Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2017
Report Date:
2017

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Version / remarks:
1997
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method B.13/14 (Mutagenicity - Reverse Mutation Test Using Bacteria)
Version / remarks:
2008
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder

Method

Target gene:
his
Species / strainopen allclose all
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9-mix (rat liver)
Species / strain:
E. coli WP2 uvr A pKM 101
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 mix (rat liver)
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Experiment 1: Direct plate assay 52, 164, 512, 1600 and 5000 µg/plate
Experiment 2: Pre-incubation assay 52, 164, 512, 1600 and 5000 µg/plate

Results of dose-range finding study indciated that 5000 µg/plate was the appropriate top-dose
Vehicle:
Milli-Q water
Controls
Negative controls:
yes
Remarks:
water
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: see table 1 and 2 under additional materials and methods
Details on test system and conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
Salmonella typhimurium bacteria and Escherichia coli bacteria
Rationale: Recommended test system in international guidelines (e.g. OECD, EC).
Source: Trinova Biochem GmbH, Germany [Master culture from Dr. Bruce N. Ames (TA1535: 2006, TA1537: 2016, TA98: 2015, TA100: 2015; and Master culture from The National Collections of Industrial and Marine Bacteria, Aberdeen, UK (WP2uvrA: 2008)]

The characteristics of the different Salmonella typhimurium strains were as follows:
Strain Histidine mutation Mutation type
TA1537 hisC3076 Frameshift
TA98 hisD3052/R-factor* Frameshift
TA1535 hisG46 Base-pair substitutions
TA100 hisG46/R-factor* Base-pair substitutions
*: R-factor = plasmid pKM101 (increases error-prone DNA repair)

Each tester strain contained the following additional mutations:
rfa :deep rough (defective lipopolysaccharide cellcoat)
gal :mutation in the galactose metabolism
chl :mutation in nitrate reductase
bio :defective biotin synthesis
uvrB: loss of the excision repair system (deletion of the ultraviolet-repair B gene)

The Salmonella typhimurium strains were regularly checked to confirm their
histidine-requirement, crystal violet sensitivity, ampicillin resistance (TA98 and TA100),
UV-sensitivity and the number of spontaneous revertants.

The Escherichia coli WP2uvrA strain detects base-pair substitutions. The strain lacks an excision repair system and is sensitive to agents such as UV. The sensitivity of the strain to a wide variety of mutagens has been enhanced by permeabilization of the strain using
Tris-EDTA treatment (Ref.1). The strain was regularly checked to confirm the tryptophan-requirement, UV-sensitivity and the number of spontaneous revertants. Stock cultures of the five strains were stored in liquid nitrogen (-196°C).

CELL CULTURE

Preparation of bacterial cultures
Samples of frozen stock cultures of bacteria were transferred into enriched nutrient broth (Oxoid LTD, Hampshire, England) and incubated in a shaking incubator (37 ± 1°C, 150 rpm), until the cultures reached an optical density of 1.0 ± 0.1 at 700 nm (109 cells/ml). Freshly grown cultures of each strain were used for a test.

Agar plates
Agar plates (ø 9 cm) contained 25 ml glucose agar medium. Glucose agar medium contained per liter: 18 g purified agar (Oxoid LTD) in Vogel-Bonner Medium E, 20 g glucose (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Homburg, Germany). The agar plates for the test with the Salmonella typhimurium strains also contained 12.5 µg/plate biotin (Merck) and 15 µg/plate histidine (Sigma) and the agar plates for the test with the Escherichia coli strain contained 15 µg/plate tryptophan (Sigma).

Top agar
Milli-Q water containing 0.6% (w/v) bacteriological agar (Oxoid LTD) and 0.5% (w/v) sodium chloride (Merck) was heated to dissolve the agar. Samples of 3 ml top agar were transferred into 10 ml glass tubes with metal caps. Top agar tubes were autoclaved for
20 min at 121 ± 3°C.

Environmental conditions
All incubations were carried out in a controlled environment at a temperature of 37.0 ± 1.0°C (actual range 34.8 – 39.1°C). The temperature was continuously monitored throughout the experiment. Due to addition of plates (which were at room temperature) to the incubator or due to opening and closing the incubator door, temporary deviations from the temperature may occur. Based on laboratory historical data these deviations are considered not to affect the study integrity.

The first experiment was a direct plate assay and the second experiment was a pre-incubation assay.
The negative control (vehicle) and relevant positive controls were concurrently tested in each strain in the presence and absence of S9-mix.

