Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Description of key information

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation. Weight of evidence. Based on the experimental results obtained with the analogue substance alpha pinene, the inhalation 90d-LOEL in rats for d-alpha pinene was determined to be 25 ppm (ca. 140 mg/m3) based on increases of incidences of kidney lesions in male rats. Also, the inhalation 90d-LOEL in mice for d-alpha pinene was determined to be 100 ppm (ca. 560 mg/m3) based on the effects on transitional epithelium hyperplasia of the urinary bladder for males and females and decrease in sperm per cauda epididymis for males.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
28 March 2005 - 29 June 2005
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 413 (Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
no data on food consumption, no ophthalmological examination, some organ weights were not recorded (Adrenals, Brain, Ovaries, Thyroids, Uterus), animals weighed weekly and not twice weekly at the beginning.
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
In compliance with Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice Regulations (21 CFR, Part 58)
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Fischer 344
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: NTP colony maintained at Taconic Farms, Inc. (Germantown, NY)
- Females (if applicable) nulliparous and non-pregnant: not specified
- Age at study initiation: 6 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 96-98 g (male) and 88-89 g (female)
- Fasting period before study: not specified
- Housing: individually. Cages: Stainless steel, wire bottom (Lab Products, Inc., Seaford, DE); rotated weekly. Cageboard: Untreated paper cage pan liner (Shepherd Specialty Papers, Kalamazoo, MI), changed daily
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): NTP-2000 irradiated wafers (Zeigler Brothers, Inc., Gardners, PA), available ad libitum (except during exposure periods)
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): Tap water (Richland, WA, municipal supply) via automatic watering system (Edstrom Industries, Waterford, WI); available ad libitum
- Acclimation period: Animals were quarantined for 12 (male rats) or 13 (female rats) days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 72 ± 3ºF
- Humidity (%): 50% ± 15%
- Air changes (per hr): 15 ± 2/hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours/day

Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: Test item was held in an 8-gallon stainless-steel chemical reservoir. Test item was pumped into a heated glass column filled with glass beads that increased the surface area for vaporization. Heated nitrogen entered the column from below and assisted in vaporizing the chemical while conveying it into a short distribution manifold. Concentration in the manifold was determined by the chemical pump rate, nitrogen flow rate, and dilution air flow rate. The pressure in the distribution manifold was kept fixed to ensure constant flow through the manifold and into all chambers as the flow of vapor to each chamber was adjusted.
Metering valves at the manifold controlled flow to each chamber through individual Teflon® delivery lines that carried the vapor from the manifold to three-way exposure valves at the chamber inlets. The exposure valves diverted vapor delivery to exposure chamber exhaust until the generation system was stable and exposures were ready to proceed. To initiate exposure, the chamber exposure valves were rotated to allow the test item vapor to flow to each exposure chamber inlet duct where it was further diluted with filtered, conditioned air to achieve the desired exposure concentration.
- Temperature, humidity, pressure in air chamber: 72 ± 3ºF; 50% ± 15%.
- Air change rate: 15 air changes per hour
- Method of particle size determination: A condensation particle detector (Model 3022A, TSI, Inc., St. Paul, MN) was used with and without animals in the exposure chambers. No particle counts above the minimum resolvable level (approximately 200 particles/cm3) were detected.

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: on-line gas chromatograph. Samples were analyzed using GC/FID to measure the stability and purity of test item in the generation and delivery system. To assess whether impurities or degradation products coeluted with test item or the solvent, a second GC/FID analysis of the samples was performed using a polar column capable of resolving compounds with similar boiling points and polarities.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Chamber and room concentrations of alpha pinene were monitored by an on-line gas chromatograph. Samples were drawn from each exposure chamber approximately every 20 minutes during each 6-hour exposure period.
The average concentration measured were: 24.9 ± 1.1 ppm for the 25 ppm group, 49.8 ± 0.8 for the 50 ppm group, 99.6 ± 1.4ppm for the 100 ppm group, 200 ± 5 ppm for the 200 ppm group and 401 ± 6 ppm for the 400 ppm group.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
14 weeks; 6 hours plus T90 (10 minutes) per day.
Groups of 10 male and 10 female clinical pathology rats were exposed to the same concentrations for 23 days.
Frequency of treatment:
Five times per week, weekdays only
Dose / conc.:
0 ppm
Dose / conc.:
25 ppm
Remarks:
(0.14 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
50 ppm
Remarks:
(0.28 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
100 ppm
Remarks:
(0.56 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
200 ppm
Remarks:
(1.13 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
400 ppm
Remarks:
(2.26 mg/L)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: doses were selected taken into account the results obtained in a previous 2-week range finding study conducted for exposure (inhalation) concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1,600 ppm.
Positive control:
no
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: on day 7 (female), day 8 (male), weekly thereafter, and at the end of the studies.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: initially, on day 7 (female), day 8 (male), weekly thereafter, and at the end of the studies.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): No

FOOD EFFICIENCY: No

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: on days 4 and 23 for clinical pathology rats and at the end of the studies for core study animals
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes (carbon dioxide)
- Animals fasted: Not specified
- How many animals: 10 per sex per dose (core study animals) and 10 per sex per dose (clinical pathology rats)
- Parameters examined: Hematocrit; packed cell volume; hemoglobin; erythrocyte, reticulocyte, and platelet counts; mean cell volume; mean cell hemoglobin; mean cell hemoglobin concentration; and leukocyte counts and differentials

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: on days 4 and 23 for clinical pathology rats and at the end of the studies for core study animals
- Animals fasted: Not specified
- How many animals: 10 per sex per dose (core study animals) and 10 per sex per dose (clinical pathology rats)
- Parameters examined: Urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, albumin, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, and bile salts

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

IMMUNOLOGY: No
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes. Organs weighed were heart, right kidney, liver, lung, spleen, right testis, and thymus.
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes. Complete histopathologic examinations were performed by the study laboratory pathologist on all chamber control and 400 ppm animals and 200 ppm female rats. In addition, the kidney in the remaining groups and the liver in the remaining groups of male rats were examined. Tissues for microscopic examination were fixed and preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin, processed and trimmed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned to a thickness of 4 to 6 μm, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
Other examinations:
SPERM MOTILITY AND VAGINAL CYTOLOGY: At the end of the study, sperm samples were collected for sperm motility evaluations. Sperm heads per testis and per gram testis, spermatid counts, and epididymal spermatozoal motility and concentration were evaluated. The left cauda, left epididymis, and left testis were weighed. The tail of the epididymis (cauda epididymis) was then removed from the epididymal body (corpus epididymis) and weighed. Test yolk was applied to slides and a small incision was made at the distal border of the cauda epididymis. The sperm effluxing from the incision were dispersed in the buffer on the slides, and the numbers of motile and nonmotile spermatozoa were counted for five fields per slide by two observers. Following completion of sperm motility estimates, each left cauda epididymis was placed in buffered saline solution. Caudae were finely minced, and the tissue was incubated in the saline solution and then heat fixed at 65° C. Sperm density was then determined microscopically with the aid of a hemacytometer. To quantify spermatogenesis, the testicular spermatid head count was determined by removing the tunica albuginea and homogenizing the left testis in phosphate-buffered saline containing 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. Homogenization-resistant spermatid nuclei were counted with a hemacytometer.
Vaginal samples were collected for up to 12 consecutive days prior to the end of the study for vaginal cytology evaluations. The percentage of time spent in the various estrous cycle stages and estrous cycle length were evaluated.
Statistics:
Calculation and Analysis of Lesion Incidences: Fisher exact test (Gart et al., 1979) was used to determine significance.
Analysis of Continuous Variables:
Organ and body weight data were analyzed with the parametric multiple comparison procedures of Dunnett (1955) and Williams (1971, 1972),
Hematology, clinical chemistry, spermatid, and epididymal spermatozoal data were analyzed using the nonparametric multiple comparison methods of Shirley (1977) (as modified by Williams, 1986) and Dunn (1964).
Jonckheere’s test (Jonckheere, 1954) was used to assess the significance of the exposure-related trends and to determine whether a trend-sensitive test (Williams’ or Shirley’s test) was more appropriate for pairwise comparisons than a test that does not assume a monotonic exposure-related trend (Dunnett’s or Dunn’s test).
Proportions of regular cycling females in each exposed group were compared to the control group using the Fisher exact test (Gart et al., 1979). Tests for extended periods of estrus, diestrus, metestrus, and proestrus, as well as skipped estrus and skipped diestrus were constructed based on a Markov chain model proposed by Girard and Sager (1987).
For each exposure group, a transition probability matrix was estimated for transitions among the proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus stages, with provision for extended stays within each stage as well as for skipping estrus or diestrus within a cycle. Equality of transition matrices among exposure groups and between the control group and each exposed group was tested using chi-square statistics.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No signs of toxicity (e.g., abnormal breathing or behavior) were noted during clinical observations.
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence):
In the high dose group (400 ppm), 6 females were found dead before the end of the study with no specific cause of death identified through gross examination or histopathologic analysis.
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males: the final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of exposed males were similar to those of the chamber controls.
Females: In the high dose group (400 ppm), the final mean body weights and the mean body weight gains of females exposed to 400 ppm were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. All surviving females at 400 ppm lost weight between week 12 and week 14.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
On day 4, there were mild exposure-related significant decreases in the leukocyte counts paired with mild significant decreases in the lymphocyte counts in 200 and 400 ppm male rats compared to concurrent controls. These decreases ameliorated by day 23. The leukocyte changes likely represent a secondary treatment-associated stress effect.
At week 14, there were mild significant decreases in erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentrations, and hematocrit values in males exposed to 100 ppm or greater.
The remaining significant differences in hematology parameters were not considered to be toxicologically relevant.
Also, no histopathological findings could be associated to these changes. Therefore, these treatment-related effects can be considered as not toxicologically significant.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Alanine aminotransferase activities were significantly decreased in males and females exposed to 50 ppm or greater at week 14. Significantly decreased alanine aminotransferase activities were also seen in 400 ppm male rats on days 4 and 23. Significant decreases in alkaline phosphatase activities were observed in 400 ppm males and 200 and 400 ppm females on day 4 and in males and females exposed to 100 ppm or greater at week 14. The reason for the decreases in these enzyme activities is not known but may be related to alterations in liver metabolism or enzyme inhibition.
The remaining significant differences in clinical chemistry parameters were not considered to be toxicologically relevant.
None of these changes in enzyme activity were related to organ weight changes or evidence of histopathology.
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Relative liver weights were significantly greater compared to controls in males at 100 ppm and greater and in all females treated groups. Absolute liver weights were significantly greater compared to controls in males at 400 ppm and in females at 50, 100 and 200 ppm.
The absolute heart weights of 100 and 200 ppm females and the relative heart weights of females exposed to 100 ppm or greater were significantly greater compared to controls.
Absolute kidney weights were increased in males at 100 ppm and greater, and relative kidney weights were increased in males at 50 ppm and greater. In females, absolute kidney weights were increased at levels of 50 and 200 ppm, relative were increased at level of 200 ppm and greater.
The absolute and relative thymus weights of 400 ppm females and the relative thymus weight of 200 ppm females were significantly less compared to controls. The absolute and relative spleen weights of 400 ppm males were significantly greater compared to controls.
The weight changes in lymphoid tissues were not accompanied by clinical chemistry or histopathologic changes indicative of immunotoxicity and, therefore, were not considered toxicologically relevant. With the exception of the male kidney, the organ weight changes in male and female rats were not accompanied by histopathologic lesions.
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Renal tubule lesions including granular casts, hyaline droplets, and nephropathy were observed in male rats. In all male groups exposed to test item, there were significantly increased incidences of granular casts and hyaline droplet accumulation and the severities of these lesions increased with increasing exposure concentration.
Granular casts were not observed in the controls and in exposed groups the mean severity ranged from minimal in males exposed to 25 ppm to moderate in males exposed to 400 ppm.
Hyaline droplet accumulation occurred in the cytoplasm of the renal proximal convoluted tubule epithelial cells, and the severity ranged from minimal in males exposed to 25 ppm to moderate in males exposed to 400 ppm.
With the exception of one chamber control rat, nephropathy occurred in all males, with the mean severity increasing from minimal in chamber control males to moderate in males exposed to 400 ppm.
There were no exposure-related microscopic findings in females, including those that died before the end of the study.
The presence of these nonneoplastic lesions in the kidney is suggestive of α2μ-globulin nephropathy, a renal syndrome that occurs in male but not female F334/N rats and that has been linked to the development of renal tubule neoplasms (Swenberg, 1993). This syndrome has been produced by structurally diverse chemicals and is thought to be secondary to toxicity caused by accumulation of hyaline droplets within the renal tubule epithelial cells.
However, measures of α2μ-globulin were not performed in the current study. While it is possible that the observed kidney lesions are secondary to α2μ-globulin nephropathy, the increases in kidney weights in both male and female rats suggest that another independent mechanism of toxicity may have played a role in the lesion development.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
SPERM MOTILITY AND VAGINAL CYTOLOGY:
There were significantly decreased sperm count in cauda epididymis in 200 and 400 ppm males compared to control group.
Females in the 400 ppm group displayed an apparent increase in cycle length and a slight increase in the percentage of the cycle spent in metestrus, relative to the chamber control group. However, the apparent increase in cycle length may be secondary to stress, as evidenced by lower body weight and mortality in the 400 ppm group. Alternatively, the apparent changes in the 400 ppm females may have been an artifact of having too few animals available to allow for meaningful interpretation.
The minor changes in cycle length observed only in the 400 ppm group, combined with a lack of ovarian histopathology findings, did not provide sufficient evidence for female reproductive toxicity potential under the conditions of the study.
Thus, the test item exposure by inhalation exhibits the potential to be a reproductive toxicant in male rats, but not in female rats.
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOEL
Effect level:
25 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOEL
Effect level:
200 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
other: Significant decrease of sperm per cauda in 200 and 400 ppm.
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
25 ppm
System:
urinary
Organ:
kidney
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
not specified
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
200 ppm
System:
male reproductive system
Organ:
cauda epididymis
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
not specified

