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Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

The in vitro genetic toxicity ofCesium fluoroaluminatehas been evaluated in a bacterial reverse gene mutation assay (acc. to OECD TG 471), in a mammalian cell gene mutation assay (acc. to OECD TG 476), and in a micronucleus test (acc. to OECD TG 487). These studies were performed according to the current guidelines in force at the time of conduct and in compliance with GLP and were evaluated to be reliable without restrictions.

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2017-08-22 to 2017-09-13
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Version / remarks:
1997-07-21
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Remarks:
GLP certificate signed 2015-09-14
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: at room temperature
Target gene:
TA98: his D3052
TA100 and TA1535: his G 46
TA1537: his C 3076
E. coli WP2 uvrA: trp-
Species / strain / cell type:
E. coli WP2 uvr A
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 98
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1537
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9-mix (containing approx. 10 % S9): sodium-ortho-phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.4); NADP (4 mM); glucose-6-phosphate (5 mM); MgCl2 (8 mM); KCl (33 mM)
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Pre-experiment/Experiment 1: 3, 10, 33, 100, 333, 1000, 2500, and 5000 µg/plate (with and without metabolic activation)
Experiment 2: 33, 100, 333, 1000, 2500, and 5000 µg/plate (with and without metabolic activation)
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: deionised water
- Justification for choice of solvent/vehicle: the solvent was chosen because of its solubility properties and its relative nontoxicity to the bacteria.
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
deionised water
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
sodium azide
methylmethanesulfonate
other: 4-nitro-o-phenylene-diamine (without metabolic activation) & 2-aminoanthracene (with metabolic activation))
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: Pre-experiment/Experiment 1: in agar (plate incorporation); Experiment 2: preincubation

EXPERIMENTAL PERFROMANCE
Experiment 1:
- the following materials were mixed in a test tube and poured onto the selective agar plates: 100 μL test solution at each dose level (solvent or positive control), 500 μL S9 mix (for test with metabolic activation) or S9 mix substitution buffer (for test without metabolic activation), 100 μL bacteria suspension, and 2000 μL overlay agar
- after solidification the plates were incubated upside down for at least 48 hours at 37 °C in the dark.

Experiment 2:
- 100 μL test solution (solvent or positive control), 500 μL S9 mix / S9 mix substitution buffer and 100 μL bacterial suspension were mixed in a test tube and incubated at 37 °C for 60 minutes.
- after pre-incubation 2.0 mL overlay agar (45 °C) was added to each tube.
- mixture was poured on minimal agar plates.
- after solidification the plates were incubated upside down for at least 48 hours at 37 °C in the dark.

After incubation, revertant colonies were counted.

In parallel to each test a sterile control of the test item was performed. Therefore, 100 μL of the stock solution, 500 μL S9 mix / S9 mix substitution buffer were mixed with 2.0 mL overlay agar and poured on minimal agar plates.

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: triplicates

DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
To evaluate the toxicity of the test item a pre-experiment was performed with all strains used. Eight concentrations were tested for toxicity and mutation induction with each 3 plates. This pre-experiment was conducted as plate incorporation test.
Toxicity of the test item can be evident as a reduction in the number of spontaneous revertants or a clearing of the bacterial background lawn.
The pre-experiment is reported as main experiment I, since the following criteria are met:
Evaluable plates (>0 colonies) at five concentrations or more in all strains used.
Rationale for test conditions:
In the pre-experiment the concentration range of the test item was 3 – 5000 μg/plate. The pre-experiment is reported as experiment 1. Since no toxic effects were observed 5000 μg/plate were chosen as maximal concentration.
Evaluation criteria:
A test item is considered as a mutagen if a biologically relevant increase in the number of revertants exceeding the threshold of twice (strains TA 98, TA 100, and WP2 uvrA) or thrice (strains TA 1535 and TA 1537) the colony count of the corresponding solvent control is observed.
A dose dependent increase is considered biologically relevant if the threshold is exceeded at more than one concentration.
An increase exceeding the threshold at only one concentration is judged as biologically relevant if reproduced in an independent second experiment.
A dose dependent increase in the number of revertant colonies below the threshold is regarded as an indication of a mutagenic potential if reproduced in an independent second experiment. However, whenever the colony counts remain within the historical range of negative and solvent controls such an increase is not considered biologically relevant.
Statistics:
A statistical analysis of the data is not mandatory.
Key result
Species / strain:
E. coli WP2 uvr A
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity nor precipitates, but tested up to recommended limit concentrations
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 98
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity nor precipitates, but tested up to recommended limit concentrations
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity nor precipitates, but tested up to recommended limit concentrations
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity nor precipitates, but tested up to recommended limit concentrations
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1537
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
A single minor toxic effect, evident as a reduction in the number of revertants (below the indication factor of 0.5), was observed in experiment 1 in strain TA 1537 with S9 mix at 5000 μg/plate.
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
TEST-SPECIFIC CONFOUNDING FACTORS
- Precipitation: test item precipitated in the overlay agar in the test tubes at 5000 μg/plate. Precipitation of the test item in the overlay agar on the incubated agar plates was observed at 5000 μg/plate. The undissolved particles had no influence on the data recording.

CYTOTOXICITY:
The plates incubated with the test item showed normal background growth up to 5000 μg/plate with and without S9 mix in all strains used.
A single minor toxic effect, evident as a reduction in the number of revertants (below the indication factor of 0.5), was observed in experiment 1 in strain TA 1537 with S9 mix at 5000 μg/plate. No further toxic effects were observed in the remaining test groups.

EXPERIMENT 1 & EXPERIMENT 2:
No substantial increase in revertant colony numbers of any of the five tester strains was observed following treatment with cesium tetrafluoroaluminate at any concentration level, neither in the presence nor absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix). There was also no tendency of higher mutation rates with increasing concentrations in the range below the generally acknowledged border of biological relevance.

Please also refer for results to the field "Attached background material" below.

HISTORICAL CONTROL DATA (with ranges, means and standard deviation and confidence interval (e.g. 95%)
Please refer to the field "Any other information on results incl. tables" below.

Table 1: Historical data

Strain

 

without S9 mix

with S9 mix

 

 

Mean

SD

Min

Max

Mean

SD

Min

Max

 

Solvent control

12

2.5

6

25

12

2.5

7

26

TA 1535

Untreated control

12

3.1

6

28

12

2.9

7

26

 

Positive control

1130

143.1

334

1816

388

58.2

176

668

 

Solvent control

10

2.2

6

19

13

3.5

7

30

TA1537

Untreated control

11

2.7

5

21

14

4.0

7

31

 

Positive control

82

12.7

43

157

191

60.8

83

434

 

Solvent control

25

4.4

13

43

34

6.2

15

58

TA 98

Untreated control

27

4.9

12

43

37

6.5

11

57

 

Positive control

378

73.7

211

627

3949

771.8

360

6586

 

Solvent control

156

26.0

78

209

148

32.3

73

208

TA 100

Untreated control

176

23.6

79

217

172

25.4

85

218

 

Positive control

1966

293.2

498

2767

3798

830.4

536

6076

 

Solvent control

41

5.6

27

63

50

6.8

28

72

WP2uvrA

Untreated control

42

5.8

30

63

52

6.8

36

88

 

Positive control

798

362.7

319

4732

378

112.6

167

1265

Mean = mean value of revertants/plate
SD = standard deviation

Min = minimal value/Max = maximal value

Conclusions:
The substance tested non-mutagenic under the conditions of the study.
According to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 and subsequent adaptations, the substance should not be considered to have a mutagenic potential.
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in mammalian cells
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2018-02-13 to 2018-03-26
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 476 (In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test)
Version / remarks:
2016-07-29
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
other: in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test
Specific details on test material used for the study:
STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: stored at 15 - 25 °C, protected from light
Target gene:
HPRT
Species / strain / cell type:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Remarks:
clone 3.7.2C
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
CELLS USED
- Source of cells: Dr Donald Clive, Burroughs Wellcome Co.

