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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Study meets the criteria for Klimisch code 2 (reliabile with restrictions) because it followed an internationally recognised method (OECD Guideline 203) and was carried out to Good Laboratory Practice. However, there was no analytical confirmation of the test concentrations. In addition, there was a possible deviation in the salinity of the dilution water, however, Sheepshead minnows naturally occur at salinities of 34 °/oo. Therefore, it was not considered to affect the outcome of the study.
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
The read across follows Scenario 5 - Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects are caused by a common compound, which is formed from all category members (as described in the 2017 Read-Across Assessment Framework document).
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES)
TARGET: Benzenesulfonic acid, di-C10-14-alkyl derivs., sodium salts
SOURCE: Benzenesulphonic acid C20-24 alkyl calcium salt
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION

Linear and non-linear or branched alkylbenzene sulfonates are anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a hydrophobic (apolar) and a hydrophilic (polar) group. As a group of chemicals, they are generally mixtures of closely related isomers and homologues. Each molecule contains an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to either a linear or a branched alkyl chain at any position except the terminal carbons. The sulfonate group is a common functional group present in each of the category members, and is expected to exhibit similar biological activities with little influence from the length of carbon chain. The cation components of the chemicals (e.g. calcium, magnesium, sodium, or barium) are not expected to contribute significantly to the toxicity.
4. DATA MATRIX
See Read Across document attached to CSR
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Salinity was ocassionaly measured as 34 °/oo, exceeding the guideline of 30 ± 3 °/oo. However, the error in measurement was ± 2 °/oo, therefore, salinity may have still been within guidelines. This deviation did not affect the study outcome.
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Total organic carbon (TOC) measurements of each freshly prepared test solution and control and after 24-hours on test just before daily
renewal with fresh test solution.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Individual water accommodated fractions (WAFs) were prepared for each daily renewal of the 10,000 mg/L test level. A measured weight of test material was added to a measured volume of dilution water (15 L) in a glass vessel and stirred for 16 to 24 hour. Stiring was accomplished using a Telfon coated magnetic stir bar.
Following the mixing period, the test solution were allowed to stand for 2 hours before the water phase was removed.
The water phase was siphoned from the middle of the vessels and was used for the toxicity test.

Dilution water was natural seawater collected from Cape Cod Canal, Bourne, Massachusetts. Water was filtered through a 0.5 micron polypropylene core filter and then activated carbon. Water was stored under constant aeration for 1-4 days prior to use.

An oily layer was observed on the surface of the stock solution.
Test organisms (species):
Cyprinodon variegatus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Sheepshead minnow
- Source: Commercial supplier in New Hampshire
- Age at study initiation: 10 to 15 days old
- Length at study initiation: Average 11 mm, range 10-13 mm, n=30
- Weight at study initiation: Average 0.028 g, range 0.02-0.05 g, n=30
- Feeding during test: The fish were not feed during the test
- Loading biomass: 0.056 g biomass/L

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Fish were held for a minimum of 6 days prior to testing
- Type and amount of food: Artemia nauplii
- Feeding frequency: Provided ad libitum from <48 hours old (post hydration)
- Health during acclimation: There was no mortality during the six days prior to testing
Test type:
other: Static renewal
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
Not relevant
Test temperature:
Refer to Table 1
pH:
Refer to Table 2
Dissolved oxygen:
Refer to Table 3
Salinity:
Refer to Table 4
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Mean measured TOC levels in the control and 10,000 mg/L WAF test level were 3.0 mg/L (range 1.2 to 4.4) and 6.4 mg/L (range 5.0 to 7.9),
respectively
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 18.9 L glass aquaria containing 5 L of test solution. The test solution had a depth of 6.0 cm, with a surface area of 985 cm².
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): Greater than 90% of the aged (approximately 24 hours old) test solution in each vessel renewed daily after 24, 48 and 72 hours.
- No. of organisms per vessel: Ten
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Two
- Biomass loading rate: 0.056 g/L

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Natural seawater collected from Cape Cod Canal, Bourne, Massachusetts

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light, 8 hours dark
- Light intensity: 25 foot candles with a Colur Rendering Index of >91

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality and signs of toxicity

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Test concentrations: Control and 10,000 mg/L WAF loading rate
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Sodium laurl sulfate (SLS).
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL0
Effect conc.:
10 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 10 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
Control mortality did not exceed the test validity criterion (i.e. <10% mortality in controls).