Table 1: Survival and Body Weights

 

Concentration

(ppm)

Survivalb

Initial BodyWeight (g)

Final BodyWeight (g)

Change in BodyWeight (g)

Final Weight Relativeto Controls(%)

Male

0

10/10

98 ± 3

335 ± 6

238 ± 5

25

10/10

98 ± 2

329 ± 11

231 ± 9

98

50

10/10

98 ± 2

333 ± 6

235 ± 5

99

100

10/10

98 ± 2

334 ± 7

236 ± 5

100

200

10/10

96 ± 2

330 ± 4

234 ± 4

98

400

10/10

97 ± 2

322 ± 6

225 ± 7

96

Female

0

10/10

89 ± 2

194 ± 3

105 ± 3

 

25

10/10

89 ± 2

199 ± 4

110 ± 4

102

50

10/10

89 ± 2

206 ± 4

117 ± 4

106

100

10/10

88 ± 2

199 ± 3

112 ± 2

103

200

10/10

88 ± 2

201 ± 3

113 ± 2

104

400

4/10c

89 ± 2

159 ± 5**

72 ± 5**

82

** Significantly different (P≤0.01) from the chamber control group by unnett’s test

a Weights and weight changes are given as mean ± standard error. Subsequent calculations are based on animals surviving to the end of the study.

b Number of animals surviving at 14 weeks/number initially in group

c Weeks of death: 6, 6, 6, 6, 8, 13

Table 2: Selected Organ Weights and Organ-Weight-to-Body-Weight Ratios

 

Chamber control

25 ppm

50 ppm

100 ppm

200 ppm

400 ppm

Male

n

10

10

10

10

10

10

Necropsy body wt

335 ± 6

329 ± 11

333 ± 6

334 ± 7

330 ± 4

322 ± 6

R Kidney absolute

1.025 ± 0.019

1.012 ± 0.037

1.061 ± 0.026

1.137 ± 0.027**

1.209 ± 0.020**

1.286 ± 0.039**

R kidney relative

3.058 ± 0.038

3.073 ± 0.037

3.186 ± 0.042*

3.405 ± 0.036**

3.660 ± 0.040**

3.991 ± 0.056**

Liver absolute

10.54 ± 0.27

10.31 ± 0.40

10.44 ± 0.32

11.08 ± 0.36

11.37 ± 0.26

11.87 ± 0.45*

Liver relative

31.402 ± 0.375

31.270 ± 0.317

31.298 ± 0.490

33.152 ± 0.569*

34.393 ± 0.531**

36.807 ± 0.864**

Spleen absolute

0.628 ± 0.012

0.630 ± 0.013

0.663 ± 0.014

0.659 ± 0.009

0.655 ± 0.010

0.677 ± 0.023*

Spleen relative

1.874 ± 0.028

1.925 ± 0.045

1.997 ± 0.058

1.978 ± 0.030

1.983 ± 0.022

2.103 ± 0.057**

Female

n

10

10

10

10

10

4

Necropsy body wt

194 ± 3

199 ± 4

206 ± 4

199 ± 3

201 ± 3

159 ± 5**

Heart absolute

0.584 ± 0.010

0.612 ± 0.012

0.618 ± 0.010

0.629 ± 0.012*

0.638 ± 0.011**

0.530 ± 0.006*

Heart relative

3.010 ± 0.039

3.081 ± 0.054

3.002 ± 0.041

3.156 ± 0.034*

3.175 ± 0.049*

3.349 ± 0.084**

R Kidney absolute

0.618 ± 0.011

0.641 ± 0.009

0.680 ± 0.013**

0.659 ± 0.015

0.679 ± 0.014**

0.595 ± 0.021

R kidney relative

3.185 ± 0.040

3.230 ± 0.062

3.301 ± 0.041

3.307 ± 0.058

3.376 ± 0.050*

3.757 ± 0.138**

Liver absolute

5.486 ± 0.179

5.990 ± 0.121

6.270 ± 0.115**

6.269 ± 0.151**

6.424 ± 0.144**

4.840 ± 0.247

Liver relative

28.216 ± 0.637

30.152 ± 0.550**

30.438 ± 0.319**

31.459 ± 0.586**

31.916 ± 0.317**

30.470 ± 0.715**

Thymus absolute

0.347 ± 0.012

0.349 ± 0.010

0.352 ± 0.010

0.346 ± 0.010

0.330 ± 0.014

0.204 ± 0.010**

Thymus relative

1.785 ± 0.054

1.751 ± 0.029

1.707 ± 0.041

1.739 ± 0.048

1.638 ± 0.058*

1.286 ± 0.035**

* Significantly different (P≤0.05) from the chamber control group by Williams’ or Dunnett’s test

** P≤0.01

a Organ weights (absolute weights) and body weights are given in grams; organ-weight-to-body-weight ratios (relative weights) are given as mg organ weight/g body weight (mean ± standard error).

 

Table 3: Hematology data

Treatment dose (ppm)

0

25

50

100

200

400

Male

 

Hematocrit (spun) (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

45.6 ± 0.3

45.1 ± 0.6

46.5 ± 0.6

45.5 ± 0.4

44.8 ± 0.5

44.4 ± 0.4

Day 23

47.9 ± 0.5

48.0 ± 0.6

47.4 ± 0.4

47.8 ± 0.4

47.7 ± 0.3

48.6 ± 0.5

Week 14

49.5 ± 0.5

48.3 ± 0.4

49.0 ± 0.3

48.3 ± 0.7*

47.6 ± 0.3**

47.7 ± 0.4**

Packed cell volume (mL/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

44.6 ± 0.4

44.1 ± 0.6

45.0 ± 0.6

44.2 ± 0.4

43.1 ± 0.3*

43.3 ± 0.4*

Day 23

47.4 ± 0.4

47.1 ± 0.5

46.5 ± 0.5

47.2 ± 0.4

46.9 ± 0.4

48.1 ± 0.4

Week 14

49.9 ± 0.5

48.9 ± 0.4

49.5 ± 0.3

48.3 ± 0.3*

48.0 ± 0.3**

47.8 ± 0.6**

Hemoglobin (g/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

13.5 ± 0.1

13.4 ± 0.2

13.7 ± 0.1

13.6 ± 0.2

13.3 ± 0.1

13.2 ± 0.1

Day 23

14.9 ± 0.1

14.9 ± 0.1

14.6 ± 0.1

15.0 ± 0.1

14.8 ± 0.1

15.1 ± 0.1

Week 14

15.7 ± 0.1

15.5 ± 0.1

15.5 ± 0.1

15.3 ± 0.1*

15.0 ± 0.1**

15.1 ± 0.2**

Erythrocytes (106/µL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

7.15 ± 0.09

7.12 ± 0.11

7.27 ± 0.07

7.26 ± 0.08

7.09 ± 0.07

7.06 ± 0.07

Day 23

8.06 ± 0.06

7.95 ± 0.07

7.84 ± 0.09

8.04 ± 0.08

7.92 ± 0.07

8.10 ± 0.06

Week 14

9.35 ± 0.07

9.09 ± 0.05

9.25 ± 0.06

8.94 ± 0.05**

8.92 ± 0.08**

8.86 ± 0.10**

Mean cell volume (fL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

62.3 ± 0.3

62.0 ± 0.4

61.8 ± 0.3

60.9 ± 0.5

60.9 ± 0.4*

61.3 ± 0.4

Day 23

58.8 ± 0.2

59.2 ± 0.4

59.4 ± 0.2

58.8 ± 0.4

59.3 ± 0.4

59.4 ± 0.3

Week 14

53.4 ± 0.2

53.9 ± 0.4

53.5 ± 0.3

54.0 ± 0.4

53.9 ± 0.3

53.9 ± 0.3

Mean cell hemoglobin (pg)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

18.8 ± 0.1

18.8 ± 0.1

18.9 ± 0.0

18.8 ± 0.1

18.8 ± 0.1

18.7 ± 0.0

Day 23

18.5 ± 0.1

18.7 ± 0.1

18.7 ± 0.1

18.6 ± 0.1

18.6 ± 0.1

18.6 ± 0.1

Week 14

16.9 ± 0.1

17.0 ± 0.1

16.8 ± 0.1

17.1 ± 0.1

16.9 ± 0.1

17.1 ± 0.1

Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (g/dL)

Day 4

30.2 ± 0.1

30.4 ± 0.2

30.5 ± 0.1

30.9 ± 0.2*

30.9 ± 0.1**

30.5 ± 0.1

Day 23

31.5 ± 0.2

31.7 ± 0.2

31.4 ± 0.2

31.7 ± 0.2

31.5 ± 0.1

31.4 ± 0.2

Week 14

31.6 ± 0.1 

31.6 ± 0.1 

31.4 ± 0.1 

31.5 ± 0.1

31.3 ± 0.1

31.7 ± 0.2

Leukocytes (103/µL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

9.08 ± 0.45

8.94 ± 0.32

9.75 ± 0.44

9.04 ± 0.72

7.57 ± 0.36*

6.95 ± 0.25**

Day 23

6.29 ± 0.23

7.10 ± 0.25

7.44 ± 0.29

8.12 ± 0.42**

7.52 ± 0.64

7.20 ± 0.31

Week 14

7.01 ± 0.36

6.99 ± 0.39

7.86 ± 0.25

7.34 ± 0.37

6.71 ± 0.40

6.69 ± 0.47

 Lymphocytes (103/µL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

7.99 ± 0.40

7.82 ± 0.30

8.39 ± 0.38

7.75 ± 0.61

6.44 ± 0.33**

5.88 ± 0.24**

Day 23

5.25 ± 0.23

5.91 ± 0.25

6.38 ± 0.22d

6.89 ± 0.40*

6.10 ± 0.57

6.06 ± 0.27

Week 14

5.36 ± 0.35

5.31 ± 0.39

6.18 ± 0.25

5.66 ± 0.40

5.12 ± 0.41

4.93 ± 0.38

Treatment dose (ppm)

0

25

50

100

200

400

female

 

Hematocrit (spun) (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

47.7 ± 0.4

47.0 ± 0.2

47.0 ± 0.2

47.5 ± 0.3

47.1 ± 0.6 

46.2 ± 0.4

Day 23

48.7 ± 0.4

49.2 ± 0.5

49.1 ± 0.4

49.2 ± 0.3

48.9 ± 0.5

49.7 ± 0.6

Week 14

48.9 ± 0.4

47.2 ± 0.4*

47.8 ± 0.2

48.3 ± 0.4

48.7 ± 0.4

50.9 ± 0.8

Packed cell volume (mL/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

46.7 ± 0.5

46.1 ± 0.3

46.0 ± 0.3

46.8 ± 0.4

46.1 ± 0.5

45.3 ± 0.5

Day 23

48.5 ± 0.4

49.0 ± 0.4

49.3 ± 0.3

49.2 ± 0.3

48.8 ± 0.3

50.0 ± 0.6*

Week 14

49.1 ± 0.3

48.6 ± 0.3

48.7 ± 0.