FIRST EXPERIMENT: DIRECT PLATE ASSAY
The above mentioned dose-range finding study with two tester strains is reported as a part of the direct plate assay. In the second part of this experiment, the test item was tested both in the absence and presence of S9-mix in the tester strains TA1535, TA1537 and TA98. Top agar in top agar tubes was melted by heating to 45 ± 2°C. The following solutions were successively added to 3 ml molten top agar: 0.1 ml of a fresh bacterial culture (109 cells/ml) of one of the tester strains, 0.1 ml of a dilution of the test item in milli-Q water and either 0.5 ml S9-mix (in case of activation assays) or 0.5 ml 0.1 M phosphate buffer (in case of non-activation assays). The ingredients were mixed on a Vortex and the content of the top agar tube was poured onto a selective agar plate. After solidification of the top agar, the plates were inverted and incubated in the dark at 37.0 ± 1.0°C for 48 ± 4 h. After this period revertant colonies (histidine independent (His+) for Salmonella typhimurium bacteria and tryptophan independent (Trp+) for Escherichia coli) were counted.

SECOND EXPERIMENT: PRE-INCUBATION ASSAY
The test item was tested both in the absence and presence of S9-mix in all tester strains. Top agar in top agar tubes was melted by heating to 45 ± 2°C. The following solutions were
pre-incubated for 30 ± 2 minutes by 70 rpm at 37 ± 1°C, either 0.5 ml S9-mix (in case of activation assays) or 0.5 ml 0.1 M phosphate buffer (in case of non-activation assays), 0.1 ml of a fresh bacterial culture (109 cells/ml) of one of the tester strains, 0.1 ml of a dilution of the test item in Milli-Q water. After the pre-incubation period the solutions were added to 3 ml molten top agar. The ingredients were mixed on a Vortex and the content of the top agar tube was poured onto a selective agar plate. After solidification of the top agar, the plates were inverted and incubated in the dark at 37.0 ± 1.0°C for 48 ± 4 h. After this period revertant colonies (histidine independent (His+) for Salmonella typhimurium bacteria and tryptophan independent (Trp+) for Escherichia coli) were counted.

COLONY COUNTING
The revertant colonies were counted automatically with the Sorcerer Colony Counter. Plates with sufficient test item precipitate to interfere with automated colony counting were counted manually. Evidence of test item precipitate on the plates and the condition of the bacterial background lawn were evaluated when considered necessary, macroscopically and/or microscopically by using a dissecting microscope.

Rationale for test conditions:
As per OECD guidelines
Evaluation criteria:
No formal hypothesis testing was done.
In addition to the criteria stated below, any increase in the total number of revertants should be evaluated for its biological relevance including a comparison of the results with the historical control data range.

A test item is considered negative (not mutagenic) in the test if:
a) The total number of revertants in tester strain TA100 or WP2uvrA is not greater than two (2) times the concurrent control, and the total number of revertants in tester strains TA1535, TA1537 or TA98 is not greater than three (3) times the concurrent control.
b) The negative response should be reproducible in at least one follow up experiment.

A test item is considered positive (mutagenic) in the test if:
a) The total number of revertants in tester strain TA100 or WP2uvrA is greater than two (2) times the concurrent control, or the total number of revertants in tester strains TA1535, TA1537 or TA98 is greater than three (3) times the concurrent control.
b) In case a repeat experiment is performed when a positive response is observed in one of the tester strains, the positive response should be reproducible in at least one follow up experiment.
Statistics:
Not required

Results and discussion

Test resultsopen allclose all
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity:
no
Vehicle controls valid:
yes
Positive controls valid:
yes
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 98
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity:
yes
Vehicle controls valid:
yes
Positive controls valid:
yes
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
ambiguous
Cytotoxicity:
yes
Vehicle controls valid:
yes
Positive controls valid:
yes
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1537
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
positive
Cytotoxicity:
yes
Vehicle controls valid:
yes
Positive controls valid:
yes
Species / strain:
E. coli WP2 uvr A pKM 101
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
positive
Cytotoxicity:
yes
Remarks:
Only in the presence of S9-mix.
Vehicle controls valid:
yes
Positive controls valid:
yes
Additional information on results:
EXPERIMENT 1:
In the direct plate test, no increase in the number of revertants was observed upon treatment with Mercaptamine under all conditions tested.

EXPERIMENT 2:
In the pre-incubation test, no increase in the number of revertants was observed upon treatment with the test item in tester strains TA1535 and TA98.

In tester strain TA1537 an 11- and 19-fold increase in the number of revertants was observed in the absence and presence of S9-mix, respectively.

In tester strain TA100 increases in the number of revertants were observed which were above the historical control data ranges. These increases were 1.7-fold compared to the historical control data ranges, in both the absence and presence of S9-mix, and did therefore not fulfill the criteria for a positive response.

In tester strain WP2uvrA a 4.6- and 4.0-fold increase in the number of revertants was observed in the absence and presence of S9-mix, respectively.  

Any other information on results incl. tables

 

 

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
In conclusion, based on the results of this study it is concluded that mercaptamine is mutagenic in the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay and in the Escherichia coli reverse mutation assay.