 + 0.06  > 99.1± 0.2  > 96.9+1.8 

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The removal of C12/14 Amine oxide from wastewater by municipal activated sludge treatment plants was >95 to >99%, based on a monitoring study of 6 plants in The Netherlands.
Executive summary:

The removal of C12/C14 Amine oxide from wastewater by sewage treatment was determined in a monitoring study in The Netherlands between May and July, 1996. Six municipal activated sludge treatment plants in The Netherlands were included. The concentration of C12/14 Amine oxide was determined in influent and effluent samples.

Samples (raw and treated sewage) were collected from the six municipal activated sludge sewage treatment plants (STP) over three consecutive days. The samples were analysed by FI/MS/MS for both C12 and C14 Amine oxide.

The removal of Amine oxide during activated sludge sewage treatment was >95 to >99% at the six plants. The level of Amine oxide in effluent was below detection in all effluent samples (<0.43 µg/L). The amount of Amine oxide in influent ranged between 9-130 µg/L. The BOD removal at the six plants was 96 to >98%.