49.0 ± 0.5

49.7 ± 0.4

52.7 ± 0.4

Hemoglobin (g/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

14.3 ± 0.1

14.2 ± 0.1

14.2 ± 0.1

14.5 ± 0.1

14.3 ± 0.1

14.1 ± 0.1

Day 23

15.3 ± 0.1

15.5 ± 0.1

15.5 ± 0.1

15.5 ± 0.1

15.3 ± 0.1

15.7 ± 0.1

Week 14

15.7 ± 0.1

15.4 ± 0.1

15.5 ± 0.1

15.6 ± 0.1

15.8 ± 0.1

16.7 ± 0.1

Erythrocytes (106/µL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

7.64 ± 0.07

7.56 ± 0.05

7.56 ± 0.05

7.74 ± 0.07

7.67 ± 0.10

7.55 ± 0.08

Day 23

8.13 ± 0.08

8.13 ± 0.08

8.20 ± 0.07

8.24 ± 0.05

8.13 ± 0.06

8.31 ± 0.09

Week 14

8.67 ± 0.06

8.53 ± 0.05

8.54 ± 0.06

8.62 ± 0.09

8.71 ± 0.06

9.23 ± 0.09

Mean cell volume (fL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

61.1 ± 0.3

60.9 ± 0.3

60.9 ± 0.2

60.5 ± 0.3

60.2 ± 0.5

60.0 ± 0.3*

Day 23

59.6 ± 0.3

60.3 ± 0.3

60.1 ± 0.3

59.7 ± 0.3

60.1 ± 0.3

60.2 ± 0.2

Week 14

56.6 ± 0.2

56.9 ± 0.1

57.0 ± 0.1

56.9 ± 0.1

57.0 ± 0.2

57.1 ± 0.3

Mean cell hemoglobin (pg)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

18.7 ± 0.1

18.8 ± 0.1

18.8 ± 0.1

18.7 ± 0.1

18.7 ± 0.1

18.7 ± 0.1

Day 23

18.8 ± 0.1

19.0 ± 0.1

18.9 ± 0.1

18.8 ± 0.1

18.8 ± 0.1

18.9 ± 0.1

Week 14

18.1 ± 0.0

18.1 ± 0.1

18.2 ± 0.1

18.1 ± 0.1

18.1 ± 0.0

18.1 ± 0.0

Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (g/dL)

Day 4

30.6 ± 0.2

30.8 ± 0.1

30.8 ± 0.1

31.0 ± 0.2

31.1 ± 0.2

31.2 ± 0.2

Day 23

31.6 ± 0.2

31.5 ± 0.1

31.4 ± 0.1

31.6 ± 0.1

31.4 ± 0.1

31.4 ± 0.1

Week 14

 

32.1 ± 0.1

31.8 ± 0.1

31.9 ± 0.1

31.9 ± 0.1

31.8 ± 0.1

31.7 ± 0.2

Leukocytes (103/µL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

10.52 ± 0.52

10.89 ± 0.26

10.25 ± 0.34

11.26 ± 0.61

10.39 ± 0.63

8.52 ± 0.68

Day 23

7.96 ± 0.36

8.01 ± 0.24

7.87 ± 0.43

8.04 ± 0.39

7.78 ± 0.56

6.84 ± 0.48

Week 14

5.86 ± 0.27

5.70 ± 0.24

6.05 ± 0.29

5.60 ± 0.29

5.22 ± 0.33

6.08 ± 0.58

 Lymphocytes (103/µL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

9.34 ± 0.52

9.58 ± 0.25

8.90 ± 0.30

9.76 ± 0.59

9.19 ± 0.51d

7.34 ± 0.62

Day 23

6.79 ± 0.35

6.86 ± 0.20

6.83 ± 0.41

6.96 ± 0.38

6.62 ± 0.54

5.83 ± 0.42

Week 14

4.67 ± 0.24

4.44 ± 0.25

4.67 ± 0.23

4.36 ± 0.28

4.17 ± 0.29

4.93 ± 0.53

* Significantly different (P≤0.05) from the chamber control group by Dunn’s or Shirley’s test

** P≤0.01

Table 4: clinical chemistry data

Male

Dose treatment (ppm)

0 (control group)

25

 

50

100

200

400

Urea nitrogen (mg/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

7.5 ± 0.4

7.8 ± 0.4

7.5 ± 0.3

7.4 ± 0.3

7.0 ± 0.4

7.5 ± 0.4

Day 23

9.9 ± 0.5

8.9 ± 0.4

9.1 ± 0.2

9.5 ± 0.3

9.8 ± 0.4

11.4 ± 0.6

Week 14

12.3 ± 0.3

13.7 ± 0.3*

12.8 ± 0.3

13.3 ± 0.2

13.3 ± 0.3

13.6 ± 0.4*

Creatinine (mg/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

0.29 ± 0.01

0.26 ± 0.02

0.23 ± 0.02*

0.25 ± 0.02

0.25 ± 0.02

0.24 ± 0.02

Day 23

0.30 ± 0.00

0.32 ± 0.01

0.32 ± 0.03

0.31 ± 0.01

0.36 ± 0.02**

0.38 ± 0.01**

Week 14

0.37 ± 0.02

0.37 ± 0.02

0.37 ± 0.03

0.39 ± 0.02

0.39 ± 0.01

0.40 ± 0.03

Glucose (mg/dL) Day

Day 4

137 ± 3

134 ± 1

133 ± 5

137 ± 3

139 ± 6

130 ± 2

Day 23

145 ± 12

126 ± 7

134 ± 9

127 ± 5

117 ± 4

116 ± 5

Week 14

127 ± 2

130 ± 3

124 ± 2

129 ± 3

136 ± 6

128 ± 3

Total protein (g/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

6.0 ± 0.0

6.0 ± 0.1

6.1 ± 0.1

6.0 ± 0.0

6.1 ± 0.1

6.1 ± 0.0

Day 23

6.5 ± 0.1

6.5 ± 0.1

6.5 ± 0.1

6.5 ± 0.1

6.8 ± 0.1**

6.8 ± 0.1**

Week 14

7.4 ± 0.1

7.4 ± 0.1

7.5 ± 0.1

7.4 ± 0.1

7.5 ± 0.1

7.5 ± 0.0

Albumin (g/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

4.3 ± 0.0

4.3 ± 0.0

4.3 ± 0.0

4.3 ± 0.0

4.4 ± 0.0

4.4 ± 0.0

Day 23

4.6 ± 0.0

4.6 ± 0.0

4.5 ± 0.0

4.5 ± 0.1

4.7 ± 0.0

4.7 ± 0.1

Week 14

4.9 ± 0.1

4.9 ± 0.0

4.9 ± 0.1

4.8 ± 0.0

4.9 ± 0.0

4.9 ± 0.0

Globulin (g/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

1.7 ± 0.0

1.7 ± 0.0

1.8 ± 0.0

1.7 ± 0.0

1.8 ± 0.0

1.8 ± 0.0

Day 23

1.9 ± 0.0

2.0 ± 0.0

2.0 ± 0.0

2.0 ± 0.0

2.1 ± 0.0**

2.1 ± 0.0**

Week 14

2.6 ± 0.0

2.5 ± 0.0

2.6 ± 0.0

2.5 ± 0.0

2.6 ± 0.0

2.6 ± 0.0

A/G ratio

Day 4

2.5 ± 0.0

2.5 ± 0.0

2.5 ± 0.0

2.5 ± 0.0

2.5 ± 0.0

2.4 ± 0.0

Day 23

2.4 ± 0.0

2.4 ± 0.0

2.3 ± 0.1

2.3 ± 0.0

2.3 ± 0.0

2.2 ± 0.0**

Week 14

1.9 ± 0.0

1.9 ± 0.0

1.9 ± 0.0

1.9 ± 0.0

1.9 ± 0.0

2.0 ± 0.0

Alanine aminotransferase (IU/L)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

57 ± 1

57 ± 1

55 ± 1

53 ± 1

55 ± 1

52 ± 1**

Day 23

41 ± 1

41 ± 1

41 ± 1

39 ± 2

38 ± 1

35 ± 0**

Week 14

85 ± 3

83 ± 3

70 ± 3**

60 ± 2**

56 ± 2**

51 ± 2**

Alkaline phosphatase (IU/L)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

575 ± 7

578 ± 10

566 ± 10

566 ± 11

554 ± 7

546 ± 11*

Day 23

406 ± 6

423 ± 11

433 ± 9

407 ± 11

420 ± 8

404 ± 12

Week 14

223 ± 5

227 ± 7

211 ± 4

200 ± 3**

204 ± 4**

199 ± 6**

Creatine kinase (IU/L)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

545 ± 121

507 ± 42

430 ± 52

449 ± 56

515 ± 54

434 ± 44

Day 23

404 ± 37

390 ± 40

409 ± 66

393 ± 37

354 ± 30

413 ± 45

Week 14

171 ± 8

186 ± 18

144 ± 14

155 ± 13

150 ± 14

183 ± 15

Sorbitol dehydrogenase (IU/L)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

13 ± 1

14 ± 0

13 ± 0

12 ± 0*

14 ± 1

13 ± 0

Day 23

14 ± 1

14 ± 1

16 ± 1

15 ± 1

18 ± 1**

15 ± 1

Week 14

24 ± 1

24 ± 1

22 ± 1

22 ± 1

21 ± 1*

20 ± 1**

Bile acids (µmol/L)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

4.7 ± 0.4

4.7 ± 0.5

5.6 ± 0.8

4.6 ± 0.4

7.2 ± 1.3

4.6 ± 0.7

Day 23

5.7 ± 0.9

3.3 ± 0.2**

4.9 ± 0.6*

3.6 ± 0.3**

3.8 ± 0.3**

3.6 ± 0.7**

Week 14

3.3 ± 0.1

3.5 ± 0.4

3.4 ± 0.3

3.2 ± 0.1

3.8 ± 0.6

3.0 ± 0.1

Female

 

Dose treatment (ppm)

0 (control group)

25

50

100

200

400

 

Urea nitrogen (mg/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

7.8 ± 0.4

8.5 ± 0.3

8.1 ± 0.3

8.3 ± 0.4 

9.1 ± 0.3*

8.6 ± 0.3

 

Day 23

11.5 ± 0.3

11.8 ± 0.4

11.5 ± 0.4

10.6 ± 0.4

10.8 ± 0.3

9.1 ± 0.4**

 

Week 14

14.1 ± 0.4

14.4 ± 0.4

13.0 ± 0.5

13.6 ± 0.5

13.4 ± 0.5

11.3 ± 0.5*

 

Creatinine (mg/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

0.29 ± 0.01

0.28 ± 0.01

0.29 ± 0.02

0.26 ± 0.02

0.28 ± 0.01

0.26 ± 0.02

 

Day 23

0.31 ± 0.01

0.30 ± 0.00

0.28 ± 0.01

0.30 ± 0.00

0.30 ± 0.00

0.31 ± 0.01

 

Week 14

0.37 ± 0.02

0.35 ± 0.02

0.36 ± 0.02

0.38 ± 0.01

0.34 ± 0.02

0.35 ± 0.03

 

Glucose (mg/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

138 ± 2

135 ± 2

136 ± 4

136 ± 2

139 ± 5

130 ± 2

 

Day 23

127 ± 3

123 ± 6

133 ± 5

123 ± 3

122 ± 3

122 ± 5

 

Week 14

141 ± 8

131 ± 5

123 ± 2

133 ± 3

131 ± 4

114 ± 12

 

Total protein (g/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

5.9 ± 0.0

6.0 ± 0.1

6.1 ± 0.0

6.0 ± 0.0

6.1 ± 0.1*

6.1 ± 0.0

 

Day 23

6.3 ± 0.1

6.4 ± 0.1

6.4 ± 0.1

6.5 ± 0.1

6.5 ± 0.1

6.6 ± 0.1

 

Week 14

7.5 ± 0.1

7.4 ± 0.1

7.5 ± 0.1

7.6 ± 0.1

7.5 ± 0.1

7.2 ± 0.1

 

Albumin (g/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

4.3 ± 0.0

4.4 ± 0.0

4.4 ± 0.0

4.4 ± 0.0

4.4 ± 0.0

4.4 ± 0.0

 

Day 23

4.5 ± 0.0

4.6 ± 0.0

4.6 ± 0.0

4.6 ± 0.1

4.6 ± 0.0

4.7 ± 0.1

 

Week 14

5.2 ± 0.1

5.2 ± 0.1

5.2 ± 0.1

5.3 ± 0.0

5.2 ± 0.0

5.0 ± 0.1

 

Globulin (g/dL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

1.6 ± 0.0

1.6 ± 0.0

1.6 ± 0.0

1.7 ± 0.0

1.7 ± 0.0*

1.6 ± 0.0

 

Day 23

1.8 ± 0.0

1.8 ± 0.0

1.8 ± 0.0

1.9 ± 0.0*

1.9 ± 0.0*

2.0 ± 0.0**

 

Week 14

2.3 ± 0.1

2.2 ± 0.0

2.3 ± 0.0

2.3 ± 0.0

2.4 ± 0.0

2.2 ± 0.1

 

A/G ratio

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

2.8 ± 0.0

2.7 ± 0.1

2.7 ± 0.0

2.7 ± 0.1

2.6 ± 0.1

2.7 ± 0.0

 

Day 23

2.6 ± 0.0

2.5 ± 0.0

2.5 ± 0.0

2.4 ± 0.0

2.5 ± 0.0

2.4 ± 0.0**

 

Week 14

2.3 ± 0.1

2.4 ± 0.0

2.3 ± 0.0

2.3 ± 0.0

2.2 ± 0.0

2.4 ± 0.1

 

Alanine aminotransferase (IU/L)

 

Day 4

47 ± 1

49 ± 1

49 ± 1

46 ± 1

45 ± 1

44 ± 2

 

Day 23

35 ± 1

36 ± 1

35 ± 1

36 ± 1

34 ± 1

31 ± 1

 

Week 14

69 ± 4

65 ± 5

55 ± 3**

56 ± 4*

47 ± 2**

49 ± 5**

 

Alkaline phosphatase (IU/L)

 

Day 4

487 ± 8

493 ± 10

475 ± 6

468 ± 7

454 ± 5**

457 ± 8**

Day 23

305 ± 5

311 ± 8

304 ± 5

302 ± 8

289 ± 8

289 ± 7

Week 14

197 ± 6

182 ± 4

182 ± 8

177 ± 8**

181 ± 5*

164 ± 13*

Creatine kinase (UI/L)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

364 ± 20b

332 ± 27

388 ± 29b

443 ± 74

460 ± 39b

375 ± 48

Day 23

299 ± 30

305 ± 27

292 ± 41

369 ± 43

338 ± 26

250 ± 16

Week 14

162 ± 16

165 ± 38

172 ± 22

139 ± 14

170 ± 22

145 ± 26

Sorbitol dehydrogenase (IU/L

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

13 ± 1

13 ± 0

14 ± 0

12 ± 0*

11 ± 1*

12 ± 0*

Day 23

14 ± 0

15 ± 1

15 ± 1

15 ± 1

14 ± 1

16 ± 0

Week 14

21 ± 1

20 ± 1

18 ± 1

17 ± 1

17 ± 1

18 ± 1

Bile acids (µmol/L)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Day 4

5.3 ± 0.5

5.0 ± 0.5

6.5 ± 1.1

5.8 ± 0.6

6.8 ± 1.3

4.9 ± 0.5

Day 23

4.0 ± 0.3

4.7 ± 0.4

5.4 ± 0.7

4.5 ± 0.4

3.9 ± 0.4

4.0 ± 0.7

Week 14

9.1 ± 2.3

4.9 ± 0.5**

4.7 ± 0.4**

4.3 ± 0.3**

5.1 ± 1.1**

16.9 ± 4.7*

* Significantly different (P≤0.05) from the chamber control group by Dunn’s or Shirley’s test