For each experiment, at least one vial was thawed rapidly, the cells diluted in RPMI 10 and incubated at 37±1ºC. When the cells were growing well, subcultures were established in an appropriate number of flasks.

MEDIA USED
- Type and identity of media: RPMI 1640 media supplied containing L-glutamine and HEPES were prepared as follows:
RPMI A: 0 % v/v horse serum (heat activated), 100 units/mL penicillin, 100 µg/mL streptomycin, 2.5 µg/mL amphotericin B, 0.2 mg/mL pyruvic acid and 0.5 mg/mL pluronic
RPMI 10: 10 % v/v horse serum (heat activated), 100 units/mL penicillin, 100 µg/mL streptomycin, 2.5 µg/mL amphotericin B, 0.2 mg/mL pyruvic acid and 0.5 mg/mL pluronic
RPMI 20: 20 % v/v horse serum (heat activated), 100 units/mL penicillin, 100 µg/mL streptomycin, 2.5 µg/mL amphotericin B and 0.2 mg/mL pyruvic acid
RPMI 5 consisted of RPMI 10 diluted with RPMI A [prepared as RPMI 10 but with no serum added] to give a final concentration of 5% serum

- Periodically checked for Mycoplasma contamination: yes
- Periodically 'cleansed' against high spontaneous background: yes
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S-9 mix (contained 10 % S-9 homogenate): 100 µmoles sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4); 5 µmoles glucose-6-phosphate (disodium); 4 µmoles ß-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (disodium); 8 µmoles MgCl2; 33 µmoles KCl; water (to volume); 100 µL S-9
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Range-finder: 62.66, 125.3, 250.6, 501.3, 1003 and 2005 µg/mL (with and without metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment)
Mutation experiment:
- 50, 100, 200, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 1000 and 1500 µg/mL (without metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment)
- 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 150 and 200 µg/mL (with metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment)
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: purified water
Preliminary solubility data indicated that cesium fluoroaluminate was soluble in purified water at concentrations up to at least 20.05 mg/mL. The solubility limit in culture medium was in the range of 501.3 to 1003 µg/mL, as indicated by precipitation at higher concentration which persisted following 18 hours' incubation at approx. 37 °C.

Test article stock solutions were prepared by formulating cesium fluoroaluminate under subdued lighting in purified water, with the aid of vortex mixing, warming at 37°C and ultrasonication, to give the maximum required concentration. The stock solutions were membrane filter-sterilised (Pall Acrodisc 32 mm filter, 0.2 µm pore size) and subsequent dilutions made using purified water. The test article solutions were protected from light and used within approx. 2.5 hours of initial formulation.
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
purified water
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
benzo(a)pyrene
other: 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
RANGE-FINDING/SCREENING STUDIES:
- treatment of cell cultures for the cytotoxicity range-finder experiment was as described below for the Mutation Experiment. However, single cultures only were used and positive controls were not included. The final treatment volume was 20 mL.
- following 3 hour treatment, cells were centrifuged, washed with tissue culture medium and resuspended in RPMI 10.
- cell concentrations were adjusted to 8 cells/mL and, for each concentration, 0.2 mL was plated into each well of a 96-well microtitre plate for determination of relative survival.
- plates were incubated at 37±1ºC in a humidified incubator gassed with 5±1% v/v CO2 in air for 8 days.
- wells containing viable clones were identified by eye using background illumination and counted.
- osmolality and pH measurements on post-treatment media were taken in the cytotoxicity range-finder experiment

MUTATION ASSAY
1) Treatment of cell cultures:
- at least 10E7 cells in a volume of 16 mL of RPMI 5 were placed in a series of sterile disposable 50 mL centrifuge tubes.
- for all treatments 2 mL vehicle or test article, or 0.2 mL of positive control solution (+1.8 mL purified water) was added.
- S-9 mix or 150 mM KCl was added.
- each treatment, in the absence or presence of S-9, was in duplicate (single cultures only used for positive control treatments) and the final treatment volume was 20 mL.
- after 3 hours’ incubation at 37 ± 1 °C with agitation, cultures were centrifuged, washed with the appropriate tissue culture medium, centrifuged again and resuspended in 20 mL RPMI 10 medium.
- cell densities were determined using a Coulter counter and, the concentrations adjusted to 2 x 10E5 cells/mL.
- cells were transferred to flasks for growth throughout the expression period or were diluted to be plated for survival as described below.

2) Plating for survival:
- following adjustment of the cultures to 2 x 10E5 cells/mL after treatment, samples from these were diluted to 8 cells/mL.
- then, 0.2 mL of the final concentration of each culture was placed into each well of 2 x 96-well microtitre plates (192 wells, averaging 1.6 cells/well).
- plates were incubated at 37 ± 1 ºC in a humidified incubator gassed with 5 ± 1 % v/v CO2 in air until scoreable (7 days).
- wells containing viable clones were identified by eye using background illumination and counted.

3) Expression period:
- cultures were maintained in flasks for a period of 7 days during which the hprt- mutation would be expressed.
- sub-culturing was performed as required with the aim of retaining an appropriate concentration of cells/flask.
- from observations on recovery and growth of the cultures during the expression period, the following cultures were selected to be plated for viability and 6-thioguanine (6TG) resistance:
- 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, 500 and 600 µg/mL (without metabolic activation) as well as positive control.
- 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 80 µg/mL (with metabolic activation) as well as positive control.

4) Plating for viability:
- at the end of the expression period, cell concentrations in the selected cultures were determined using a Coulter counter and adjusted to give 1 x 10E5 cells/mL in readiness for plating for 6-thioguanine (6TG) resistance. Samples from these were diluted to 8 cells/mL.
- then, 0.2 mL of the final concentration of each culture was placed into each well of 2 x 96-well microtitre plates (192 wells averaging 1.6 cells/well).
- plates were incubated at 37 ± 1 ºC in a humidified incubator gassed with 5±1% v/v CO2 in air until scoreable (8 days).
- wells containing viable clones were identified by eye using background illumination and counted.

5) Plating for 6-thioguanine (6TG) resistance:
- at the end of the expression period, the cell densities in the selected cultures were adjusted to 1 x 10E5 cells/mL.
- 6TG (1.5 mg/mL) was diluted 100-fold into these suspensions to give a final concentration of 15 µg/mL.
- then, 0.2 mL of each suspension was placed into each well of 4 x 96-well microtitre plates (384 wells at 2 x 10E4 cells/well).
- plates were incubated at 37±1ºC in a humidified incubator gassed with 5±1% v/v CO2 in air until scoreable (12 days)
- wells containing clones were identified as above and counted.

