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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
other information
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
The supporting QMRF report has been attached.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: as mentioned below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using QSAR Toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary discriptors.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Isopentyl Benzoate
- Molecular formula: C12 H16 O2
- Molecular weight : 192.256 g/mol
- Smiles notation: c1(C(OCCC(C)C)=O)ccccc1
- InChl : 1S/C12H16O2/c1-10(2)8-9-14-12(13)11-6-4-3-5-7-11/h3-7,10H,8-9H2,1-2H3
- Substance type: organic
- Physical state: Liquid
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
18.3 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: Intoxication

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: EC50
Estimation method: Takes average value from the 5 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

(((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" or "e" )  and ("f" and ( not "g") )  )  and ("h" and ( not "i") )  )  and ("j" and ( not "k") )  )  and ("l" and ( not "m") )  )  and "n" )  and "o" )  and ("p" and ( not "q") )  )  and ("r" and ( not "s") )  )  and ("t" and "u" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Esters (Acute toxicity) by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aryl AND Carboxylic acid ester AND Isopropyl by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aryl AND Carboxylic acid ester AND Isopropyl AND Overlapping groups by Organic Functional groups (nested)

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Carbon [CH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH3] AND Aromatic Carbon [C] AND Carbonyl, olefinic attach [-C(=O)-] AND Carbonyl, one aromatic attach [-C(=O)-] AND Ester, aliphatic attach [-C(=O)O] AND Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) AND Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] AND Tertiary Carbon by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic compound AND Carbonic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid ester by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol)

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release >> Specific Acetate Esters OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes >> Haloalkane Derivatives with Labile Halogen OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation >> Haloalkenes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> DNA Intercalators with Carboxamide Side Chain OR Radical OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Carbenium ion formation >> Alpha-Haloethers OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitrobiphenyls and Bridged Nitrobiphenyls OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  >> Haloalkane Derivatives with Labile Halogen OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Haloalkenes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Haloalkane Derivatives with Labile Halogen OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation >> Alkylphosphates, Alkylthiophosphates and Alkylphosphonates OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation >> Vicinal Dihaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Internal SN2 reaction with aziridinium and/or cyclic sulfonium ion formation (enzymatic) OR SN2 >> Internal SN2 reaction with aziridinium and/or cyclic sulfonium ion formation (enzymatic) >> Vicinal Dihaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3-carbon atom >> Alpha-Haloethers by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, without OH or NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 OR Non binder, non cyclic structure OR Strong binder, OH group OR Weak binder, NH2 group OR Weak binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Azlactones and unsaturated lactone derivatives  OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> N-Acylated heteroaromatic amines  OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> N-Acylsulfonamides  OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis >> Amides OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis or thiolysis OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis or thiolysis >> Activated aryl esters  OR Michael Addition OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group >> alpha,beta-Carbonyl compounds with polarized double bonds  OR Nucleophilic addition OR Nucleophilic addition >> Addition to carbon-hetero double bonds OR Nucleophilic addition >> Addition to carbon-hetero double bonds >> Ketones OR Schiff base formation OR Schiff base formation >> Pyrazolones and Pyrazolidinones derivatives OR Schiff base formation >> Pyrazolones and Pyrazolidinones derivatives >> Pyrazolones and Pyrazolidinones  OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> Alkyl halides  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> alpha-Activated haloalkanes  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution on benzilyc carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution on benzilyc carbon atom >> alpha-Activated benzyls  OR SN2 >> SN2 Reaction at a sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 Reaction at a sp3 carbon atom >> Activated alkyl esters and thioesters  OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sulfur atom OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sulfur atom >> Thiocyanates OR SNAr OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution on activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution on activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds >> Activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Acetates OR SN2 OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Allyl acetates and related chemicals by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Class 3 (unspecific reactivity) by Acute aquatic toxicity classification by Verhaar (Modified) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Esters by Acute aquatic toxicity MOA by OASIS ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding alerts for Chromosomal aberration by OASIS v1.1