** P≤0.01

Table 5: Incidences of Non neoplastic Lesions of the Kidney in Male Rats

 

Chamber control

25 ppm

50 ppm

100 ppm

200 ppm

400 ppm

Number Examined Microscopically

10

10

10

10

10

10

Casts, Granulara

0

9** (1.0)b

10** (1.2)

10** (1.5)

10** (2.5)

10** (3.0)

Accumulation, Hyaline Droplet

1 (2.0)

10** (1.1)

10** (1.8)

10** (2.0)

10** (2.7)

10** (3.0)

Nephropathy

9 (1.1)

10 (1.6)

10 (2.0)

10 (2.0)

10 (2.5)

10 (3.0)

** Significantly different (P≤0.01) from the chamber control group by the Fisher exact test

a Number of animals with lesion

b Average severity grade of lesions in affected animals: 1=minimal, 2=mild, 3=moderate, 4=marked

Table 6: Epididymal Spermatozoal Measurements for Male Rats

 

Chamber control

100 ppm

200 ppm

400 ppm

n

10

10

9

10

Epididymal spermatozoal measurements

Sperm motility (%)

91.73 ± 1.26

91.40 ± 0.93

91.24 ± 0.80

90.93 ± 0.89

Sperm (103/mg cauda epididymis)

615.0 ± 34.3

596.5 ± 31.8

526.3 ± 19.0

547.4 ± 14.0

Sperm (106/cauda epididymis)

120.89 ± 6.79

113.16 ± 3.11

97.52 ± 3.51**

98.40 ± 3.02**

** Significantly different (P≤0.01) from the chamber control group by Shirley’s test.

a Data are presented as mean ± standard error.

Conclusions:
In a repeated dose toxicity study with alpha pinene after 14 weeks of vapour inhalation exposure to rats, increases of incidences of kidney lesions at 25 ppm and decrease of sperm per cauda at 200 ppm in male rats were reported, thus the LOEL was determined to be 25 ppm.
Executive summary:

A 90-day repeated dose toxicity study (inhalation route) was performed on alpha pinene according to a similar method to OECD guideline 413 under GLP conditions. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to the test item by whole body inhalation at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. During the study, clinical observations, bodyweight, organ weight, haematology, clinical chemistry, macropathology, histopathology and sperm motility and vaginal cytology investigations were undertaken.

All exposed male rats survived to the end of the studies, while six 400 ppm female rats died before the end of the study. The major targets for test item toxicity were the liver, urinary system, and male reproductive system.

Relative liver weights were significantly greater compared to controls in males at 100 ppm and greater and in all females treated groups (LOEL=25 ppm), however, without accompanying histopathologic changes. Increased liver weight is a common finding in toxicity studies and can be associated with induction of liver metabolizing enzymes.

Absolute kidney weights were increased in male rats exposed to 100 ppm or greater and 50 and 200 ppm female rats; in males, these increases were accompanied by histopathologic lesions including granular casts and hyaline droplet accumulation at all exposure concentrations, as well as exposure concentration-dependent increases in the severity of nephropathy (LOEL=25 ppm), which is a common spontaneous lesion observed in male rats (α2μ-globulin nephropathy). This syndrome has been produced by structurally diverse chemicals and is thought to be secondary to toxicity caused by accumulation of hyaline droplets within the renal tubule epithelial cells. However, measures of α2μ-globulin were not performed in the current study. While it is possible that the observed kidney lesions are secondary to α2μ-globulin nephropathy, the increases in kidney weights in both male and female rats suggest that another independent mechanism of toxicity may have played a role in the lesion development.

There were also significantly lower numbers of sperm per cauda compared to controls in 200 and 400 ppm male rats (LOEL=200 ppm). There was an accompanying minor decrease in epididymal weights that did not reach significance. Therefore, the possibility that the change in absolute sperm per cauda was due to a decrease in epididymal weight cannot be excluded. A definitive conclusion by histopathologic investigations could not be conducted due to an artifact resulting from formalin fixation of the male reproductive tract tissues. Thus, further studies on reproductive function are warranted.

However, in females the minor changes in cycle length observed only in the 400 ppm group, combined with a lack of ovarian histopathology findings, does not provide sufficient evidence for reproductive toxicity.

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
28 March 2005 - 1 July 2005
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 413 (Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-Day Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
no tested on preferred specie rat, no data on food consumption, no ophthalmological and clinical chemistry exams, some organ weights were not recorded (Adrenals,Brain,Ovaries,Thyroids,Uterus), animals weighed weekly and not twice weekly at the beginning.
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
In compliance with Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice Regulations (21 CFR, Part 58)
Limit test:
no
Species:
mouse
Strain:
B6C3F1
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: NTP colony maintained at Taconic Farms, Inc. (Germantown, NY)
- Females (if applicable) nulliparous and non-pregnant: not specified
- Age at study initiation: 5-6 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 22.5-23 g (male) and 19.3-19-7 g (female)
- Fasting period before study: not specified
- Housing: individually. Cages: Stainless steel, wire bottom (Lab Products, Inc., Seaford, DE); rotated weekly. Cageboard: Untreated paper cage pan liner (Shepherd Specialty Papers, Kalamazoo, MI), changed daily
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): NTP-2000 irradiated wafers (Zeigler Brothers, Inc., Gardners, PA), available ad libitum (except during exposure periods)
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): Tap water (Richland, WA, municipal supply) via automatic watering system (Edstrom Industries, Waterford, WI); available ad libitum
- Acclimation period: Animals were quarantined for 12 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 72 ± 3ºF
- Humidity (%): 50% ± 15%
- Air changes (per hr): 15 ± 2/hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours/day

Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: Test item was held in an 8-gallon stainless-steel chemical reservoir. Test item was pumped into a heated glass column filled with glass beads that increased the surface area for vaporization. Heated nitrogen entered the column from below and assisted in vaporizing the chemical while conveying it into a short distribution manifold. Concentration in the manifold was determined by the chemical pump rate, nitrogen flow rate, and dilution air flow rate. The pressure in the distribution manifold was kept fixed to ensure constant flow through the manifold and into all chambers as the flow of vapor to each chamber was adjusted.
Metering valves at the manifold controlled flow to each chamber through individual Teflon® delivery lines that carried the vapor from the manifold to three-way exposure valves at the chamber inlets. The exposure valves diverted vapor delivery to exposure chamber exhaust until the generation system was stable and exposures were ready to proceed. To initiate exposure, the chamber exposure valves were rotated to allow the test item vapor to flow to each exposure chamber inlet duct where it was further diluted with filtered, conditioned air to achieve the desired exposure concentration.
- Temperature, humidity, pressure in air chamber: 72 ± 3ºF; 50% ± 15%.
- Air change rate: 15 air changes per hour
- Method of particle size determination: A condensation particle detector (Model 3022A, TSI, Inc., St. Paul, MN) was used with and without animals in the exposure chambers. No particle counts above the minimum resolvable level (approximately 200 particles/cm3) were detected.

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: on-line gas chromatograph. Samples were analyzed using GC/FID to measure the stability and purity of test item in the generation and delivery system. To assess whether impurities or degradation products coeluted with test item or the solvent, a second GC/FID analysis of the samples was performed using a polar column capable of resolving compounds with similar boiling points and polarities.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Chamber and room concentrations of alpha pinene were monitored by an on-line gas chromatograph. Samples were drawn from each exposure chamber approximately every 20 minutes during each 6-hour exposure period.
The average concentration measured were: 24.9 ± 1.1 ppm for the 25 ppm group, 49.8 ± 0.8 for the 50 ppm group, 99.6 ± 1.4ppm for the 100 ppm group, 200 ± 4 ppm for the 200 ppm group and 401 ± 7 ppm for the 400 ppm group.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
14 weeks; 6 hours plus T90 (10 minutes) per day.
Frequency of treatment:
Five times per week, weekdays only
Dose / conc.:
0 ppm
Dose / conc.:
25 ppm
Remarks:
(0.14 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
50 ppm
Remarks:
(0.28 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
100 ppm
Remarks:
(0.56 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
200 ppm
Remarks:
(1.13 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
400 ppm
Remarks:
(2.26 mg/L)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: doses were selected taken into account the results obtained in a previous 2-week range finding study conducted for exposure (inhalation) concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1,600 ppm.
Positive control:
no
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: on day 8, weekly thereafter, and at the end of the studies.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: initially, on day 8, weekly thereafter, and at the end of the studies.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): No

FOOD EFFICIENCY: No

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at the end of the study
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes (carbon dioxide)
- Animals fasted: Not specified
- How many animals: 10 per sex per dose
- Parameters examined: Hematocrit; packed cell volume; hemoglobin; erythrocyte, reticulocyte, and platelet counts; mean cell volume; mean cell hemoglobin; mean cell hemoglobin concentration; and leukocyte counts and differentials

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: No

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

IMMUNOLOGY: No
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes. Organs weighed were heart, right kidney, liver, lung, spleen, right testis, and thymus.
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes. Complete histopathologic examinations were performed by the study laboratory pathologist on all chamber control and 400 ppm animals. In addition, the kidney and urinary bladder of mice were examined in the remaining groups. Tissues for microscopic examination were fixed and preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin, processed and trimmed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned to a thickness of 4 to 6 μm, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
Other examinations:
SPERM MOTILITY AND VAGINAL CYTOLOGY: At the end of the study, sperm samples were collected for sperm motility evaluations. Sperm heads per testis and per gram testis, spermatid counts, and epididymal spermatozoal motility and concentration were evaluated. The left cauda, left epididymis, and left testis were weighed. The tail of the epididymis (cauda epididymis) was then removed from the epididymal body (corpus epididymis) and weighed. Test yolk was applied to slides and a small incision was made at the distal border of the cauda epididymis. The sperm effluxing from the incision were dispersed in the buffer on the slides, and the numbers of motile and nonmotile spermatozoa were counted for five fields per slide by two observers. Following completion of sperm motility estimates, each left cauda epididymis was placed in buffered saline solution. Caudae were finely minced, and the tissue was incubated in the saline solution and then heat fixed at 65° C. Sperm density was then determined microscopically with the aid of a hemacytometer. To quantify spermatogenesis, the testicular spermatid head count was determined by removing the tunica albuginea and homogenizing the left testis in phosphate-buffered saline containing 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. Homogenization-resistant spermatid nuclei were counted with a hemacytometer.
Vaginal samples were collected for up to 12 consecutive days prior to the end of the study for vaginal cytology evaluations. The percentage of time spent in the various estrous cycle stages and estrous cycle length were evaluated.
Statistics:
Calculation and Analysis of Lesion Incidences: Fisher exact test (Gart et al., 1979) was used to determine significance.
Analysis of Continuous Variables:
Organ and body weight data were analyzed with the parametric multiple comparison procedures of Dunnett (1955) and Williams (1971, 1972),
Hematology, clinical chemistry, spermatid, and epididymal spermatozoal data were analyzed using the nonparametric multiple comparison methods of Shirley (1977) (as modified by Williams, 1986) and Dunn (1964).
Jonckheere’s test (Jonckheere, 1954) was used to assess the significance of the exposure-related trends and to determine whether a trend-sensitive test (Williams’ or Shirley’s test) was more appropriate for pairwise comparisons than a test that does not assume a monotonic exposure-related trend (Dunnett’s or Dunn’s test).
Proportions of regular cycling females in each exposed group were compared to the control group using the Fisher exact test (Gart et al., 1979). Tests for extended periods of estrus, diestrus, metestrus, and proestrus, as well as skipped estrus and skipped diestrus were constructed based on a Markov chain model proposed by Girard and Sager (1987).
For each exposure group, a transition probability matrix was estimated for transitions among the proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus stages, with provision for extended stays within each stage as well as for skipping estrus or diestrus within a cycle. Equality of transition matrices among exposure groups and between the control group and each exposed group was tested using chi-square statistics.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no treatment-related clinical signs.
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
All mice survived until the terminal sacrifice.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Final mean body weights and body weight gains were comparable for all test animals when compared to controls.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At the end of the study, there were small but statistically significant decreases in erythrocyte counts in 200 and 400 ppm females and in the hemoglobin concentration and the hematocrit value in 400 ppm females compared to concurrent controls. Decreases in erythrocyte count and hematocrit value also occurred in 400 ppm males. Leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were significantly decreased in 400 ppm males. The leukocyte changes likely represent a secondary treatment-associated stress effect. The exact mechanism for the mild decreases in the erythron are not known. Other significant changes in hematology parameters were not toxicologically relevant.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The absolute liver weights of 400 ppm males and females and the relative liver weights of 200 and 400 ppm males and 100, 200, and 400 ppm females were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. The absolute and relative thymus weights of 400 ppm males were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. The absolute kidney weights of 200 and 400 ppm males were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. These organ weight changes were not accompanied by histopathologic lesions.
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
There was an increased incidence of transitional epithelium hyperplasia of the urinary bladder in males and females exposed to 100 ppm or more, the severity of which increased with increasing exposure concentration.
Transitional epithelium hyperplasia in the urinary bladder can be either reparative (e.g., regenerative or reactive) or preneoplastic, but there are no histologic features that can be used to reliably distinguish between the two etiologies.
Specific histopathologic indicators of either type of hyperplasia in male or female mice were not evident; therefore, the neoplastic potential of the transitional epithelium hyperplasia of the urinary bladder is uncertain.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
SPERM MOTILITY AND VAGINAL CYTOLOGY: There were significantly decreased numbers of sperm per mg cauda in 200 and 400 ppm males and cauda sperm in 100, 200, and 400 ppm males.
There were no changes in the proportion of regularly cycling females, estrous cycle length, or percentage of time spent in the individual stages of the estrous cycle of female mice at any exposure concentration and there were no ovarian histopathologic findings.
Thus, the test item exposure by inhalation exhibits the potential to be a reproductive toxicant in male mice, but not in female mice.
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOEL
Effect level:
100 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
other: Significantly decreased sperm count per mg cauda in males treated at 200 and 400 ppm and in cauda sperm counts in 100, 200, and 400 ppm groups
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOEL
Effect level:
100 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
100 ppm
System:
urinary
Organ:
bladder
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
not specified
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
100 ppm
System:
male reproductive system
Organ:
cauda epididymis
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
not specified