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA:
The assay was considered valid if all of the following criteria were met:
1. the mutant frequency (MF) in the vehicle control cultures was considered acceptable for addition to the laboratory historical negative control database
2. the MF in the concurrent positive controls induced responses that were comparable with those generated in the historical positive control database and gave a clear, unequivocal increase in MF over the concurrent negative control
3. the test was performed with and without metabolic activation
4.adequate numbers of cells and concentrations were analysable.
Rationale for test conditions:
A maximum concentration of 2005 µg/mL was selected for the cytotoxicity range-finder experiment in order that treatments were performed up to thesolubility limit in culture medioum, a suitable maximum concentration according to current regulatory test guidelines. Concentrations selected for the mutation experiment were based on the results of this cytotoxicity range-finder experiment.
Evaluation criteria:
For valid data, the test article was considered to be mutagenic in this assay if:
1. the mutant frequency (MF) at one or more concentrations was significantly greater than that of the negative control (p ≤ 0.05)
2. there was a significant concentration-relationship as indicated by the linear trend analysis (p ≤ 0.05)
3. if both of the above criteria were fulfilled, the results should exceed the upper limit of the last 20 studies in the historical negative control database (mean MF +/- 2 standard deviations).
Results that only partially satisfied the assessment criteria described above were considered on a case-by-case basis.
Statistics:
From the zero term of the Poisson distribution the probable number of clones/well (P) on microtitre plates in which there are EW empty wells (without clones) out of a total of TW wells is given by: P = -ln (EW/TW).
Cloning Efficiency (CE) in any given culture is therefore: CE = P/No of cells plated per well
and as an average of 1.6 cells/well were plated on all survival and viability plates,
CE = P/1.6.
Percentage Relative Survival (%RS) in each test culture was determined by comparing plating efficiencies in test and control cultures thus:
%RS = [CE (test)/CE (control)] x 100.
To take into account any loss of cells during the 3 hour treatment period, percentage relative survival values for each concentration of test article were adjusted as follows:
Adjusted %RS = %RS x (Post-treatment cell concentration for test article treatment / Post-treatment cell concentration for vehicle control)
All %RS values were adjusted as described above.
Mutant Frequency (MF) is usually expressed as "mutants per 10E6 viable cells". In order to calculate this, the cloning efficiencies of both mutant and viable cells in the same culture were calculated: MF = [CE (mutant)/CE (viable)] x 10E6.
From the formulae given and with the knowledge that 2 x 10E4 cells were plated/well for mutation to 6-thioguanine (6TG) resistance,
CE (mutant) = P (mutant)/2 x 10E4
CE (viable) = P (viable)/1.6
where, in each case, P = -ln (EW/TW).
Therefore,
MF = [P (mutant)/2 x 10E4] x [1.6/P (viable)] x 10E6
= {-ln [EW/TW (mutant)]/-ln [EW/TW (viable)]} x 80.
Statistical significance of mutant frequencies was carried out according to the UKEMS guidelines (Robinson et al., 1990). The control log mutant frequency (LMF) was compared with the LMF from each treatment concentration and the data were checked for a linear trend in mutant frequency with test article treatment. These tests require the calculation of the heterogeneity factor to obtain a modified estimate of variance.
Key result
Species / strain:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Remarks:
clone 3.7.2C
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
please refer to the field "Additional information on results" below.
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
RANGE-FINDING/SCREENING STUDIES:
- six concentrations were tested in the absence and presence of S-9 ranging from 62.66 to 2005 µg/mL (limited by solubility in culture medium, an acceptable maximum concentration for in vitro genetic toxicology studies according to current regulatory test guidelines).
- upon addition of the test article to the cultures, precipitate was observed at the highest two concentrations tested in the absence and presence of S-9 (1003 and 2005 µg/mL).
- following the 3 hour treatment incubation period, precipitate was observed at the highest two concentrations tested in the absence of S-9 (1003 and 2005 µg/mL) and the highest five concentrations tested in the presence of S-9 (125.3 to 2005 µg/mL).
- absence of precipitate in the highest non precipitating concentration observed by eye (501.3 µg/mL in the absence of S-9 and 62.66 µg/mL presence of S-9) was confirmed by haemocytometer.
- lowest concentrations at which precipitate was observed at the end of the treatment incubation period in the absence and presence of S-9 was retained and higher concentrations were discarded.
- highest concentrations plated to provide ≥10% relative survival (RS) were 501.3 µg/mL in the absence and 125.3 µg/mL in the presence of S-9, which gave 29% and 71% respectively.
- the remaining concentration had the following relative survival:
62.66 µg/mL: 74 % RS (without metabolic activation) and 94 %RS (with metabolic activation)
125.3 µg/mL: 77 % RS (without metabolic activation) and 71 %RS (with metabolic activation)
250.6 µg/mL: 89 % RS (without metabolic activation)
501.3 µg/mL: 29 % RS (without metabolic activation)
1003 µg/mL: 1 % RS (without metabolic activation)
- no marked changes in osmolality or pH were observed at the highest concentrations analysed (1003 µg/mL in the absence of S-9 and 125.3 µg/mL in the presence of S-9) as compared to the concurrent vehicle controls.

MUTATION EXPERIMENT:
1) Precipitation:
- upon addition of the test article to the cultures, precipitate was observed at the highest two concentrations (1000 and 1500 µg/mL) in the absence of S-9 only.
- following the 3 hour treatment incubation period, precipitate was observed at the highest three concentrations tested in the absence of S-9 (800 to 1500 µg/mL) and the highest five concentrations tested in the presence of S-9 (80 to 200 µg/mL).
- absence of precipitate in the highest non precipitating concentration observed by eye (700 µg/mL in the absence of S-9 and 60 µg/mL presence of S-9) was confirmed by haemocytometer.
- lowest concentration at which precipitate was observed at the end of the treatment incubation period in the absence and presence of S-9 was retained and higher concentrations were discarded.

2) Toxicity:
- seven days after treatment, the highest two remaining concentrations in the absence of S-9 (700 and 800 µg/mL) were considered too toxic for selection to determine viability and 6TG resistance.
- all other concentrations were selected in the absence and presence of S-9.
- highest concentrations analysed were 600 µg/mL in the absence of S-9 and 80 µg/mL in the presence of S-9, which gave 9% and 79% RS, respectively.
- the remaining concentration had the following relative survival:
50 µg/mL: 100 % RS (without metabolic activation)
100 µg/mL: 95 % RS (without metabolic activation)
200 µg/mL: 94 % RS (without metabolic activation)
400 µg/mL: 72 % RS (without metabolic activation)
500 µg/mL: 27 % RS (without metabolic activation)
600 µg/mL: 9 % RS (without metabolic activation)

10 µg/mL: 97 %RS (with metabolic activation)
20 µg/mL: 91 %RS (with metabolic activation)
30 µg/mL: 97 %RS (with metabolic activation)
40 µg/mL: 94 %RS (with metabolic activation)
60 µg/mL: 101 %RS (with metabolic activation)
80 µg/mL: 79 %RS (with metabolic activation)

3) Mutation:
- following 3 hour treatment in the absence and presence of S-9 no statistically significant increases in mutant frequency (MF), compared to the vehicle control, were observed at any concentration analysed and there were no significant linear trends.
-all concentrations were within the upper limit generated by the last twenty experiments performed in this laboratory (1.13 to 6.45 mutants per 10E6 viable cells in the absence of S-9 and 2.21 to 6.02 mutants per 10E6 viable cells in the presence of S-9).
- it should be noted that no concentration in the absence of S-9 gave the desired 10-20% RS. The second highest concentration analysed (500 µg/mL) gave 27% and it was therefore considered appropriate to analyse the higher concentration. The 9% RS (at 600 µg/mL) was considered close enough to the required 10-20% to be considered acceptable. In addition, no increases in mutant frequency were seen at the highest concentration analysed and it was therefore considered to be a suitable maximum concentration.

Please also refer to the field "Attached background material" below

HISTORICAL CONTROL DATA (with ranges, means and standard deviation and confidence interval (e.g. 95%)
Please also refer to the field "Attached background material" below
Conclusions:
It is concluded that cesium fluoroaluminate was not mutagenic at the hprt locus in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells when tested up to toxic or precipitating concentrations for 3 hours in the absence and presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system (S-9), respectively, under the experimental conditions described.
According to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 and subsequent adaptations, the substance should not be considered to have a mutagenic potential.
Endpoint:
in vitro cytogenicity / micronucleus study
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2018-03-12 to 2018-10-11
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 487 (In vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test)
Version / remarks:
2016-07-29
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test
Specific details on test material used for the study:
STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: 15 to 25°C, protected from light in original container, tightly closed in a well-ventilated place.
Target gene:
not applicable
Species / strain / cell type:
lymphocytes: human (peripheral)
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
CELLS USED
- Source of cells: three healthy human donors (non-smoking; not heavy drinkers of alcohol; no known virus infection or exposure to high levels of radiation or hazardous chemicals; no medication)
- Cell cycle length: 13 ± 2 hours

- Sex, age and number of blood donors:
Range-Finder: two females at the age of 34 and 33 years
Micronucleus experiment: two females at the age of 30 and 34 years)

- Whether whole blood or separated lymphocytes were used if applicable: Whole blood cultures

