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in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
03 May 2018 to 30 May 2018
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference Type:
study report
Report Date:

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
according to
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Version / remarks:
OECD Guideline 471. Genetic Toxicology: Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test. (Adopted July 21, 1997).
according to
EU Method B.13/14 (Mutagenicity - Reverse Mutation Test Using Bacteria)
Version / remarks:
EC Guideline No. 440/2008. Part B: Methods for the Determination of Toxicity and other health effects, Guideline B.13/14: "Mutagenicity: Reverse Mutation Test using Bacteria”. Official Journal of the European Union No. L142, 31 May 2008.
GLP compliance:
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay

Test material

Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Purity/Composition: 99.73%


Target gene:
Species / strain
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and E. coli WP2
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
Rat liver microsomal enzymes (S9 homogenate) were obtained from Trinova Biochem GmbH, Giessen, Germany and were prepared from male Sprague Dawley rats that had been injected intraperitoneally with Aroclor 1254 (500 mg/kg body weight).
Each S9 batch is characterized with the mutagens benzo-(a)-pyrene and 2-aminoanthracene, which require metabolic activation, in tester strain TA100 at concentrations of 5 μg/plate and 2.5 μg/plate, respectively.
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Selection of an adequate range of doses was based on a dose-range finding test with the strains TA100 and WP2uvrA, both with and without 5% (v/v) S9-mix. Eight concentrations, 1.7, 5.4, 17, 52, 164, 512, 1600 and 5000 μg/plate were tested in triplicate. The highest concentration of PF-06961030 used in the subsequent mutation assays was 5000 μg/plate or the level at which the test item inhibited bacterial growth
Vehicle / solvent:
The vehicle of the test item was dimethyl sulfoxide (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany).
Untreated negative controls:
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
True negative controls:
Positive controls:
Positive control substance:
other: 2-aminoanthracene (2AA)
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
4.5.1. Preparation of Test Item
No correction was made for the purity/composition of the test item. A solubility test was performed based on visual assessment. The test item formed a clear colorless to light brown solution in DMSO. To protect the test item from light, amber-colored glassware or tubes wrapped in tin-foil were used for test item preparations. Test item concentrations were used within 3.5 hours after preparation. Any residual volumes were discarded.

4.6. Test System
Test system Salmonella typhimurium bacteria and Escherichia coli bacteria
Rationale Recommended test system in international guidelines (e.g.OECD, EC).
Source Trinova Biochem GmbH, Germany [Master culture from Dr. Bruce N. Ames (TA1535, TA1537, TA98, TA 100; and Master culture from The National Collections of Industrial and MarineBacteria, Aberdeen, UK ( WP2uvrA)]
The characteristics of the different Salmonella typhimurium strains were as follows:
Strain Histidine mutation Mutation type
TA1537 hisC3076 Frameshift
TA98 hisD3052/R-factor* Frameshift
TA1535 hisG46 Base-pair substitutions
TA100 hisG46/R-factor* Base-pair substitutions
*: R-factor = plasmid pKM101 (increases error-prone DNA repair)

Each tester strain contained the following additional mutations:
rfa : deep rough (defective lipopolysaccharide cellcoat)
gal : mutation in the galactose metabolism
chl : mutation in nitrate reductase
bio : defective biotin synthesis
uvrB : loss of the excision repair system (deletion of the ultraviolet-repair B gene)
The Salmonella typhimurium strains are checked at least every year to confirm their histidine-requirement, crystal violet sensitivity, ampicillin resistance (TA98 and TA100), UV-sensitivity and the number of spontaneous revertants.

The Escherichia coli WP2uvrA strain detects base-pair substitutions. The strain lacks an excision repair system and is sensitive to agents such as UV. The sensitivity of the strain to a wide variety of mutagens has been enhanced by permeabilization of the strain using
Tris-EDTA treatment (Ref.1). The strain is checked to confirm the tryptophan-requirement, UV-sensitivity and the number of spontaneous revertants at least every year.
Stock cultures of the five strains were stored in the freezer (-150°C).
Rationale for test conditions:
Recommended test system in international guidelines (e.g. OECD, EC).
Evaluation criteria:
A Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay and/or Escherichia coli reverse mutation assay is considered acceptable if it meets the following criteria:
a) The vehicle control and positive control plates from each tester strain (with or without S9-mix) must exhibit a characteristic number of revertant colonies when compared against relevant historical control data generated at Charles River Den Bosch.

b) The selected dose-range should include a clearly toxic concentration or should exhibit limited solubility as demonstrated by the preliminary toxicity range-finding test or should extend to 5 mg/plate.

c) No more than 5% of the plates are lost through contamination or some other unforeseen event. If the results are considered invalid due to contamination, the experiment will be repeated.

All results presented in the tables of the report are calculated using values as per the raw data rounding procedure and may not be exactly reproduced from the individual data presented.

Results and discussion

Test results
Species / strain:
other: TA1535, TA1537, TA98, TA100 and WP2uvrA
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
True negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
Remarks on result:
no mutagenic potential (based on QSAR/QSPR prediction)

Applicant's summary and conclusion

In conclusion, based on the results of this study it is concluded that PF-06961030 is not mutagenic in the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay and in the Escherichia coli reverse mutation assay.