Table 1: Survival and Body Weights

 

Concentration

(ppm)

Survivalb

Initial Body Weight (g)

Final Body Weight (g)

Change in Body Weight (g)

Final Weight Relative to Controls (%)

Male

 

0

10/10

22.9 ± 0.2

37.1 ± 0.6

14.3 ± 0.6

 

25

10/10

23.0 ± 0.3

36.9 ± 0.7

13.9 ± 0.8

99

50

10/10

22.7 ± 0.3

38.3 ± 0.9

15.6 ± 0.8

103

100

10/10

22.5 ± 0.2

35.9 ± 0.7

13.4 ± 0.7

97

200

10/10

22.8 ± 0.3

35.5 ± 1.0

12.7 ± 0.9

96

400

10/10

22.8 ± 0.2

36.2 ± 0.5

13.5 ± 0.4

98

Female

0

10/10

19.5 ± 0.4

31.5 ± 0.6

12.0 ± 0.5

 

25

10/10

19.6 ± 0.4

30.3 ± 0.6

10.8 ± 0.7

96

50

10/10

19.7 ± 0.3

32.7 ± 0.7

12.9 ± 0.7

104

100

10/10

19.7 ± 0.4

31.5 ± 1.1

11.8 ± 0.9

100

200

10/10

19.3 ± 0.3

30.7 ± 0.6

11.4 ± 0.6

97

400

10/10

19.4 ± 0.3

30.6 ± 0.5

11.2 ± 0.4

97

a Weights and weight changes are given as mean ± standard error.

b Number of animals surviving at 14 weeks/number initially in group

Table 2: Selected Organ Weights and Organ-Weight-to-Body-Weight Ratios

 

Chamber control

25 ppm

50 ppm

100 ppm

200 ppm

400 ppm

Male

n

10

10

10

10

10

10

Necropsy body wt

37.1 ± 0.6

36.9 ± 0.7

38.3 ± 0.9

35.9 ± 0.7

35.5 ± 1.0

36.2 ± 0.5

R Kidney absolute

0.330 ± 0.006

0.318 ± 0.009

0.336 ± 0.010

0.309 ± 0.008

0.295 ± 0.006*

0.307 ± 0.007*

R kidney relative

8.903 ± 0.167

8.629 ± 0.208

8.793 ± 0.267

8.617 ± 0.205

8.348 ± 0.145

8.469 ± 0.155

Liver absolute

1.617 ± 0.022

1.589 ± 0.028

1.702 ± 0.040

1.637 ± 0.024

1.660 ± 0.043

1.957 ± 0.057**

Liver relative

43.671 ± 0.880

43.123 ± 0.458

44.487 ± 0.806

45.651 ± 0.678

46.903 ± 0.750*

54.009 ± 1.465**

Thymus absolute

0.066 ± 0.004

0.063 ± 0.004

0.067 ± 0.003

0.057 ± 0.001

0.062 ± 0.004

0.051 ± 0.003**

Thymus relative

1.777 ± 0.081

1.699 ± 0.090

1.742 ± 0.063

1.591 ± 0.052

1.739 ± 0.115

1.397 ± 0.081**

Female

n

10

10

10

10

10

10

Necropsy body wt

31.5 ± 0.6

30.3 ± 0.6

32.7 ± 0.7

31.5 ± 1.1

30.7 ± 0.6

30.6 ± 0.5

Liver absolute

1.466 ± 0.041

1.475 ± 0.053

1.442 ± 0.036

1.548 ± 0.053

1.587 ± 0.037

1.730 ± 0.032**

Liver relative

46.542 ± 0.988

48.567 ± 1.239

44.214 ± 0.880

49.280 ± 0.672*

51.728 ± 0.795**

56.511 ± 0.705**

* Significantly different (P≤0.05) from the chamber control group by Williams’ test

** Significantly different (P≤0.01) from the chamber control group by Williams’ or Dunnett’s test

a Organ weights (absolute weights) and body weights are given in grams; organ-weight-to-body-weight ratios (relative weights) are given as mg organ weight/g body weight (mean ± standard error).

Table 3: Hematology data

Treatment concentration (ppm)

0 (control group)

25

50

100

200

400

Male

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hematocrit (spun) (%)

51.3 ± 0.3

50.5 ± 0.4

50.1 ± 0.3

51.1 ± 0.3

50.9 ± 0.4

49.8 ± 0.3*

Hemoglobin (g/dL)

16.0 ± 0.1

16.0 ± 0.1

15.7 ± 0.1

16.0 ± 0.0

16.1 ± 0.1

15.7 ± 0.1

Erythrocytes (106/µL)

10.51 ± 0.06

10.47 ± 0.06

10.23 ± 0.09

10.52 ± 0.04

10.55 ± 0.08

10.10 ± 0.07**

Reticulocytes(103/µL)

223.7 ± 19.4

200.3 ± 14.9

193.9 ± 16.4

205.2 ± 13.0

214.3 ± 16.4

202.2 ± 15.9

Nucleated erythrocytes/100 leukocytes

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

Mean cell volume (fL)

49.3 ± 0.3

49.2 ± 0.2

49.6 ± 0.2

49.4 ± 0.2

49.6 ± 0.2

50.6 ± 0.2**

Mean cell hemoglobin (pg)

15.3 ± 0.1

15.2 ± 0.1

15.4 ± 0.1

15.2 ± 0.0

15.2 ± 0.0

15.6 ± 0.1*

Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (g/dL)

31.0 ± 0.2

31.0 ± 0.1

31.0 ± 0.1

30.8 ± 0.2

30.7 ± 0.1

30.8 ± 0.1

Leukocytes (103/µL)

3.10 ± 0.40

2.94 ± 0.43

2.03 ± 0.26

2.47 ± 0.15

2.31 ± 0.26

1.87 ± 0.17*

Lymphocytes (103/µL)

2.60 ± 0.34

2.41 ± 0.39

1.73 ± 0.23

2.03 ± 0.13

1.93 ± 0.22

1.48 ± 0.14*

Female

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hematocrit (spun) (%)

49.6 ± 0.3

50.1 ± 0.4

49.4 ± 0.5

50.1 ± 0.3

48.9 ± 0.3

48.3 ± 0.3*

Hemoglobin (g/dL)

15.8 ± 0.1

16.0 ± 0.1

15.7 ± 0.2

15.9 ± 0.1

15.5 ± 0.1

15.5 ± 0.1*

Erythrocytes (106/µL)

10.21 ± 0.05

10.26 ± 0.06

10.10 ± 0.11

10.14 ± 0.06

9.96 ± 0.09*

9.85 ± 0.08**

Reticulocytes(103/µL)

269.5 ± 15.4

248.9 ± 14.9

251.9 ± 16.5

282.5 ± 18.3

240.1 ± 20.8

251.2 ± 15.3

Nucleated erythrocytes/100 leukocytes

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

0.00 ± 0.00

Mean cell volume (fL)

49.3 ± 0.2

49.7 ± 0.2

49.5 ± 0.3

50.1 ± 0.2*

49.7 ± 0.2

49.7 ± 0.2

Mean cell hemoglobin (pg)

15.5 ± 0.1

15.6 ± 0.1

15.5 ± 0.1

15.6 ± 0.1

15.6 ± 0.1

15.7 ± 0.1

Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (g/dL)

31.5 ± 0.2

31.4 ± 0.1

31.4 ± 0.2

31.1 ± 0.1

31.4 ± 0.1

31.6 ± 0.1

Leukocytes (103/µL)

3.65 ± 0.35

3.10 ± 0.27

3.34 ± 0.32

2.80 ± 0.29

3.11 ± 0.32

3.16 ± 0.34

Lymphocytes (103/µL)

3.09 ± 0.30

2.65 ± 0.23

2.78 ± 0.30

2.39 ± 0.25

2.60 ± 0.26

2.66 ± 0.27

* Significantly different (P≤0.05) from the chamber control group by Dunn’s or Shirley’s test

** P≤0.01

a Data are presented as mean ± standard error.Statistical tests were performed on unrounded data.

Table 4: Incidence of Non neoplastic lesions of the urinary bladder

Sex

Treatment concentration (ppm)

 0 (control group)

25

50

100

200

400

Male

Number Examined Microscopically

10

10

10

10

10

10

Male

Transitional Epithelium, Hyperplasiaa

0

0

0

7** (1.0)b

 

10** (2.0)b

 

10** (2.5)b

 

Female

Number Examined Microscopically

10

10

10

10

10

10

 Female

Transitional Epithelium, Hyperplasiaa

0

0

0

6** (1.0)b

 

10** (1.6)b

 

10** (2.2)b

 

** Significantly different (P≤0.01) from the chamber control group by the Fisher exact test

a Number of animals with lesion

b Average severity grade of lesions in affected animals: 1=minimal, 2=mild, 3=moderate, 4=marked

Table 5: Epididymal Spermatozoal Measurements for Male Mice

 

Chamber control

100 ppm

200 ppm

400 ppm

n

10

10

10

10

Epididymal spermatozoal measurements

Sperm motility (%)

90.25 ± 0.34

88.31 ± 0.86

89.74 ± 0.80

87.95 ± 1.08

Sperm (103/mg cauda epididymis)

704.8 ± 64.9

690.7 ± 55.9

537.5 ± 27.0*

445.8 ± 13.5**

Sperm (106/cauda epididymis)

24.45 ± 0.95

18.40 ± 0.41**

16.48 ± 0.72**

14.64 ± 0.25**

* Significantly different (P≤0.05) from the chamber control group by Shirley’s test.

** P≤0.01

a Data are presented as mean ± standard error.

 

Conclusions:
The LOEL for alpha pinene after 14 weeks of vapour inhalation exposure to mice was determined to be 100 ppm based on the effects on transitional epithelium hyperplasia of the urinary bladder for males and females and decrease in sperm per cauda epididymis for males, both observed in the 100 ppm treated group or greater.
Executive summary:

A 90-day repeated dose toxicity study (inhalation route) was performed on alpha pinene according to a similar method to OECD guideline 413 under GLP conditions. Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were exposed to the test item by whole body inhalation at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. During the study, clinical observations, bodyweight, organ weight, haematology, macropathology, histopathology and sperm motility and vaginal cytology investigations were undertaken.

All exposed mice survived to the end of the studies. Some small changes in organ weights as liver or kidney, were noted but without accompanying histopathologic lesions.

The major targets for test item toxicity were the urinary system and male reproductive system.

There was an increased incidence of transitional epithelium hyperplasia of the urinary bladder in males and females exposed to 100 ppm or more (LOEL=100 ppm), the severity of which increased with increasing exposure concentration. Transitional epithelium hyperplasia in the urinary bladder can be either reparative (e.g., regenerative or reactive) or preneoplastic, but there are no histologic features that can be used to reliably distinguish between the two etiologies. Specific histopathologic indicators of either type of hyperplasia in male or female mice were not evident; therefore, the neoplastic potential of the transitional epithelium hyperplasia of the urinary bladder is uncertain.

There were also significantly decreased numbers of sperm per mg cauda in 200 and 400 ppm males and cauda sperm in 100, 200, and 400 ppm males (LOEL=100 ppm). There was an accompanying minor decrease in epididymal weights that did not reach significance. Therefore, the possibility that the change in absolute sperm per cauda was due to a decrease in epididymal weight cannot be excluded. A definitive conclusion by histopathologic investigations could not be conducted due to an artifact resulting from formalin fixation of the male reproductive tract tissues. Thus, further studies on reproductive function are warranted. However, in females there were no changes in the percentage of time spent in the individual stages of the estrous cycle or in estrous cycle length at any exposure concentration. Also, there were no ovarian histopathologic findings. Thus, no evidence of reproductive toxicity in females was found.