Cytokinesis block (if used):
Cytochalasin B (formulated in DMSO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S-9 mix (contained 10% S-9 homogenate; MutazymeTM): 100 µmol sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4); 5 µmol glucose-6-phosphate (disodium); 4 µmol ß-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (disodium); 8 µmol MgCl2; 33 µmol KCl; water (to volume); 100 µL S-9
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Range-Finder:
- 7.256, 12.09, 20.16, 33.59, 55.99, 93.31, 155.5, 259.2, 432.0, 720.0, 1200 and 2000 µg/mL (with and without metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment + 21 hour recovery)
- 7.256, 12.09, 20.16, 33.59, 55.99, 93.31, 155.5, 259.2, 432.0, 720.0, 1200 and 2000 µg/mL (without metabolic activation; 24 hour treatment + 24 recovery)

Micronucleus experiment:
- 50.00, 100.0, 200.0, 300.0, 400.0, 600.0, 700.0, 800.0 and 1000 µg/mL (without metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment + 21 hour recovery)
- 5.000, 10.0, 15.00, 20.0, 30.0, 40.0, 50.0, 100.0 and 200.0 µg/mL (with and without metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment + 21 hour recovery)
- 25.00, 50.0, 100.0, 150.0, 175.0, 200.0, 220.0, 240.0, 260,0, 280.0 and 300 µg/mL (without metabolic activation; 24 hour treatment + 24 recovery)
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: purified water; filter-sterilised stock solution
Preliminary solubility data indicated that Cesium fluoroaluminate was soluble in purified water at concentrations up to at least 20.05 mg/mL. The solubility limit in culture medium was in the range of 1002.5 to 2005 µg/mL, as indicated by precipitation at the higher concentration which persisted following 24 hours’ incubation at approximately 37ºC.

Test article stock solutions were prepared by formulating Cesium fluoroaluminate under subdued lighting in purified water, with the aid of vortex mixing, warming at 37oC and ultrasonication, to give the maximum required treatment concentration. The stock solutions were membrane filter-sterilised (Pall Acrodisc 32 mm filter, 0.2 µm pore size) and subsequent dilutions were made using purified water. The test article solutions were protected from light and used within approximately 3.5 hours of initial formulation.
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
puified water
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
cyclophosphamide
mitomycin C
other: Vinblastine
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
BLOOD CULTURES:
- whole blood cultures were established in sterile disposable centrifuge tubes by placing 0.4 mL of pooled heparinised blood into 7.6 mL pre-warmed (in an incubator set to 37±1°C) HEPES-buffered RPMI medium containing 10% (v/v) heat inactivated foetal calf serum and 0.52% penicillin / streptomycin, so that the final volume following addition of S-9 mix/KCl and the test article in its chosen vehicle was 10 mL.
- mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, reagent grade) was included in the culture medium at a concentration of approximately 2% of culture to stimulate the lymphocytes to divide.
- blood cultures were incubated at 37±1°C for approx. 48 hours and rocked continuously.

RANGE-FINDING/SCREENING STUDIES:
- following the preparation of the blood cultures, as described above, S-9 mix or sodium phosphate buffer (1 mL/culture) was added appropriately.
- cultures were treated with the test article or vehicle (1 mL/culture; vehicle control: 2 cultures/treatment; test article: 1 culture/treatment).
- positive control treatments were not included.
- final culture volume was 10 mL.
- cultures were incubated at 37±1°C for the designated exposure time (3 hours treatment + 21 hours recovery (with and without S-9 mix) or 24 hours treatment + 24 hours recovery (without S-9 mix)).
- osmolality and pH measurements on post-treatment incubation medium were taken in the cytotoxicity range-finder experiment.
- slides from the cytotoxicity range-finder experiment were examined for proportions of mono-, bi- and multinucleate cells, to a minimum of 200 cells per concentration. From these data the replication index (RI) was determined.
- RI, which indicates the relative number of nuclei compared to vehicle controls was determined using the formulae as follows: RI = [number binucleate cells + 2(number multilucleate cells)]/(total number of cells in treated cells)
- Relative RI (expressed in terms of percentage) for each treated culture was calculated as follows: relative RI (%) = RI of treated cultures/RI of vehicle controls) x 100
Cytotoxicity (%) is expressed as (100 – Relative RI).
- selection of random fields was observed from enough treatments to determine whether chemically induced cell cycle delay or cytotoxicity had occurred.
- suitable range of concentrations was selected for the Micronucleus Experiment based on these toxicity data.

MICRONUCLEUS EXPERIMENT
- following the preparation of the blood cultures, as described above, immediately prior to treatment, all positive control cultures had 0.9 mL culture medium added to give a final pre-treatment volume of 8.9 mL.
- S-9 mix or KCl (1 mL/ culture) was added appropriately.
- cultures were treated with the test article, vehicle, or positive controls (1 mL/culture or 0.1 mL/culture for positive control cultures; vehicle control: 4 cultures/treatment; test article: 2 culture/treatment; positive control: 2 cultures/treatment).
- final culture volume was 10 mL.
- cultures were incubated at 37±1°C for the designated exposure time (3 hours treatment + 21 hours recovery (with and without S-9 mix) or 24 hours treatment + 24 hours recovery (without S-9 mix)).

For removal of the test article, cells were pelleted (approx. 300 g, 10 minutes), washed twice with sterile saline (pre-warmed in an incubator set to 37 ± 1°C), and resuspended in fresh pre-warmed medium containing foetal calf serum and penicillin / streptomycin. Approx. 1 hour after test article removal, Cyto-B (formulated in DMSO) was added to post wash-off culture medium to give a final concentration of 6 µg/mL per culture.

HARVESTING
- after the designated recovery times after treatment (21 or 24 hours), harvesting of the cells was conducted immediately
- cultures were centrifuged at approx. 300 g for 10 minutes, the supernatant removed and discarded.
- cells were resuspended in 4 mL (hypotonic) 0.075 M KCl at 37±1°C for 4 minutes to allow cell swelling to occur.
- cells were fixed by dropping the KCl suspension into fresh, cold methanol/glacial acetic acid (7:1, v/v).
- fixative was changed by centrifugation (approx. 300 g, 10 minutes) and resuspension. This procedure was repeated as necessary (centrifuging at approximately 1250 g, 2-3 minutes) until the cell pellets were clean.

METHOD OF SLIDE PREPARATION AND STAINING TECHNIQUE USED:
- lymphocytes were kept in fixative at 2 - 8 °C prior to slide preparation for a minimum of 3 hours to ensure that cells were adequately fixed.
- cells were centrifuged (approx. 1250 g, 2 - 3 minutes) and resuspended in a minimal amount of fresh fixative (if required) to give a milky suspension.
- several drops of cell suspension were spread onto multiple clean, dry microscope slides.
- slides were air-dried then stored protected from light at room temperature prior to staining.
- slides were stained by immersion in 12.5 µg/mL Acridine Orange in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 6.8 for approx. 10 minutes and washed with PBS (with agitation) for a few seconds.
- quality of the staining was checked.
- slides were air-dried and stored protected from light at room temperature.
- immediately prior to analysis 1 2 drops of PBS were added to the slides before mounting with glass coverslips.
- slides were examined for replication index (RI) to a minimum of 500 cells per culture to determine whether chemically induced cell cycle delay or toxicity had occurred.
- highest concentration selected for micronucleus analysis following all treatment conditions was the highest concentration tested
- slides from the highest selected concentration and two lower concentrations were taken for microscopic analysis.
- positive control concentrations analysed did not exceed the cytotoxicity limits for the test article concentration selection.

