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Toxicological information

Repeated dose toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
11 August 2011 - 08 March 2012
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study was performed according to OECD test guidelines, and in compliance with GLP, so the data is considered reliable without restriction.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2012
Report Date:
2012

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Fe3P, Ferrophosphorous
- Physical state: Solid (fine powder)
- Analytical purity:Phosphorous 16.0%, Carbon 0.61%, Iron as base.
- Purity test date: 24 Jan 2011
- Lot/batch No.: 1192691
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: 31 December 2011
- Storage condition of test material: Ambient temperature

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Age at study initiation: Approximately 72 days
- Weight at study initiation: 348 - 399g (males), 230 - 287g (females)
- Housing: Polycarbonate cages with either stainless steel grid floors during mating, and solid poly carbonate floors during other phases of testing.
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum / free access, except overnight before routine blood sampling
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum / free access
- Acclimation period: 7 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 19 to 23°C
- Humidity (%): 40 to 70%
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours light: 12 hours dark

IN-LIFE DATES: From: 26 October 2011 (Treament commenced) To: 12 December 2011 (Last date of necropsy for main phase females)

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: 1% Aqueous methylcellulose
Details on oral exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:

VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 10 - 100 mg/mL
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 10 mL/kg bw/day
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Formulation samples were analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, to determine Iron in the samples.

Prior to the start of treatment, the analytical method was validated with respect to specificity, limit of detection, linearity of detector response over the calibration range, precision of measurement at the lowest and highest calibration standards, and the accuracy and precision of the method, by the determination of six procedural recoveries at 1 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL. A stability tiral was also performed; formulations were found to be stable and homogenous for up to 2 hours at ambient temperature with paddle stirring, and following 15 days' refrigerated storage.

Samples from all formulations prepared in the first and last weeks of the study were analysed; the test material concentrations were found to be within acceptable limits, confirming accurate preparation.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Main phase males and toxicity phase females were dosed for five consecutive weeks.
Main phase females were treated daily for two weeks before pairing, throughout mating, gestation and until day 6 of lactation.
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
100 mg/kg/day
Basis:
actual ingested
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
300 mg/kg/day
Basis:
actual ingested
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
1000 mg/kg/day
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Main phase - 10 animals per sex per dose
Toxicity phase - 5 females per dose
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: Dose levels were decided in a 7-day preliminary study in rats, conducted at the same laboratory - refer to "7 Day rangefinding_Huntingdon Life Sciences, 2011 (FGE0026)".
- Post-exposure recovery period in satellite groups: Not applicable

Examinations

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: At least twice daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule:Prior to the start of treatment, and at least weekly for males and toxicity phase females. Main phase females were observed weekly before pairing, and on days 0, 6, 13 and 20 after mating, and days 1 and 7 of lactation.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Main phase males and toxicity phase females were weighed on day 0 of treatment, then weekly and beofre necropsy. Main phase females were weighed on day 0 of treatment and weekly until mating was detected, and days 0, 6, 13 and 20 after mating, and on days 1, 4 and 7 of lactation.

FOOD CONSUMPTION:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/week: Yes

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No data

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No data

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No data

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: Week 5 of treatment for 5 of the main phase males and for the toxicity phase females.
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes - isoflurane
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: As above
- Parameters checked in table 1 were examined.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: conducted at the same time and using the same animals as Haematology, above.
- Parameters checked in table 2 were examined.

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

OTHER: Sensory reactivity and grip strength measured in the first five males for the main phase, and all five females of the toxicity phase during week 5 of treatment.
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes (see tables 3 and 4)
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (see table 5)

Results and discussion

Results of examinations

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
During the study there were no signs that were considered to be related to the administration of Fe3P and no unscheduled deaths.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
Bodyweight gain for males during the five weeks of treatment was unaffected by the administration of Fe3P.
Bodyweight gain for females during the first two weeks of treatment was considered to be unaffected by the administration of Fe3P. Toxicity phase females had lower bodyweight gain between weeks three and five of treatment (max 47% of Control) along with a lower overall bodyweight gain over the five weeks of treatment (max 60% of Control). However, there was no dose response and a relationship to treatment is uncertain.
Bodyweight gain for gestating females was considered the be unaffected by the administration of Fe3P, however lactating females given Fe3P at 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day had marginally lower bodyweight gain between days one and seven of lactation (max 82% of Control)

FOOD CONSUMPTION
Food consumption for males was considered to be unaffected by the administration of Fe3P.
During the first two weeks of treatment female food consumption was considered to be unaffected by the administration of Fe3P. Toxicity phase females showed some intergroup variation in food consumption during week 3 of treatment. During Weeks four and five food consumption was marginally lower in those animals given Fe3P (94% and 90% of Controls respectively). However, there was no dose response and a relationship to treatment is uncertain.
Food consumption for gestating and lactating females, with the exception of females given 1000 mg/kg/day, was considered to be unaffected by the administration of Fe3P. Females given 1000 mg/kg/day had marginally lower food consumption over the seven days of lactation when compared to Controls.

HAEMATOLOGY
Haematological parameters in both males and females in Week 5 of treatment were considered to be unaffected by the administration of Fe3P. Males given 300 or 1000 mg/kg/day had slightly low haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations which attained statistical significance when compared to control, but there were no similar effects in females.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
Blood chemistry parameters in males and females in Week 5 of treatment were considered to be unaffected by the administration of Fe3P.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
There was no effect of treatment on organ weights for males receiving Fe3P.
Intergroup variability in uterine weight did not appear to follow any dose related pattern and may relate to differences in the stage of the oestrous cycle at necropsy.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
The macroscopic examination performed after 5 weeks of treatment revealed no test substance related lesions.
The nature and incidence of all findings were consistent with the commonly seen background of macroscopic changes.

HISTOPATHOLOGY
Microscopic examination was performed on the first five Main phase males killed at scheduled termination and Toxicity phase females in the Control and high dose group (1000 mg/kg/day).
In all the tissues examined, there was no evidence of changes considered related to the treatment with the test compound.
The seminiferous tubules of the testes were evaluated with respect to their stage in the spermatogenic cycle and the integrity of the various cell types present within the different stages. No cell or stage abnormalities were noted.

Effect levels

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female

Target system / organ toxicity

Critical effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Oral administration of Fe3P to Sprague-Dawley rats for at least 5 weeks at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day was generally well tolerated with no toxicologically
significant systemic effects.

Based on the results from this study, for general toxicity the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was considered to be 1000 mg/kg/day.