Based on these results, the LOEL for alpha pinene was determined to be 100 ppm.

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
29 November 2004 - 16 December 2004
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to other study
Remarks:
of which it is a range-finding study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
- Principle of test: Mice were exposed to alpha pinene via whole body inhalation 5 days per week for 17 days
- Short description of test conditions: see below
- Parameters analysed / observed: see below
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
In compliance with Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice Regulations (21 CFR, Part 58)
Limit test:
no
Species:
mouse
Strain:
B6C3F1
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: NTP colony maintained at Taconic Farms, Inc. (Germantown, NY)
- Females (if applicable) nulliparous and non-pregnant: not specified
- Age at study initiation: 6 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 23.1-23.9 g (male) and 19.8-20.6 g (female)
- Fasting period before study: not specified
- Housing: individually. Cages: Stainless steel, wire bottom (Lab Products, Inc., Seaford, DE); changed weekly. Cageboard: Untreated paper cage pan liner (Shepherd Specialty Papers, Kalamazoo, MI), changed daily
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): NTP-2000 irradiated wafers (Zeigler Brothers, Inc., Gardners, PA), available ad libitum (except during exposure periods)
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): Tap water (Richland, WA, municipal supply) via automatic watering system (Edstrom Industries, Waterford, WI); available ad libitum
- Acclimation period: Animals were quarantined for 11 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 72 ± 3ºF
- Humidity (%): 50% ± 15%
- Air changes (per hr): 15 ± 2/hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours/day

Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: Test item was held in an 8-gallon stainless-steel chemical reservoir. Test item was pumped into a heated glass column filled with glass beads that increased the surface area for vaporization. Heated nitrogen entered the column from below and assisted in vaporizing the chemical while conveying it into a short distribution manifold. Concentration in the manifold was determined by the chemical pump rate, nitrogen flow rate, and dilution air flow rate. The pressure in the distribution manifold was kept fixed to ensure constant flow through the manifold and into all chambers as the flow of vapor to each chamber was adjusted.
Metering valves at the manifold controlled flow to each chamber through individual Teflon® delivery lines that carried the vapor from the manifold to three-way exposure valves at the chamber inlets. The exposure valves diverted vapor delivery to exposure chamber exhaust until the generation system was stable and exposures were ready to proceed. To initiate exposure, the chamber exposure valves were rotated to allow the test item vapor to flow to each exposure chamber inlet duct where it was further diluted with filtered, conditioned air to achieve the desired exposure concentration.
- Temperature, humidity, pressure in air chamber: 72 ± 3ºF; 50% ± 15%.
- Air change rate: 15 air changes per hour
- Method of particle size determination: A condensation particle detector (Model 3022A, TSI, Inc., St. Paul, MN) was used with and without animals in the exposure chambers. No particle counts above the minimum resolvable level (approximately 200 particles/cm3) were detected.

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: on-line gas chromatograph. Samples were analyzed using GC/FID to measure the stability and purity of test item in the generation and delivery system. To assess whether impurities or degradation products coeluted with test item or the solvent, a second GC/FID analysis of the samples was performed using a polar column capable of resolving compounds with similar boiling points and polarities.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Chamber and room concentrations of alpha pinene were monitored by an on-line gas chromatograph. Samples were drawn from each exposure chamber approximately every 20 minutes during each 6-hour exposure period.
The average concentration measured were: 99.8 ± 1.6 ppm for the 100 ppm group, 200 ± 1 for the 200 ppm group, 404 ± 4ppm for the 400 ppm group, 794 ± 37 ppm for the 800 ppm group and 1540 ± 129 ppm for the 1600 ppm group.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
17 days; 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day.
Frequency of treatment:
Five times per week, weekdays only
Dose / conc.:
0 ppm
Dose / conc.:
100 ppm
Remarks:
(0.56 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
200 ppm
Remarks:
(1.13 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
400 ppm
Remarks:
(2.26 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
800 ppm
Remarks:
(4.53 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
1 600 ppm
Remarks:
(9.06 mg/L)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
yes
Positive control:
no
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily on exposure days and at the end of the studies.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: initially, on days 6 and 13, and at the end of the studies.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): No

FOOD EFFICIENCY: No

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: No

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: No

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

IMMUNOLOGY: No
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes. Organs weighed were heart, right kidney, liver, lung, right testis, and thymus.
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes. Histopathology was performed on 0, 400, 800, and 1,600 ppm rats. In addition to gross lesions and tissue masses, the lung and nose were examined. Tissues for microscopic examination were fixed and preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin, processed and trimmed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned to a thickness of 4 to 6 μm, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
Statistics:
Calculation and Analysis of Lesion Incidences: Fisher exact test (Gart et al., 1979) was used to determine significance.
Analysis of Continuous Variables:
Organ and body weight data were analyzed with the parametric multiple comparison procedures of Dunnett (1955) and Williams (1971, 1972).
Jonckheere’s test (Jonckheere, 1954) was used to assess the significance of the exposure-related trends and to determine whether a trend-sensitive test (Williams’ or Shirley’s test) was more appropriate for pairwise comparisons than a test that does not assume a monotonic exposure-related trend (Dunnett’s or Dunn’s test).
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Lethargy and abnormal breathing were observed in three 800 ppm males and two 1,600 ppm males, and lethargy was observed in one 1,600 ppm female. Ataxia was observed in two 800 ppm males, two 1,600 ppm males, and four 800 ppm females.
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence):
All 800 and 1,600 ppm males and females died early.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The final mean body weights and mean body weight gains of all surviving groups of exposed mice were similar to those of the chamber controls.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The absolute and relative liver weights of 400 ppm males and females and the relative liver weight of 200 ppm males were significantly greater (up to 20%) than those of the chamber controls. The absolute and relative kidney weights of 100 ppm females were significantly greater (18% and 15%, respectively) than those of the chamber controls as was the relative kidney weight of 400 ppm males (12%).
Gross pathological findings:
not specified
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
In the nose, there were significantly increased incidences of minimal olfactory epithelial degeneration in 800 and 1,600 ppm males (chamber controls, 0/5; 100 ppm, 0/0; 200 ppm, 0/0; 400 ppm, 0/5; 800 ppm, 5/5; 1,600 ppm, 4/5) and females (0/5, 0/0, 0/0, 0/5, 4/5, 5/5). Degeneration was characterized by slight disorganization of the normal olfactory architecture in the Level I and II nasal sections and the epithelial cells in the mid layers of the olfactory epithelium were often pyknotic. The mucosa often had an undulating appearance, and strands of proteinaceous debris and/or mucus were present in the nasal passages.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Details on results:
Based on decreased survival and nonneoplastic lesions in the nose of 800 and 1,600 ppm males and females observed in this study, exposure concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm alpha pinene were selected for the 3-month study in mice.
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
800 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
mortality
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Critical effects observed:
not specified

Table 1: Survival and Body Weights

 

Concentration

(ppm)

Survivalb

Initial Body Weight (g)

Final Body Weight (g)

Change in Body Weight (g)

Final Weight Relative to Controls (%)

Male

 

0

5/5

23.7 ± 0.4

27.9 ± 0.7

4.1 ± 0.4

 

100

5 /5

23.4 ± 0.7

26.7 ± 0.7

3.4 ± 0.3

96

200

5/5

23.1 ± 0.8

26.6 ± 0.9

3.5 ± 0.4

95

400

5/5

23.9 ± 0.5

27.0 ± 0.6

3.1 ± 0.2

97

800

0/5 c

23.5 ± 05

-

-

-

1600

0/5 d

23.5 ± 0.6

-

-

-

Female

0

5/5

20.2 ± 0.4

23.0 ± 0.4

2.8 ± 0.3

 

100

5/5

20.6 ± 0.5

23.6 ± 0.5

3.0± 0.3

103

200

5/5

20.2 ± 0.5

23.2 ± 0.7

3.0 ± 0.7

101

400

5/5

19.9 ± 0.5

22.6 ± 0.5

2.7 ± 0.3

99

800

0/5 e

19.8 ± 0.3

-

-

-

1600

0/5 f

19.8 ± 0.2

-

-

-

a Weights and weight changes are given as mean ± standard error. Subsequent calculations are based on animals surviving to the end of the study.

b Number of animals surviving at day 18/number initially in group

c Days of death: 2, 2, 3, 4, 16

d Days of death: 1, 1, 1, 1, 2

e Day of deaths: 2

f Day of deaths: 1

Table 2: Selected Organ Weights and Organ-Weight-to-Body-Weight Ratios

 

 

 

Chamber Control

100 ppm

200 ppm

400 ppm

 

 

n

5

5

5

5

Male

 

Necropsy body wt

27.9 ± 0.7

26.7 ± 0.7

26.6 ± 0.9

27.0 ± 0.6

Heart

Absolute

0.136 ± 0.006

0.124 ± 0.004

0.126 ± 0.005

0.136 ± 0.008

Relative

4.872 ± 0.140

4.640 ± 0.127

4.743 ± 0.182

5.028 ± 0.223

R. Kidney

Absolute

0.234 ± 0.011

0.246 ± 0.009

0.236 ± 0.015

0.254 ± 0.012

Relative

8.377 ± 0.226

9.194 ± 0.191

8.832 ± 0.297

9.401 ± 0.337*

Liver

Absolute

1.436 ± 0.066

1.394 ± 0.044

1.476 ± 0.069

1.672 ± 0.056*

Relative

51.415 ± 1.352

52.117 ± 0.648

55.355 ± 0.721*

61.935 ± 1.281**

Lung

Absolute

0.184 ± 0.011

0.186 ± 0.007

0.200 ± 0.017

0.184 ± 0.006

Relative

6.579 ± 0.260

6.953 ± 0.154

7.498 ± 0.510

6.814 ± 0.120

R. Testis

Absolute

0.099 ± 0.002

0.095 ± 0.004

0.089 ± 0.010

0.094 ± 0.002

Relative

3.539 ± 0.048

3.536 ± 0.109

3.301 ± 0.287

3.478 ± 0.074

Thymus

Absolute

0.057 ± 0.007

0.048 ± 0.004

0.050 ± 0.003

0.049 ± 0.007

Relative

2.030 ± 0.192

1.801 ± 0.131

1.882 ± 0.105

1.831 ± 0.256

Female

 

 

Necropsy body wt

 23.0 ± 0.4

 23.6 ± 0.5

 23.2 ± 0.7

 22.6 ± 0.5

Heart

Absolute

0.118 ± 0.004

0.122 ± 0.004

0.120 ± 0.003

0.118 ± 0.002

Relative

5.135 ± 0.090

5.163 ± 0.137

5.165 ± 0.034

5.221 ± 0.137

R. Kidney

Absolute

0.166 ± 0.005

0.196 ± 0.007*

0.184 ± 0.008

0.180 ± 0.006

Relative

7.225 ± 0.137

8.283 ± 0.132**

7.919 ± 0.273

7.952 ± 0.234

Liver

Absolute

1.230 ± 0.029

1.300 ± 0.033

1.320 ± 0.065

1.426 ± 0.036*

Relative

53.557 ± 0.672

54.996 ± 0.772

56.718 ± 1.676

63.001 ± 0.995**

Lung

Absolute

0.182 ± 0.006

0.190 ± 0.005

0.188 ± 0.004

0.198 ± 0.015

Relative

7.932 ± 0.261

8.033 ± 0.085

8.114 ± 0.273

8.756 ± 0.661

Thymus

Absolute

0.074 ± 0.003

0.073 ± 0.005

0.068 ± 0.003

0.060 ± 0.004

Relative

3.220 ± 0.122

3.059 ± 0.157

2.913 ± 0.123

2.654 ± 0.114*

* Significantly different (P≤0.05) from the chamber control group by Williams’ or Dunnett’s test

** P≤0.01

a Organ weights (absolute weights) and body weights are given in grams; organ-weight-to-body-weight ratios (relative weights) are given as mg organ weight/g body weight (mean ± standard error).

No data were available for the 800 and 1,600 ppm groups due to 100% mortality.

Conclusions:
In the 2-week study with alpha-pinene, the two highest exposure concentrations (800 and 1600 ppm) were overtly toxic to mice, resulting in clinical findings of toxicity and death. Based on this experiment a maximal dose of 400 ppm was administrated in the 90-day study.
Executive summary:

A 2-week repeated dose toxicity study (inhalation route) was performed on alpha pinene as a dose range-finding study prior to a 3 month main test. Groups of 5 male and 5 female mice were exposed to the test item by whole body inhalation at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 17 days. During the study, clinical observations, bodyweight, organ weight, macropathology and histopathology investigations were undertaken. The two highest exposure concentrations (800 and 1,600 ppm) were overtly toxic to mice, resulting in clinical findings of toxicity (e.g., ataxia, tremors, abnormal breathing) and death. In the remaining exposed groups, there was evidence of a general increase in absolute and/or relative liver and kidney weights compared to chamber control mice of both sexes, but not considered to be life threatening. In the histopathologic exams only minimal olfactory epithelial degeneration of nasal tissue was found in male and female mice exposed to 800 and 1600 ppm. Therefore, 400 ppm was selected as the high concentration for the 3-month studies in mice.