SLIDE ANALYSIS:
Scoring was carried out using fluorescence microscopy.
Binucleate cells were only included in the analysis if all of the following criteria were met:
1. the cytoplasm remained essentially intact, and
2. the daughter nuclei were of approximately equal size.
A micronucleus was only recorded if it met the following criteria:
1. the micronucleus had the same staining characteristics and a similar morphology to the main nuclei, and
2. any micronucleus present was separate in the cytoplasm or only just touching a main nucleus, and
3. micronuclei were smooth edged and smaller than approximately one third the diameter of the main nuclei.
For each treatment regime, two vehicle control cultures were analysed for micronuclei.
Slides from the positive control treatments were checked to ensure that the system was operating satisfactorily. One concentration from each positive control, which gave satisfactory responses in terms of quality and quantity of binucleated cells and numbers of micronuclei, was analysed.
One thousand binucleate cells from each culture (2000/concentration) were analysed for micronuclei. The number of cells containing micronuclei and the number of micronuclei per cell on each slide was recorded. The microscope stage co-ordinates of the first six micronucleated cells were recorded.
Nucleoplasmic bridges between nuclei in binucleate cells were recorded during micronucleus analysis to provide an indication of chromosome rearrangement.

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA:
The assay was to be considered valid if the following criteria were met:
1. the binomial dispersion test demonstrated acceptable heterogeneity (in terms of binucleate cells with micronuclei frequency) between replicate cultures, particularly where no positive responses were seen
2. the frequency of binucleate cells with micronuclei in vehicle controls fell within the 95th percentile of the current observed historical vehicle control (normal) ranges
3. the positive control chemicals induced statistically significant increases in the proportion of cells with micronuclei. Both replicate cultures at the positive control concentration analysed under each treatment condition demonstrated binucleate cells with micronuclei frequencies that clearly exceeded the normal range
4. a minimum of 50% of cells had gone through at least one cell division (as measured by binucleate + multinucleate cell counts) in vehicle control cultures at the time of harvest
5. the maximum concentration analysed under each treatment condition met the criteria specified as in "METHOD OF SLIDE PREPARATION AND STAINING TECHNIQUE USED" above.
Rationale for test conditions:
Maximum concentrations used were based on information on cytotoxicity (without metabolic activation; 24 hour treatment + 24 recovery period) and precipitation (with and without metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment + 21 recovery period) obtained from the Range-Finder experiment
Evaluation criteria:
The test article was considered to induce clastogenic and/or aneugenic events if:
1. a statistically significant increase in the frequency of binucleate cells with micronuclei at one or more concentrations was observed
2. an incidence of binucleate cells with micronuclei at such a concentration that exceeded the normal range in both replicates was observed
3. a concentration-related increase in the proportion of binucleate cells with micronuclei cells was observed (positive trend test).
The test article was considered positive in this assay if all of the above criteria were met.
The test article was considered negative in this assay if none of the above criteria were met.
Results which only partially satisfied the above criteria were dealt with on a case-by-case basis. Evidence of a concentration-related effect was considered useful but not essential in the evaluation of a positive result (Scott et al., 1990)*.

*Reference:
- Scott D, Dean B J, Danford N D and Kirkland D J (1990). Metaphase chromosome aberration assays in vitro. Basic Mutagenicity Tests; UKEMS recommended procedures. Kirkland D J (Ed), pp 62 - 86.
Statistics:
After completion of scoring, the numbers of binucleate cells with micronuclei (MNBN cells) in each culture were obtained.
The proportions of MNBN cells in each replicate were used to establish acceptable heterogeneity between replicates by means of a binomial dispersion test (Richardson et al., 1989)*.
The proportion of MNBN cells for each treatment condition were compared with the proportion in vehicle controls by using Fisher's exact test (Richardson et al., 1989). A Cochran-Armitage trend test was applied to each treatment condition. Probability values of p≤0.05 were accepted as significant.

*Reference:
- Richardson C, Williams D A, Allen J A, Amphlett G, Chanter D O and Phillips B (1989). Analysis of data from in vitro cytogenetic assays. In "Statistical Evaluation of Mutagenicity Test Data", (UKEMS Guidelines Sub-committee Report, Part III), Ed D J Kirkland, Cambridge University Press, pp 141-154
Key result
Species / strain:
lymphocytes: human (peripheral)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
positive
Remarks:
please refer to the field "Additional information on results" below
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
please refer to the field "Additional information on results" below
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
TEST-SPECIFIC CONFOUNDING FACTORS
- Effects of pH and osmolality (range-finder study): no marked changes in osmolality or pH were observed compared to the concurrent vehicle controls.

RANGE-FINDING/SCREENING STUDIES:
- cytotoxicity of the test item (based on replication index) was observed as follows:
7.256 to 2000 µg/mL (without metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment + 21 recovery period): cytotoxicity was between 0 % to 12 %
7.256 to 2000 µg/mL (with metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment + 21 recovery period): cytotoxicity was between 0 % to 6 %
7.256 to 2000 µg/mL (without metabolic activation; 24 hour treatment + 24 recovery period): cytotoxicity was between 0 % to 51 %

- precipitation observed at the end of treatment incubation:
without metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment + 21 recovery period: 720.0 to 2000 µg/ml
with metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment + 21 recovery period: 33.59 to 2000 µg/ml
without metabolic activation; 24 hour treatment + 24 recovery period: 1200 to 2000 µg/ml

Please also refer to the field "Attached background material" below


MICRONUCLEUS EXPERIMENT
- cytotoxicity of the test item (based on replication index) was observed as follows:
50.00 to 1000 µg/mL (without metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment + 21 recovery period): cytotoxicity was between 0 % to 10 %
5.00 to 200 µg/mL (with metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment + 21 recovery period): cytotoxicity was between 0 % to 9 %
25.00 to 300 µg/mL (without metabolic activation; 24 hour treatment + 24 recovery period): cytotoxicity was between 0 % to 45 %

NOTE: Only the three highest concentrations were further evaluated for micronucleus analysis

- precipitation observed at the end of treatment incubation
without metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment + 21 recovery period: 600.0, 700.0, 800.0 and 1000 µg/ml
with metabolic activation; 3 hour treatment + 21 recovery period: 20.00, 30.0, 40.0, 50.0, 100.0 and 200.0 µg/ml
without metabolic activation; 24 hour treatment + 24 recovery period: no precipitation observed at the end of the treatment


GENOTOXICITY
- 24+24 hour treatment with cesium fluoroaluminate in the absence of S 9, frequencies of binucleate cells with micronuclei were significantly higher (p≤0.001) than those observed in concurrent vehicle controls for all concentrations analysed. The frequency of binucleate cells with micronuclei of all cesium fluoroaluminate treated cultures exceeded the normal range.
- 3+21 hour treatment with cesium fluoroaluminate in the presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system (S-9) frequencies of binucleate cells with micronuclei were similar to and not significantly higher (at the p≤0.05 level) than those observed in concurrent vehicle controls for all concentrations analysed. The frequency of binucleate cells with micronuclei of all cesium fluoroaluminate treated cultures fell within the 95th percentile of the current observed historical vehicle control (normal) range.
-3+21 hour treatment with cesium fluoroaluminate in the absence of S-9 frequencies of binucleate cells with micronuclei were significantly higher (p≤0.01) than those observed in concurrent vehicle controls for all concentrations analysed and a significant linear trend was observed. However, frequency of binucleate cells with micronuclei of all cesium fluoroaluminate treated cultures fell within the normal range. The significance might be a cause of the low control value, being below the historical mean frequency of 0.55, thus of questionable biological relevance.