No mortality or signs of toxicity were noted in either the control or the 10,000 mg/L WAF treatment throughout the test.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
96 hour LC50 was 1.2 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical analysis of the data was not warranted on the basis that no mortality occurred in this study.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The test substance was not toxic to the Sheepshead minnow (Cyprinidon variegatus) at a loading of 10000 mg/L nominal WAF
Executive summary:

In a 96-hour acute toxicity study, Sheepshead minnow (Cyprinidon variegatus) were exposed to benzenesulphonic acid C20-24 alkyl calcium salt at nominal concentrations of 0 and 10,000 mg/L WAF under static renewal conditions.  The 96-hour LL50was >10,000 mg/L nominal WAF. No signs of toxicity were noted.

 

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for a fish acute toxicity study.

 

Results Synopsis

 

Test organism size/age (mean wet weight or length): 10 to 15 days old, average length 11 mm average weight 0.028 g

Test Type: Static renewal

 

96h LL50:  >10,000 mg/L nominal WAF

96h LL0:  10,000 mg/L nominal WAF

Endpoint(s) Effected: None

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Study meets criteria for Klimisch code 2 (reliable with restrictions) because it follows an internationally recognised method (OECD Guideline 203) and was carried out to Good Laboratory Practice. However, there was no analytical confirmation of the test concentrations. In addition, there was a possible deviation in the salinity of the dilution water, however, Sheepshead minnows naturally occur at salinities of 34 °/oo. Therefore, it was not considered to affect the outcome of the study.
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
The read across follows Scenario 5 - Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects are caused by a common compound, which is formed from all category members (as described in the 2017 Read-Across Assessment Framework document).
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES)
TARGET: Benzenesulfonic acid, di-C10-14-alkyl derivs., sodium salts
SOURCE: Sulfonic acid, petroleum, calcium salt
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION

Linear and non-linear or branched alkylbenzene sulfonates are anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a hydrophobic (apolar) and a hydrophilic (polar) group. As a group of chemicals, they are generally mixtures of closely related isomers and homologues. Each molecule contains an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to either a linear or a branched alkyl chain at any position except the terminal carbons. The sulfonate group is a common functional group present in each of the category members, and is expected to exhibit similar biological activities with little influence from the length of carbon chain. The cation components of the chemicals (e.g. calcium, magnesium, sodium, or barium) are not expected to contribute significantly to the toxicity.
4. DATA MATRIX
See Read Across document attached to CSR
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Salinity was ocassionaly measured as 34 °/oo, exceeding the guideline of 30 ± 3 °/oo. However, the error in measurement was ± 2 °/oo, therefore, salinity may have still been within guidelines. This deviation did not affect the study outcome.
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Total organic carbon (TOC) measurements of each freshly prepared test solution and control and after 24 hours on test just before daily renewal with fresh test solution.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Individual water accommodated fractions (WAFs) were prepared for each daily renewal of the 10,000 mg/L test level. A measured weight of test material (150 g) was added to a measured volume of dilution water (15 L) in a glass vessel and stirred for 16 to 20 hours. Stiring was accomplished using a Telfon coated magnetic stir bar. Following the mixing period, the test solution were allowed to stand for 2 hours before the water phase was removed.
The water phase was siphoned from the middle of the vessels and was used for the toxicity test.

Dilution water was natural seawater collected from Cape Cod Canal, Bourne, Massachusetts. Water was filtered through a 0.5 micron polypropylene core filter and then activated carbon. Water was stored under constant aeration for 1-4 days prior to use.

An oily layer was observed on the surface of the stock solution, and material adhered to the sides of the test vessel. Some material remained in suspension while stirring.
Test organisms (species):
Cyprinodon variegatus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Sheepshead minnow
- Source: Commercial supplier in New Hampshire
- Age at study initiation: 14 days old
- Length at study initiation: Average 12 mm, range 10-15 mm, n=30
- Weight at study initiation: Average 0.04 g, range 0.004-0.11 g, n=30
- Feeding during test: The fish were not feed during the test