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
29 November 2004 - 15 December 2004
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to other study
Remarks:
of which it is a range-finding study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
- Principle of test: Rats were exposed to alpha pinene via whole body inhalation 5 days per week for 16 days
- Short description of test conditions: see below
- Parameters analysed / observed: see below
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
In compliance with Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice Regulations (21 CFR, Part 58)
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Fischer 344
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: NTP colony maintained at Taconic Farms, Inc. (Germantown, NY)
- Females (if applicable) nulliparous and non-pregnant: not specified
- Age at study initiation: 6 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 100-102 g (male) and 90-92 g (female)
- Fasting period before study: not specified
- Housing: individually. Cages: Stainless steel, wire bottom (Lab Products, Inc., Seaford, DE); changed weekly. Cageboard: Untreated paper cage pan liner (Shepherd Specialty Papers, Kalamazoo, MI), changed daily
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): NTP-2000 irradiated wafers (Zeigler Brothers, Inc., Gardners, PA), available ad libitum (except during exposure periods)
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): Tap water (Richland, WA, municipal supply) via automatic watering system (Edstrom Industries, Waterford, WI); available ad libitum
- Acclimation period: Animals were quarantined for 11 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 72 ± 3ºF
- Humidity (%): 50% ± 15%
- Air changes (per hr): 15 ± 2/hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours/day

Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: Test item was held in an 8-gallon stainless-steel chemical reservoir. Test item was pumped into a heated glass column filled with glass beads that increased the surface area for vaporization. Heated nitrogen entered the column from below and assisted in vaporizing the chemical while conveying it into a short distribution manifold. Concentration in the manifold was determined by the chemical pump rate, nitrogen flow rate, and dilution air flow rate. The pressure in the distribution manifold was kept fixed to ensure constant flow through the manifold and into all chambers as the flow of vapor to each chamber was adjusted.
Metering valves at the manifold controlled flow to each chamber through individual Teflon® delivery lines that carried the vapor from the manifold to three-way exposure valves at the chamber inlets. The exposure valves diverted vapor delivery to exposure chamber exhaust until the generation system was stable and exposures were ready to proceed. To initiate exposure, the chamber exposure valves were rotated to allow the test item vapor to flow to each exposure chamber inlet duct where it was further diluted with filtered, conditioned air to achieve the desired exposure concentration.
- Temperature, humidity, pressure in air chamber: 72 ± 3ºF; 50% ± 15%.
- Air change rate: 15 air changes per hour
- Method of particle size determination: A condensation particle detector (Model 3022A, TSI, Inc., St. Paul, MN) was used with and without animals in the exposure chambers. No particle counts above the minimum resolvable level (approximately 200 particles/cm3) were detected.

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: on-line gas chromatograph. Samples were analyzed using GC/FID to measure the stability and purity of test item in the generation and delivery system. To assess whether impurities or degradation products coeluted with test item or the solvent, a second GC/FID analysis of the samples was performed using a polar column capable of resolving compounds with similar boiling points and polarities.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Chamber and room concentrations of alpha pinene were monitored by an on-line gas chromatograph. Samples were drawn from each exposure chamber approximately every 20 minutes during each 6-hour exposure period.
The average concentration measured were: 99.6 ± 1.4 ppm for the 100 ppm group, 200 ± 1 for the 200 ppm group, 404 ± 4ppm for the 400 ppm group, 794 ± 37 ppm for the 800 ppm group and 1540 ± 130 ppm for the 1600 ppm group.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
16 days; 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day.
Frequency of treatment:
Five times per week, weekdays only
Dose / conc.:
0 ppm
Dose / conc.:
100 ppm
Remarks:
(0.56 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
200 ppm
Remarks:
(1.13 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
400 ppm
Remarks:
(2.26 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
800 ppm
Remarks:
(4.53 mg/L)
Dose / conc.:
1 600 ppm
Remarks:
(9.06 mg/L)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
yes
Positive control:
no
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily on exposure days and at the end of the studies.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: initially, on days 6 and 13, and at the end of the studies.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): No

FOOD EFFICIENCY: No

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: No

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: No

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

IMMUNOLOGY: No
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes. Organs weighed were heart, right kidney, liver, lung, right testis, and thymus.
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes. Histopathology was performed on 0, 400, 800, and 1,600 ppm rats. In addition to gross lesions and tissue masses, the lung and nose were examined. Tissues for microscopic examination were fixed and preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin, processed and trimmed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned to a thickness of 4 to 6 μm, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
Statistics:
Calculation and Analysis of Lesion Incidences: Fisher exact test (Gart et al., 1979) was used to determine significance.
Analysis of Continuous Variables:
Organ and body weight data were analyzed with the parametric multiple comparison procedures of Dunnett (1955) and Williams (1971, 1972).
Jonckheere’s test (Jonckheere, 1954) was used to assess the significance of the exposure-related trends and to determine whether a trend-sensitive test (Williams’ or Shirley’s test) was more appropriate for pairwise comparisons than a test that does not assume a monotonic exposure-related trend (Dunnett’s or Dunn’s test).
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Abnormal breathing, ataxia, lethargy, and nasal/eye discharge occurred in one 1,600 ppm male. In rats exposed to 800 ppm, nasal/eye discharge was observed in two males and five females, ataxia was observed in two males and two females, and tremors and abnormal breathing were observed in one male. Nasal/eye discharge and tremors were observed in three females exposed to 400 ppm.
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence):
All rats exposed to 1600 ppm were found dead by day 2. All rats exposed to 800 ppm were found dead by day 16.
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Final mean body weights of all exposed rats that survived to the end of the study were similar to those of the chamber controls; the mean body weight gain of 400 ppm females was significantly less than that of the chamber control group.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The absolute liver weights of 400 ppm males and 200 ppm females were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. The relative liver weights of 400 ppm males and all surviving groups of exposed females were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. The absolute kidney weight of 200 ppm females was significantly greater than that of the chamber controls, and the relative kidney weights of all surviving groups of exposed males and 200 and 400 ppm females were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. In females, the absolute lung weights of the 100 and 200 ppm groups and the relative lung weight of the 100 ppm group were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls.
There were no exposure-related microscopic findings.
Gross pathological findings:
not specified
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no exposure-related microscopic findings
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Details on results:
Based on the mortality of 800 and 1600 ppm rats and a lack of significant histopathologic findings in rats exposed to 400 ppm or less, exposure concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm alpha pinene were selected for the 3-month rat study.
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
800 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
mortality
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Critical effects observed:
not specified

Table 1: Survival and Body Weights

Concentration

(ppm)

Survivalb

Initial BodyWeight (g)

Final BodyWeight (g)

Change in Body Weight (g)

Final Weight Relative to Controls (%)

Male

 

0

5/5

101± 3

172 ± 3

74 ± 4

 

100

5/5

101± 3

171 ± 2

70 ± 1

99

200

5/5

102 ± 3

173 ± 7

71 ± 5

100

400

5/5

100 ± 3

176 ± 4

75 ± 2

102

800

0/5 c

101± 3

-

-

-

1600

0/5 d

102 ± 4

-

-

-

Female

0

 5/5

91± 2

125 ± 3

34 ± 2

 

100

 5/5

90 ± 2

130 ± 3

40 ± 2

104

200

 5/5

91± 2

129 ± 2

38 ± 2

103

400

5/5

92 ± 1

118 ± 2

26 ± 2*

94

800

0/5 e

92 ± 2

-

-

-

1600

0/5 f

91 ± 1

-

-

-

* Significantly different (P≤0.05) from the chamber control group by Dunnett’s test

a Weights and weight changes are given as mean ± standard error. Subsequent calculations are based on animals surviving to the end of the study.

b Number of animals surviving at day 17/number initially in group

c Days of death: 8, 8, 8, 8, 16

d Days of death: 1, 1, 1, 1, 2

e Day of deaths: 8

f Day of deaths: 1

Table 2: Selected Organ Weights and Organ-Weight-to-Body-Weight Ratios

 

 

Chamber control

 100 ppm

 200 ppm

 400 ppm

Male

 

n

5

5

5

5

 

Necropsy body wt

172 ± 3

171 ± 2

173 ± 7

176 ± 4

Heart

Absolute

0.620 ± 0.008

0.614 ± 0.006

0.592 ± 0.028

0.620 ± 0.018

 

Relative

3.602 ± 0.098

3.584 ± 0.033

3.418 ± 0.039

3.534 ± 0.059

R. Kidney

Absolute

0.714 ± 0.014

0.758 ± 0.020

0.790 ± 0.044

0.796 ± 0.026

Relative

4.142 ± 0.075

4.425 ± 0.117*

4.556 ± 0.098**

4.535 ± 0.069**

Liver

Absolute

7.988 ± 0.154

8.064 ± 0.196

8.284 ± 0.410

9.668 ± 0.422**

Relative

46.331 ± 0.589

47.091 ± 1.287

47.824 ± 0.791

55.069 ± 1.780**

Lung

Absolute

1.294 ± 0.119

1.216 ± 0.067

1.228 ± 0.060

1.566 ± 0.075

Relative

7.504 ± 0.660

7.081 ± 0.309

7.100 ± 0.245

8.971 ± 0.568

R. Testis

Absolute

0.994 ± 0.015

0.984 ± 0.016

0.981 ± 0.034

0.991 ± 0.016

Relative

5.770 ± 0.130

5.744 ± 0.064

5.681 ± 0.157

5.654 ± 0.085

Thymus

Absolute

0.403 ± 0.012

0.439 ± 0.016

0.427 ± 0.016

0.426 ± 0.007

Relative

2.344 ± 0.095

2.565 ± 0.106

2.477 ± 0.096

2.431 ± 0.037

Female

 

Necropsy body wt wtwwt

125 ± 3

130 ± 3

129 ± 2

118 ± 2

Heart

 

Absolute

0.466 ± 0.012

0.484 ± 0.022

0.480 ± 0.008

0.444 ± 0.017

Relative

3.728 ± 0.089

3.727 ± 0.080

3.736 ± 0.073

3.752 ± 0.091

R. Kidney

Absolute

0.530 ± 0.021 b

0.586 ± 0.016

0.602 ± 0.007*

0.578 ± 0.017

Relative

4.220 ± 0.058 b

4.521 ± 0.038

4.686 ± 0.071**

4.896 ± 0.166**

Liver

Absolute

4.854 ± 0.194

5.404 ± 0.260

5.764 ± 0.051**

5.244 ± 0.138

Relative

38.750 ± 0.728

41.602 ± 1.031*

44.888 ± 0.926**

44.379 ± 1.012**

Lung

Absolute

0.850 ± 0.022

1.066 ± 0.041**

1.042 ± 0.046*

0.862 ± 0.060

Relative

6.808 ± 0.233

8.221 ± 0.223*

8.114 ± 0.371

7.315 ± 0.572

Thymus

Absolute

0.317 ± 0.003

0.335 ± 0.006

0.361 ± 0.011*

0.285 ± 0.017

Relative

2.535 ± 0.052

2.590 ± 0.059

2.807 ± 0.062

2.413 ± 0.149

* Significantly different (P≤0.05) from the chamber control group by Williams’ or Dunnett’s test

** P≤0.01

a Organ weights (absolute weights) and body weights are given in grams; organ-weight-to-body-weight ratios (relative weights) are given as mg organ weight/g body weight (mean ± standard error).

No data were available for the 800 and 1,600 ppm groups due to 100% mortality.

b n=4

Conclusions:
In the 2-week study with alpha-pinene, the two highest exposure concentrations (800 and 1600 ppm) were overtly toxic to rats, resulting in clinical findings of toxicity and death. Based on this experiment a maximal dose of 400 ppm was administrated in the 90-day study.
Executive summary:

A 2-week repeated dose toxicity study (inhalation route) was performed on alpha pinene as a dose range-finding study prior to a 3 month main test. Groups of 5 male and 5 female rats were exposed to the test item by whole body inhalation at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 16 days. During the study, clinical observations, bodyweight, organ weight, macropathology and histopathology investigations were undertaken. The two highest exposure concentrations (800 and 1,600 ppm) were overtly toxic to rats, resulting in clinical findings of toxicity (e.g., ataxia, tremors, abnormal breathing) and death. In the remaining exposed groups, there was evidence of a general increase in absolute and/or relative liver and kidney weights compared to chamber control rats of both sexes, but not considered to be life threatening. There were no significant histopathologic findings in rats exposed to 400 ppm or less. Therefore, 400 ppm was selected as the high concentration for the 3-month studies in rats.

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH
The target substance d-alpha pinene is an enantiomeric form of the analogue substance alpha pinene, therefore they share the same functional groups and also have comparable values for the relevant molecular properties.
See attached the reporting format.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOEL
Effect level:
100 ppm
Based on:
other: Read-across from an analogue
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
other: Read-across from an analogue for which significantly decreased sperm count per mg cauda in males treated at 200 and 400 ppm and in cauda sperm counts in 100, 200, and 400 ppm groups were observed.
Remarks on result:
other: read-across from an analogue for which LOEL = 100 ppm
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOEL
Effect level:
100 ppm
Based on:
other: Read-across from an analogue
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Remarks on result:
other: Read-across from an analogue for which LOEL=100ppm
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
100 ppm
System:
urinary
Organ:
bladder
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
not specified
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
100 ppm
System:
male reproductive system
Organ:
cauda epididymis
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
not specified
Conclusions:
Based on read across from the analogue alpha pinene, the inhalation 90d-LOEL in mice for d-alpha pinene was determined to be 100 ppm based on the effects on transitional epithelium hyperplasia of the urinary bladder for males and females and decrease in sperm per cauda epididymis for males.
Executive summary:

A 90-day repeated dose toxicity study (inhalation route) was performed on alpha pinene according to a similar method to OECD guideline 413 under GLP conditions. Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were exposed to the test item by whole body inhalation at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. During the study, clinical observations, bodyweight, organ weight, haematology, macropathology, histopathology and sperm motility and vaginal cytology investigations were undertaken.