Please also refer to the field "Attached background material" below

HISTORICAL CONTROL DATA (with ranges, means and standard deviation and confidence interval (e.g. 95%)
Please also refer to the field "Attached background material" below

Conclusions:
It is concluded that cesium fluoroaluminate did induce micronuclei in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes following 24+24 hour treatment in the absence of an aroclor-induced rat liver metabolic activation system (S-9). When tested up to precipitating concentrations in the absence and presence of S-9 (3+21 hour treatments) in the same test system, no biologically relevant increases in micronuclei were observed.
It is concluded that cesium fluoroaluminate is either clastogenic or aneugenic following 24+24 hour treatment in the absence of an aroclor induced rat liver metabolic activation system in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes.
According to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 and subsequent adaptations, the substance should be considered to have a mutagenic potential.
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed (positive)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Description of key information

The in vivo genetic toxicity of cesium fluoroaluminate has been evaluated in a comet assay (acc. to OECD TG 489). The study was performed according to the current guideline and in compliance with GLP and was evaluated to be reliable without restrictions.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vivo mammalian cell study: DNA damage and/or repair
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
29 August 2022 - 21 November 2022 (only draft report available)
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
Only draft report available. QA statement is missing. The summary of the study will be updated as soon as the final report is available.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 489 (In vivo Mammalian Alkaline Comet Assay)
Version / remarks:
Adopted: 29 July 2016
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
QA statement will be reported as soon as the final report is available
Type of assay:
mammalian comet assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: Room temperature, keep dry
- Stability: Formulations were prepared daily for dose administration for the study. Test article formulations in the vehicle were validated out to 30 days. (Impact Analytical R220823-1r0).
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Details on species / strain selection:
The rat is a standard and accepted species for toxicity studies. Moreover, the rat has been extensively validated for the in vivo comet assay (OECD TG 489).
Sex:
male
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Envigo, an Inotiv Company (Frederick, MD, USA)
- Age at administration: 7-10 weeks of age
- Weight at administration: 274.3-310.4 g
- Assigned to test groups randomly: yes, under following basis: The animals were assigned to a dose group using a procedure that stratified animals across groups by body weight, such that the mean body weight of each group was not statistically different from any other group using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Only clinically healthy animals were assigned to the study.
- Housing: 2-3 rats per cage in 23 cm wide by 44 cm long (1012 cm² area) and 21 cm high polycarbonate cages with micro-isolator tops; bedding: absorbent heat-treated hardwood bedding (Northeastern Products Corp., Warrensburg, NY, USA)
- Enrichment: Animals were provided items such as treats, shelter, or nesting material except when interrupted by study activities.
- Cage Changes: twice per week
- Diet: certified Rodent Diet 5002 pellets (Ralston Purina Co., St. Louis, MO, USA); ad libitum
- Water: reverse osmosis treated tap water (City of Durham, NC, USA) in polycarbonate bottles with stainless steel sipper tubes (water bottles changed once per week); ad libitum
- Acclimation period: ≥ 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature: 21.4-24.0°C
- Humidity: 42.90-53.40%
- Air changes: 12-20 changes per hour
- Photoperiod: 12 hrs dark / 12 hrs light

IN-LIFE DATES: From: 22 August 2022 To: 01 September 2022
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: deionised water
- Source: Sigma-Aldrich
- Concentration of test material in vehicle: 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw/day
- Dose volume: 10 mL/kg bw
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
Formulations were prepared daily for dose administration for the study. Test article dose formulations were weighed out into a pre-calibrated bottle, then vehicle was added to the pre-calibrated mark and mixed using a magnetic stir bar for the desired concentration. Formulations were then split and vialed for daily dosing. Dose formulations were stored at room temperature and kept dry. Dose formulations were placed on a stir plate ≥ 30 minutes before dosing and continuously stirred if necessary.

RATIONALE FOR ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION:
The oral route of administration will be used to obtain systemic exposure and is the intended human route of administration.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
2 days
Frequency of treatment:
Daily administrations on consecutive days
Post exposure period:
3 hours ± 30 minutes
Dose / conc.:
500 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5 male rats per dose
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Positive control(s):
ethylmethanesulphonate
- Justification for choice of positive control(s): For the positive control, previous use has shown that an EMS dose level of 150 mg/kg bw/day for 2 days induces DNA damage in mice and rats without producing adverse signs of clinical toxicity.
- Route of administration: oral: gavage
- Doses / concentration: 15 mg/mL / 150 mg/kg bw/day
Tissues and cell types examined:
single cells of the stomach (site of contact tissue; n=150 cells per animal), duodenum (site of contact tissue; n=150 cells per animal) and liver (n=150 cells per animal)
Details of tissue and slide preparation:
CRITERIA FOR DOSE SELECTION:
The selected dose levels were based on the results of a range finder study (ILS Study Number 50227.00202RF) in which male and female rats received up to 2000 mg/kg bw/day of the test article for 2 days.
Males and females of both sexes survived to termination with very slight body weight loss (-6.1 and -7.7%, respectively) and minor clinical signs of toxicity (including piloerection and chromodacryorrhea). Thus, a dose of 2000 mg/kg bw/day was chosen as limit dose based on the recommendations of OECD TG 489. As no gender differences in toxicity have been identified study was conducted solely in male animals

TREATMENT AND SAMPLING TIMES:
Twenty-five (25) male Sprague Dawley rats were allocated to one of 5 designated groups. For 2 consecutive days, the vehicle (deionised water) or one of 3 dose levels of the test article was administered once daily to the animals using oral gavage. Positive control animals were administered EMS once daily for 2 days, using oral gavage. Animals were not fasted. All animals were humanely euthanized 3 hours ± 30 minutes after the final dose administration. Liver, glandular stomach, and duodenum tissue were collected for evaluating DNA damage with the comet assay and for potential histopathology. Blood was collected for potential bioanalytical evaluation. The remainder of the carcass was appropriately disposed of without further analysis.

TISSUE COLLECTION:
Following exsanguination, portions of the liver, stomach, and duodenum were collected for potential analysis.
- The left lobe of the liver was cut longitudinally into two large sections. Two small sections were further cut from one large section and kept cold and moist with mincing solution for comet analysis. Each small section of liver tissue was placed in a separate microcentrifuge tube containing 1 mL of mincing solution (Mg and Ca free Hanks Balanced Salt Solution, 10% v/v DMSO, and 20 mM EDTA pH 7.4-7.7) and rapidly minced to generate duplicate samples. The samples were kept on wet ice until processed. The second large section of the left lobe was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF), trimmed, and paraffin-embedded for possible histopathology evaluation. A sample of the left lobe was stored frozen in cryotubes at ˗80°C for potential bioanalytical evaluation. The other lobes of the liver tissue were discarded.
- The stomach was removed, cut open, and washed free from stomach contents using cold mincing buffer. Presence of residual test item in glandular stomach was recorded. The forestomach was removed. A 5 mm wide strip of glandular stomach was fixed in 10% NBF, trimmed, and paraffin-embedded for histopathology evaluation. A portion of each strip of the glandular stomach was placed into cold mincing buffer and incubated on ice for 15 to 30 minutes. After incubation, the surface epithelia were gently scraped two times using a scalpel blade or a Teflon scraper. This layer was discarded, and the gastric mucosa rinsed with the cold mincing buffer. The stomach epithelia were carefully scraped 4 to 5 times (or more, if necessary) in 500 µL mincing solution with the back of a scalpel blade or Teflon scraper to release the cells. The mincing solution containing released epithelial cells was divided into two microfuge tubes and placed on ice.
- The duodenum was removed, cut open, and flushed with mincing solution to remove any intestinal contents. Presence of residual test item in duodenum was recorded. A 5-mm length of the proximal duodenum (region closest to stomach) was further cut from which two small sections were placed into microcentrifuge tubes containing 1 mL of mincing solution and rapidly minced while kept on wet ice. An additional 5 mm length of duodenum was fixed in 10% NBF, trimmed, and paraffin-embedded for potential histopathology evaluation. The remaining portions of the small intestine were discarded.
All tubes containing tissue samples were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored in a ˗80°C freezer until processing.