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition to pyridonimine tautomer of aminopyridoindoles or aminopyridoimidazoles OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition to pyridonimine tautomer of aminopyridoindoles or aminopyridoimidazoles >> Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines OR Radical mechanism OR Radical mechanism >> ROS generation and direct attack of hydroxyl radical to the C8 position of nucleoside base OR Radical mechanism >> ROS generation and direct attack of hydroxyl radical to the C8 position of nucleoside base >> Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines OR SE reaction (CYP450-activated heterocyclic amines) OR SE reaction (CYP450-activated heterocyclic amines) >> Direct attack of arylnitrenium cation to the C8 position of nucleoside base OR SE reaction (CYP450-activated heterocyclic amines) >> Direct attack of arylnitrenium cation to the C8 position of nucleoside base >> Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines OR SR reaction (peroxidase-activated heterocyclic amines) OR SR reaction (peroxidase-activated heterocyclic amines) >> Direct attack of arylnitrenium radical to the C8 position of nucleoside base OR SR reaction (peroxidase-activated heterocyclic amines) >> Direct attack of arylnitrenium radical to the C8 position of nucleoside base >> Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines by Protein binding alerts for Chromosomal aberration by OASIS v1.1

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non-Metals by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halogens by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "t"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= 1.66

Domain logical expression index: "u"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 4.61

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The short term toxicity on aquatic invertebrates was predicted for Isopentyl Benzoate (94-46-2). EC50 value was estimated to be 18.3 mg/l for Daphnia magna for 48 hrs duration.
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, the short term toxicity on aquatic invertebrates was predicted forIsopentyl Benzoate (94-46-2). EC50 value was estimated to be 18.3 mg/l for Daphnia magna for 48 hrs duration. Based on the value, the chemical was considered to be toxic to aquatic invertebrates but it was readily biodegradable in nature hence, can be considered to be not classified as per the CLP regulations.

Description of key information

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, the short term toxicity on aquatic invertebrates was predicted forIsopentyl Benzoate (94-46-2). EC50 value was estimated to be 18.3 mg/l for Daphnia magna for 48 hrs duration.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
18.3 mg/L

Additional information

Short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates was summaries with two prediction studies for Isopentyl Benzoate (94-46-2) and two experimental studies with read across are as follows.

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, the short term toxicity on aquatic invertebrates was predicted forIsopentyl Benzoate (94-46-2). EC50 value was estimated to be 18.3 mg/l for Daphnia magna for 48 hrs duration.

Prediction done by EPI suite, ECOSAR version 1.1, the LC 50 value for short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates was predicted. On the basis of this program, the LC 50 value for short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates was predicted to be 3.004mg/l for Isopentyl Benzoate (94-46-2) in 48 hrs.Based on the value, the chemical was considered to be toxic to aquatic invertebrates but it was readily biodegradable in nature hence, can be considered to be not classified as per the CLP regulations.

Short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates was performed in functionally related read across Benzoic acid, methyl ester (93-58-3) from High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS), 1997 according to the OECD guideline 202 in Daphnia magna for 48 hrs at different nominal concentrations as mg/L: 9.38, 18.8, 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 mg/L. The test was performed in duplicates. Freshwater and solvent controls were also tested. Ten Daphnia magna were added in pairs. After the experiment , the EC 50 value for Benzoic acid, methyl ester was determined to be 32.1 mg/l. Based on value, the Benzoic acid, methyl ester was considered to be toxic to aquatic invertebrates but as it was readily biodegradable it can considered to be not classified as per the CLP regulations.

Another functionally related read across 1-[2-(benzoyloxy)propoxy]propan-2-yl benzoate (27138-31-4) was performed in Daphnia magna from High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS),1996 for 48 hrs at different nominal concentrations as mg/L: 1.0, 2.2, 4.6, 10, 22, 46 and 100 mg/L. The test was performed in duplicates. Freshwater were used for experiment. After the experiment, the EC 50 value for 1-[2-(benzoyloxy)propoxy]propan-2-yl benzoate was determined to be 19.31 mg/l. Based on value, 1-[2-(benzoyloxy)propoxy]propan-2-yl benzoate was considered to be toxic to aquatic invertebrates but as it was readily biodegradable it can considered to be not classified as per the CLP regulations.

Based on the above data and studies of functionally related read across chemicals it can be considered that all the weight of evidence studies supported the classifications and on the basis of thatIsopentyl Benzoate (94-46-2) was considered to be toxic to aquatic invertebrates but it was readily biodegradable in nature hence, can be considered to be not classified as per the CLP regulations.