All exposed mice survived to the end of the studies. Some small changes in organ weights as liver or kidney, were noted but without accompanying histopathologic lesions.

The major targets for test item toxicity were the urinary system and male reproductive system.

There was an increased incidence of transitional epithelium hyperplasia of the urinary bladder in males and females exposed to 100 ppm or more (LOEL=100 ppm), the severity of which increased with increasing exposure concentration. Transitional epithelium hyperplasia in the urinary bladder can be either reparative (e.g., regenerative or reactive) or preneoplastic, but there are no histologic features that can be used to reliably distinguish between the two etiologies. Specific histopathologic indicators of either type of hyperplasia in male or female mice were not evident; therefore, the neoplastic potential of the transitional epithelium hyperplasia of the urinary bladder is uncertain.

There were also significantly decreased numbers of sperm per mg cauda in 200 and 400 ppm males and cauda sperm in 100, 200, and 400 ppm males (LOEL=100 ppm). There was an accompanying minor decrease in epididymal weights that did not reach significance. Therefore, the possibility that the change in absolute sperm per cauda was due to a decrease in epididymal weight cannot be excluded. A definitive conclusion by histopathologic investigations could not be conducted due to an artifact resulting from formalin fixation of the male reproductive tract tissues. Thus, further studies on reproductive function are warranted. However, in females there were no changes in the percentage of time spent in the individual stages of the estrous cycle or in estrous cycle length at any exposure concentration. Also, there were no ovarian histopathologic findings. Thus, no evidence of reproductive toxicity in females was found.

Based on these results, the read-across approach was applied and the LOEL for d-alpha pinene was determined to be 100 ppm.

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Justification for type of information:
JUSTIFICATION FOR DATA WAIVING
The target substance d-alpha pinene is an enantiomeric form of the analogue substance alpha pinene, therefore they share the same functional groups and also have comparable values for the relevant molecular properties.
See attached the reporting format.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOEL
Effect level:
25 ppm
Based on:
other: read across from an analogue
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Remarks on result:
other: read-across from an analogue for which LOEL=25 ppm
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOEL
Effect level:
200 ppm
Based on:
other: Read across from an analogue
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
other: Read-across from an analogue for which significant decrease of sperm per cauda in 200 and 400 ppm was observed.
Remarks on result:
other: read-across from an analogue for which LOEL = 200 ppm
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
25 ppm
System:
urinary
Organ:
kidney
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
not specified
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
200 ppm
System:
male reproductive system
Organ:
cauda epididymis
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
not specified
Conclusions:
In a repeated dose toxicity study with alpha pinene after 14 weeks of vapour inhalation exposure to rats, increases of incidences of kidney lesions at 25 ppm and decrease of sperm per cauda at 200 ppm in male rats were reported. Based on read across from the analogue alpha pinene, the inhalation 90d-LOEL in rats for d-alpha pinene was determined to be 25 ppm based on increases of incidences of kidney lesions in male rats.
Executive summary:

A 90-day repeated dose toxicity study (inhalation route) was performed on alpha pinene according to a similar method to OECD guideline 413 under GLP conditions. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to the test item by whole body inhalation at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. During the study, clinical observations, bodyweight, organ weight, haematology, clinical chemistry, macropathology, histopathology and sperm motility and vaginal cytology investigations were undertaken.

All exposed male rats survived to the end of the studies, while six 400 ppm female rats died before the end of the study. The major targets for test item toxicity were the liver, urinary system, and male reproductive system.

Relative liver weights were significantly greater compared to controls in males at 100 ppm and greater and in all females treated groups (LOEL=25 ppm), however, without accompanying histopathologic changes. Increased liver weight is a common finding in toxicity studies and can be associated with induction of liver metabolizing enzymes.

Absolute kidney weights were increased in male rats exposed to 100 ppm or greater and 50 and 200 ppm female rats; in males, these increases were accompanied by histopathologic lesions including granular casts and hyaline droplet accumulation at all exposure concentrations, as well as exposure concentration-dependent increases in the severity of nephropathy (LOEL=25 ppm), which is a common spontaneous lesion observed in male rats (α2μ-globulin nephropathy). This syndrome has been produced by structurally diverse chemicals and is thought to be secondary to toxicity caused by accumulation of hyaline droplets within the renal tubule epithelial cells. However, measures of α2μ-globulin were not performed in the current study. While it is possible that the observed kidney lesions are secondary to α2μ-globulin nephropathy, the increases in kidney weights in both male and female rats suggest that another independent mechanism of toxicity may have played a role in the lesion development.

There were also significantly lower numbers of sperm per cauda compared to controls in 200 and 400 ppm male rats (LOEL=200 ppm). There was an accompanying minor decrease in epididymal weights that did not reach significance. Therefore, the possibility that the change in absolute sperm per cauda was due to a decrease in epididymal weight cannot be excluded. A definitive conclusion by histopathologic investigations could not be conducted due to an artifact resulting from formalin fixation of the male reproductive tract tissues. Thus, further studies on reproductive function are warranted.

However, in females the minor changes in cycle length observed only in the 400 ppm group, combined with a lack of ovarian histopathology findings, does not provide sufficient evidence for reproductive toxicity.

Based on these results, the read-across approach was applied and the LOEL for d-alpha pinene was determined to be 25 ppm based on increases of incidences of kidney lesions in male rats.

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH
The target substance d-alpha pinene is an enantiomeric form of the analogue substance alpha pinene, therefore they share the same functional groups and also have comparable values for the relevant molecular properties.
See attached the reporting format.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
800 ppm
Based on:
other: Read-across from an analogue
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
mortality
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Remarks on result:
other: Read-across from an analogue for which LOAEL=800ppm
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
Based on the 2-week study with the analogue alpha pinene and the read across applied from this analogue, 400 ppm is determined to be the maximal dose for d-alpha pinene in the 90-day study.
Executive summary:

A 2-week repeated dose toxicity study (inhalation route) was performed on alpha pinene as a dose range-finding study prior to a 3 month main test. Groups of 5 male and 5 female mice were exposed to the test item by whole body inhalation at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 17 days. During the study, clinical observations, bodyweight, organ weight, macropathology and histopathology investigations were undertaken. The two highest exposure concentrations (800 and 1,600 ppm) were overtly toxic to mice, resulting in clinical findings of toxicity (e.g., ataxia, tremors, abnormal breathing) and death. In the remaining exposed groups, there was evidence of a general increase in absolute and/or relative liver and kidney weights compared to chamber control mice of both sexes, but not considered to be life threatening. In the histopathologic exams only minimal olfactory epithelial degeneration of nasal tissue was found in male and female mice exposed to 800 and 1600 ppm. Therefore, 400 ppm was selected as the high concentration for the 3-month studies in mice. Based on these results, the read-across approach was applied and 400 ppm is determined to be the maximal dose for d-alpha pinene in the 90-day study.

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH
The target substance d-alpha pinene is an enantiomeric form of the analogue substance alpha pinene, therefore they share the same functional groups and also have comparable values for the relevant molecular properties.
See attached the reporting format.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
800 ppm
Based on:
other: Read-across from an analogue
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
mortality
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Remarks on result:
other: Read-across from an analogue for which LOAEL=800 ppm
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
Based on the 2-week study with the analogue alpha pinene and the read across applied from this analogue, 400 ppm is determined to be the maximal dose for d-alpha pinene in the 90-day study.
Executive summary:

A 2-week repeated dose toxicity study (inhalation route) was performed on alpha pinene as a dose range-finding study prior to a 3 month main test. Groups of 5 male and 5 female rats were exposed to the test item by whole body inhalation at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 16 days. During the study, clinical observations, bodyweight, organ weight, macropathology and histopathology investigations were undertaken. The two highest exposure concentrations (800 and 1,600 ppm) were overtly toxic to rats, resulting in clinical findings of toxicity (e.g., ataxia, tremors, abnormal breathing) and death. In the remaining exposed groups, there was evidence of a general increase in absolute and/or relative liver and kidney weights compared to chamber control rats of both sexes, but not considered to be life threatening. There were no significant histopathologic findings in rats exposed to 400 ppm or less. Therefore, 400 ppm was selected as the high concentration for the 3-month studies in rats. Based on these results, the read-across approach was applied and 400 ppm is determined to be the maximal dose for d-alpha pinene in the 90-day study.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LOAEC
140 mg/m³
Study duration:
subchronic
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The study has a Klimisch score = 2

System:
urinary
Organ:
kidney

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Weight of evidence:

 

Read-across from experimental results with alpha pinene in rat via inhalation:

A 90-day repeated dose toxicity study (inhalation route) was performed on alpha pinene according to a similar method to OECD guideline 413 under GLP conditions. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to the test item by whole body inhalation at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. During the study, clinical observations, bodyweight, organ weight, haematology, clinical chemistry, macropathology, histopathology and sperm motility and vaginal cytology investigations were undertaken.

All exposed male rats survived to the end of the studies, while six 400 ppm female rats died before the end of the study. The major targets for test item toxicity were the liver, urinary system, and male reproductive system.

Relative liver weights were significantly greater compared to controls in males at 100 ppm and greater and in all females treated groups (LOEL=25 ppm), however, without accompanying histopathologic changes. Increased liver weight is a common finding in toxicity studies and can be associated with induction of liver metabolizing enzymes.

Absolute kidney weights were increased in male rats exposed to 100 ppm or greater and 50 and 200 ppm female rats; in males, these increases were accompanied by histopathologic lesions including granular casts and hyaline droplet accumulation at all exposure concentrations, as well as exposure concentration-dependent increases in the severity of nephropathy (LOEL=25 ppm), which is a common spontaneous lesion observed in male rats (α2μ-globulin nephropathy). This syndrome has been produced by structurally diverse chemicals and is thought to be secondary to toxicity caused by accumulation of hyaline droplets within the renal tubule epithelial cells. However, measures of α2μ-globulin were not performed in the current study. While it is possible that the observed kidney lesions are secondary to α2μ-globulin nephropathy, the increases in kidney weights in both male and female rats suggest that another independent mechanism of toxicity may have played a role in the lesion development.

There were also significantly lower numbers of sperm per cauda compared to controls in 200 and 400 ppm male rats (LOEL=200 ppm). There was an accompanying minor decrease in epididymal weights that did not reach significance. Therefore, the possibility that the change in absolute sperm per cauda was due to a decrease in epididymal weight cannot be excluded. A definitive conclusion by histopathologic investigations could not be conducted due to an artifact resulting from formalin fixation of the male reproductive tract tissues. Thus, further studies on reproductive function are warranted.

However, in females the minor changes in cycle length observed only in the 400 ppm group, combined with a lack of ovarian histopathology findings, does not provide sufficient evidence for reproductive toxicity.

Based on these results, the read-across approach was applied and the LOEL for d-alpha pinene was determined to be 25 ppm based on increases of incidences of kidney lesions in male rats.

Read-across from experimental results with alpha pinene in mouse via inhalation:

A 90-day repeated dose toxicity study (inhalation route) was performed on alpha pinene according to a similar method to OECD guideline 413 under GLP conditions. Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were exposed to the test item by whole body inhalation at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. During the study, clinical observations, bodyweight, organ weight, haematology, macropathology, histopathology and sperm motility and vaginal cytology investigations were undertaken.

All exposed mice survived to the end of the studies. Some small changes in organ weights as liver or kidney, were noted but without accompanying histopathologic lesions.

The major targets for test item toxicity were the urinary system and male reproductive system.

There was an increased incidence of transitional epithelium hyperplasia of the urinary bladder in males and females exposed to 100 ppm or more (LOEL=100 ppm), the severity of which increased with increasing exposure concentration. Transitional epithelium hyperplasia in the urinary bladder can be either reparative (e.g., regenerative or reactive) or preneoplastic, but there are no histologic features that can be used to reliably distinguish between the two etiologies. Specific histopathologic indicators of either type of hyperplasia in male or female mice were not evident; therefore, the neoplastic potential of the transitional epithelium hyperplasia of the urinary bladder is uncertain.

There were also significantly decreased numbers of sperm per mg cauda in 200 and 400 ppm males and cauda sperm in 100, 200, and 400 ppm males (LOEL=100 ppm). There was an accompanying minor decrease in epididymal weights that did not reach significance. Therefore, the possibility that the change in absolute sperm per cauda was due to a decrease in epididymal weight cannot be excluded. A definitive conclusion by histopathologic investigations could not be conducted due to an artifact resulting from formalin fixation of the male reproductive tract tissues. Thus, further studies on reproductive function are warranted. However, in females there were no changes in the percentage of time spent in the individual stages of the estrous cycle or in estrous cycle length at any exposure concentration. Also, there were no ovarian histopathologic findings. Thus, no evidence of reproductive toxicity in females was found.

Based on these results, the read-across approach was applied and the LOEL for d-alpha pinene was determined to be 100 ppm.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the available data, the substance is not classified for specific target organ toxicity by repeated exposure (STOT-RE) according to CLP Regulation (EC) no 1272/2008.