DETAILS OF SLIDE PREPARATION:
Frozen tissue samples (one of the duplicate tubes/animal) were removed from the freezer, thawed appropriately, and kept cold during processing. A portion of the cell suspension of each tissue sample was empirically diluted with 0.5% NuSieve GTG low melting point agarose (Lonza, Durham, NC, USA) dissolved in phosphate buffer (Ca, Mg and phenol free) at 37±2°C and layered onto at least two commercially available CometSlides™ or Flare™ slides (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA). The volume of the cell suspension did not decrease the percentage of low melting point agarose by more than 10% (i.e., not below 0.45%). The slides were immersed in chilled lysing solution (2.5 M NaCl, 100 mM Na2EDTA, 10 mM Tris, pH 10, with 10% DMSO and 1% Triton X-100 added fresh) overnight in a refrigerator under light-proof conditions. After this incubation period, the slides were rinsed in purified water or neutralization solution [0.4 M Trizma base (pH 7.5)] to remove residual detergent and salts prior to the alkali unwinding step. Slides were randomly placed onto the platform of a submarine-type electrophoresis unit and cold electrophoresis solution (300 mM NaOH, 1 mM Na2EDTA; pH >13) added. The slides were incubated at ≤10°C for 20–25 minutes to allow DNA unwinding, then electrophoresed at ≤10°C for 20 minutes at 25 V (0.7-1.0 V/cm), with a current of approximately 300 mA. After electrophoresis, slides were neutralised with 0.4 M Trizma base (pH 7.5) for ≥5 minutes and then dehydrated by immersion in absolute ethanol (≥99.6%) for ≥5 minutes and allowed to air dry. Air-dried slides were stored in a desiccator at room temperature with a relative humidity of ≤60% until they were stained and scored. Stained slides were stored desiccated.

METHOD OF ANALYSIS:
After staining slides (200 µL of stain per slide and stained for at least 20 minutes before scoring) with SYBR™ Gold, 150 cells (50-75 cells per slide well, if possible) were scored according to SOP at 200x magnification per sample. Slides were coded and scored without knowledge of their identity. The extent of DNA migration, measured as the %Tail DNA, was detailed by animal and treatment group. “Hedgehogs” (i.e., small or no visible head or the head and tail appear separate) were tabulated to determine a frequency, but not scored for migrated DNA. For each animal, the median value calculated from the cells scored in each well was averaged and presented as the individual animal value. The arithmetic mean of the individual animal means was determined to obtain the group mean, which is the basis for the statistical comparison.

OTHER:
- Observation of mortality/moribundity: Twice daily
- Clinical Observations: Observed for assignment to a dose group, prior to administration, and at termination.
- Cage-Side Observations: Observed 1 hour ± 30 minutes after dosing each day.
- Body Weights: Measured for assignment to a dose group, prior to administration, and at termination.
- Plasma Collection: At termination, all animals in the vehicle and test article dose groups had ~0.5 mL blood collected by puncturing the heart or caudal vena cava. Blood was placed into a K2EDTA tube, centrifuged at 1500x g for 15 min at 4°C, and the plasma removed. Plasma was stored frozen in cryotubes at -80°C for potential bioanalytical evaluation.
- Dose formulation analysis: The testing was completed using inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to measure total
cesium and aluminum. A long-term stability study was also completed concurrently with the dose formulation analysis. A one-month time point was added to the stability study previously performed during the method validation testing.
Evaluation criteria:
- Negative: The test article as considered clearly negative and did not induce DNA strand breakage in the tissue(s) evaluated if:
1) no dose level exhibited a statistically significant increase in %Tail DNA compared to the concurrent negative control group;
2) there was no dose-related increase when evaluated with an appropriate trend test;
3) all results were within the 95% confidence limits of the distribution of the laboratory’s historical negative control data; and
4) direct or indirect evidence occurred to support exposure or toxicity to the tissue(s) evaluated.
When all of these criteria are met, the test article is then considered able to induce DNA strand breakage in the tissues studied in this test system.

- Positive: The test article as considered clearly positive and induced DNA strand breakage in the tissue(s) evaluated if:
1) at least 1 dose level exhibited a statistically significant increase in %Tail DNA compared to the concurrent negative control group;
2) an increase was dose-related when evaluated with an appropriate trend test; and
3) any results were outside the 95% confidence limits of the distribution of the historical negative control data.

- If the response was not clearly negative or positive, expert judgment or further evaluation may have been warranted to aid in establishing biological relevance of the result. The outcome may have been considered equivocal if the data precluded forming a conclusion regarding the response in the assay to the test chemical.
Statistics:
First, homogeneity of variance was analysed using Levene’s Test of Homogeneity of Variances and normality was assessed using a Shapiro-Wilk Test. Data that met requirements for homogeneity and normality (p > 0.05 in the respective tests) was analysed for linear trend and treated groups were compared to the concurrent vehicle control group using a one-way ANOVA with a Dunnett’s test.
Non-homogeneous or non-normal data were transformed (log, square root, and inverse transformations, in this order of priority, as appropriate) and re-evaluated for homogeneity and normality. If transformation did not successfully achieve both homogeneity and normality, then non-parametric analyses were conducted comprising a Jonckheere-Terpstra Test for a dose-response trend, and Dunn’s Test for pairwise comparisons of treated groups to the concurrent vehicle control group.
The positive control group was compared to the concurrent vehicle control group using a t-test, provided normality of the data was confirmed by a Shapiro-Wilk Test. If data transformation (log, square root, or inverse) did not successfully achieve normality, then the non-parametric Mann-Whitney (also known as Wilcoxon Rank Sum) test was used.
One-sided tests were used to evaluate for differences in %Tail DNA; two-sided tests were used to evaluate changes in body weight and body weight gain.
Results are deemed significant when p ≤ 0.05
Key result
Sex:
male
Genotoxicity:
negative
Remarks:
stomach
Toxicity:
yes
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Sex:
male
Genotoxicity:
negative
Remarks:
duodenum
Toxicity:
yes
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Sex:
male
Genotoxicity:
negative
Remarks:
liver
Toxicity:
yes
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
RESULTS OF RANGE-FINDING STUDY
- In the dose range finder study (ILS Study Number 50227.00202RF; please also refer to IUCLID section 7.6.2: s_Streicker_2022_DRF comet assay), male and female rats received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day (recommended maximum dose) of the test article for 2 days.
- Males and females of both sexes survived to termination with very slight body weight loss (-6.1 and -7.7%, respectively) and minor clinical signs of toxicity (including piloerection and chromodacryorrhea). Thus, a dose of 2000 mg/kg bw/day was chosen as limit dose based on the recommendations of OECD TG 489. As no gender differences in toxicity have been identified study was conducted solely in male animals.

RESULTS OF THE DEFINITIVE STUDY
Toxicity
- Mortality and Moribundity: All animals survived to termination.
- Clinical and Cage-side Observations: Clinical signs of toxicity were exhibited throughout all dose groups except the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group. This included one male with fur discoloration and a red nose/snout in the 500 mg/kg bw/day group; two males in the 2000 mg/kg bw/day group with uncoordinated movement and five with decreased movement and piloerection.
- Body Weights: There were statistical decreases in terminal body weight (2000 mg/kg bw/day) and body weight gain (1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day) with decreasing dose-dependent trends (please refer to the field ‘Attachments’: Results_Body weight). The high-dose group (2000 mg/kg bw/day) showed a statistically significant decrease in terminal body weight (-9.1%). The body weight gain was decreased by 8.56±8.59 g and 27.44±7.90 g in animals dosed at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day, respectively.

Comet assay
- Liver: The % Tail DNA was statistically significantly increased in the high-dose group (2000 mg/kg bw/day), when compared to the vehicle control group (please refer to the field ‘Attachments’: Results_Comet assay). Moreover, the increase showed a positive dose-response relationship. However, this positive trend was only due to an increase in the high dose group. The other dose groups showed values clearly below the response observed in the vehicle control group. Moreover, the increase observed in the high-dose group was only marginal (1.3-fold), when compared to the vehicle control group, and all responses observed (0.47-0.73% Tail DNA) were well within the 95% confidence interval of the historical control data base (0-10.8 and 0-9.3% Tail DNA; please refer to the field ‘Attachments’: Historical control data_Comet assay). Thus, the increase in %Tail DNA is considered not to be biologically relevant, and therefore, the outcome of the assay in the liver is considered negative.
- Stomach: The % Tail DNA was statistically significantly increased only in the low-dose group (500 mg/kg bw/day). However, no such increase was observed in the higher dose groups and the response was not dose dependent. Furthermore, the increase was marginal (1.6-fold), when compared to the vehicle control group and all values obtained (1.24-2.40% Tail DNA) were clearly within the 95% confidence interval of the historical control data base (0-20.4% Tail DNA). Thus, the increase in %Tail DNA in the low dose group is considered not to be biologically relevant, and therefore, the outcome of the assay in the stomach is considered negative.
- Duodenum: Groups exposed to Cesium Fluoroaluminate N did not show any statistically significant increase in the % Tail DNA and no positive dose-response relationship. All values observed (0.95-1.46% Tail DNA) were below the concurrent vehicle control group value (1.95% Tail DNA). Thus, the outcome in the duodenum is considered clearly negative,
In summary, the results are considered to be negative for all three tissues. There were no marked increased in the % Hedgehogs.

VALIDITY OF THE ASSAY
- The positive control induced statistically significant increases in % Tail DNA in the liver, stomach, and duodenum (over the current vehicle control group) that were comparable with the laboratory’s historical positive control data.
- The vehicle control data were within or comparable to the laboratory’s historical control data ranges.
Thus, the criteria were for a valid test were met and data were acceptable for inclusion in historical laboratory control data.

- Formulation analysis: The Cesium Fluoroaluminate N dose formulation samples were successfully tested for aluminum and cesium content following the previously validated method. Aluminum and cesium were detected in each dose formulation solution. The analytes of interest were found to be stable in frozen storage for the investigated time frame of one month with variance < 20% between the Day 0 and 1-Month stability sample recoveries.
Conclusions:
All animals survived to termination. Clinical signs of toxicity were exhibited at the 500 and 2000 mg/kg/day dose groups including fur discoloration, uncoordinated movement, decreased movement, and piloerection. There were statistically significant, dose-dependent decreases in terminal body weight or body weight gain at 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day. These findings are indicative of systemic exposure to the test article.
There were no statistically significant differences in DNA damage, measured as % Tail DNA, in the duodenum for any group administered the test article as compared to the vehicle controls and there was no evidence of a dose response. There were statistically significant increases in % Tail DNA in the liver (2000 mg/kg/day) and stomach (500 mg/kg/day) as compared to the vehicle controls. The % Tail DNA in the liver showed a statistically positive linear trend. However, the increases in % Tail DNA were only marginal (1.3- and 1.6-fold for liver and stomach, respectively), and the results were well within the laboratory’s historical negative control data (values fell below the mean) for both tissues; for stomach, the response was statistically significantly increased only in the lowest dose group. Exposure of the target tissues is demonstrated, since the stomach and duodenum are direct site-of-contact tissues and the systemic toxicity observed is indirect evidence, which is supportive for exposure of the liver. For these reasons, the statistically positive results are not considered to reflect a biologically meaningful induction of DNA damage and the results of the comet assay are interpreted to be negative for all three tissues. All validity criteria were met. The study was fully compliant with OECD 489 (2016).

The test article, Cesium Fluoroaluminate N, was judged as negative for genotoxicity based on the criteria in the OECD guideline (Test No. 489, 2016) and the lack of a biologically relevant response in the comet assay, when tested up to 2000 mg/kg bw/day (recommended maximum dose level).

Only draft report available. QA statement is missing. The summary of the study will be updated as soon as the final report is available.
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Additional information

Genetic toxicity in vitro

In vitro gene mutation in bacteria:

Cesium fluoroaluminate was assessed in a bacterial reverse mutation assay using the plate incorporation and the pre-incubation test with S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100, and E. coli WP2 uvrA. The assay was performed in two independent experiments both with and without liver microsomal activation in triplicate up to the limit concentration of 5000 µg/plate. All validity criteria were met. The study was fully compliant with OECD 471 (1997). The study is considered to be reliable without restrictions [RL-1].

 

 

In vitro gene mutation in mammalian cells:

Cesium fluoroaluminate was not mutagenic at the hprt locus in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells when tested up to toxic or precipitating concentrations for 3 hours in the absence and presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system (S9), respectively. All validity criteria were met. The study was fully compliant with OECD 476 (2016). The study is considered to be reliable without restrictions [RL-1].

 

 

In vitro clastogenicity and aneugenicity:

Cesium fluoroaluminate did induce micronuclei in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes following 24+24 hour treatment in the absence of S9. When tested up to precipitating concentrations in the absence and presence of S9 (3+21 hour treatments) in the same test system, no biologically relevant increases in micronuclei were observed. All validity criteria were met. The study was fully compliant with OECD 487 (2016). The study is considered to be reliable without restrictions [RL-1].

 

 

Genetic toxicity in vivo

In vivo comet assay:

The DNA damaging potential of Cesium fluoroaluminate in stomach, duodenum, and liver of rats was evaluated in an in vivo comet assay (Streicker, 2022) according to OECD TG 489 and under GLP. Groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats received single gavages at doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg bw/day on two consecutive days. The doses regimen was selected based on a dose-range finding experiment. The tissues were sampled after 3 hours (± 30 minutes), and single cells (n=150 per animal per tissue) were used for the alkaline comet assay. Cesium fluoroaluminate induced systemic toxicity as indicated by statistically significant and dose-dependent decreases of the terminal body weight and body weight gain as well as by clinical signs, predominantly observed in the high dose groups of the definitive and the dose-range finding experiment. Cesium fluoroaluminate, tested up to the recommended maximum dose, did not induce biologically relevant increases in the proportion of DNA in tail. The stomach and the duodenum were exposed to the test material, since they are direct site-of-contact tissues and liver exposure was indirectly evidenced by the systemic toxicity induced by Cesium fluoroaluminate. In conclusion, it can be stated that under the experimental conditions reported, the test item did not induce DNA damage as determined by the in vivo comet assay in stomach, duodenum, and liver of male rats. All validity criteria were met. The study was fully compliant with OECD 489 (2016). The study is considered to be reliable without restrictions [RL-1].

 

Overall conclusion

Cesium fluoroaluminate has shown not any gene mutation potential in bacteria or mammalian cells. However, in an in vitro micronucleus test, a clastogenic or aneugenic potential was observed only in the extended treatment. Based on the positive result in an in vitro assay, the ECHA requested in a final decision (23 November 2021) to perform an in vivo mammalian alkaline comet assay in rats using the liver, glandular stomach and duodenum in order to investigate the genotoxicity potential in vivo. The in vivo comet assay returned exclusively negative results in site-of-contact-tissues (stomach and duodenum) and the liver. Target tissue exposure was evidenced. Based on a weight of evidence analysis of the fully reliable in vitro data and the fully reliable in vivo data, which is considered to have a higher degree of reliability as compared to in vitro assays, genotoxic effects, and thus mutagenicity, are considered not to occur in vivo.Thus, Cesium fluoroaluminate is not to be classified according to regulation (EC) 1272/2008 as genetic toxicant.

Justification for classification or non-classification

The substance shows a clastogenic or aneugenic response in cultured human lymphocytes. Based on the criteria for classification in accordance with regulation 1272/2008, a decision on classification shall be based on reliable in vivo heritable germ cell or in vivo somatic cell mutagenicity tests in mammals. Therefore, following the ECHA final decision (23 November 2021), an in vivo mammalian alkaline comet assay was performed in rats using the liver, glandular stomach and duodenum.

The in vivo alkaline mammalian comet assay in rats returned exclusively negative findings for all tissues examined.

Based on an overall weight of evidence analysis, mutagenicity, is considered not to occur in vivo due to the absence of mutagenic effects in an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay and in an in vitro mammalian gene mutation assay as well as the lack of any genotoxicity effects in an in vivo alkaline mammalian comet assay. 

The classification criteria acc. to regulation (EC) 1272/2008 as germ cell mutagen are not met, thus no classification is required.