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Fish were held for a minimum of 7 days prior to testing
- Type and amount of food: Artemia nauplii
- Feeding frequency: Provided ad libitum from <48 hours old (post hydration)
- Health during acclimation: There was no mortality during the seven days prior to testing
Test type:
other: Static renewal
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
Not relevant
Test temperature:
Refer to Table 1
pH:
Refer to Table 2
Dissolved oxygen:
Refer to Table 3
Salinity:
Refer to Table 4
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Mean measured TOC levels in the control and 10,000 mg/L WAF test level were 4.1 mg/L (range 2.3 to 7.9) and 10.2 mg/L (range 6.4 to 15.0),
respectively
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 18.9 L glass aquaria containing 5 L of test solution. The test solution had a depth of 6.0 cm, with a surface area of 985 cm²
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): About 90% of the test solution in each vessel renewed daily after 24, 48 and 72 hours.
- No. of organisms per vessel: Ten
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Two
- Loading biomass: 0.08 g biomass/L


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Natural seawater collected from Cape Cod Canal, Bourne, Massachusetts


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light, 8 hours dark
- Light intensity: 25 foot candles with a Colur Rendering Index of >91


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality and signs of toxicity


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Test concentrations: Control and 10,000 mg/L WAF loading rate
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
sodium lauryl sulfate
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL0
Effect conc.:
10 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 10 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
Control mortality did not exceed the test validity criterion (i.e. <10% mortality in controls).

No mortality or signs of toxicity were noted in either the control or the 10,000 mg/L WAF treatment throughout the test.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
96 hour LC50 was 1.2 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical analysis of the data was not warranted on the basis that no mortality occurred in this study.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The test substance was not toxic to the Sheepshead minnow (Cyprinidon variegatus) at a loading of 10000 mg/L nominal WAF.
Executive summary:

In a 96-hour acute toxicity study, Sheepshead minnow (Cyprinidon variegatus) were exposed to sulphonic acid, petroleum derived calcium salt at nominal concentrations of 0 and 10,000 mg/L WAF under static renewal conditions.  The 96-hour LL50was >10,000 mg/L nominal WAF. No signs of toxicity were noted.

 

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for a fish acute toxicity study.

 

Results Synopsis

 

Test organism size/age (mean wet weight or length): 14 days old, average length 12 mm, average weight 0.04 g

Test Type: Static renewal

 

96h LL50:  >10,000 mg/L nominal WAF

96h LL0:  10,000 mg/L nominal WAF

Endpoint(s) Effected: None

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1986
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Study meets the critria for Klimisch score 2 because it followed an internationally recognised method (OECD Guideline 203) and was carried out to Good Laboratory Practice. However, there was no analytical confirmation of the test concentrations.
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
The read across follows Scenario 5 - Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects are caused by a common compound, which is formed from all category members (as described in the 2017 Read-Across Assessment Framework document).
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES)
TARGET: Benzenesulfonic acid, di-C10-14-alkyl derivs., sodium salts
SOURCE: Benzenesulfonic acid, mono and dialkyl derivatives, magnesium salt
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION

Linear and non-linear or branched alkylbenzene sulfonates are anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a hydrophobic (apolar) and a hydrophilic (polar) group. As a group of chemicals, they are generally mixtures of closely related isomers and homologues. Each molecule contains an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to either a linear or a branched alkyl chain at any position except the terminal carbons. The sulfonate group is a common functional group present in each of the category members, and is expected to exhibit similar biological activities with little influence from the length of carbon chain. The cation components of the chemicals (e.g. calcium, magnesium, sodium, or barium) are not expected to contribute significantly to the toxicity.
4. DATA MATRIX
See Read Across document attached to CSR
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
Remarks:
None reported
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
Total organic carbon (TOC) measurements of each freshly prepared test solution and control and after 24 hours on test just before daily renewal with fresh test solution.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Individual water accommodated fractions (WAFs) were prepared for each daily renewal of the 10,000 mg/L test level.
A measured weight of test material was added to a measured volume of dilution water (15 L) in a 19.6 L glass vessel. The solution, which was clear with a brown coloured liquid that settled at the bottom and an oily layer on the surface, was stirred for 16 to 24 hour.
Stiring was accomplished using a Telfon coated magnetic stir bar.
Following the mixing period, the test solution were allowed to stand for 2 hours before the water phase was removed.
The water phase was siphoned from the lower end of the vessels, approximately midway between the bottom and the surface, and was used for the toxicity test.

Dilution water was natural seawater collected from Cape Cod Canal, Bourne, Massachusetts. Water was filtered through a 0.5 micron polypropylene core filter and then activated carbon. Water was stored under constant aeration for 1-4 days prior to use.

No undissolved test material was reported on the surface of the test vessels during the entire toxicity test.
Test organisms (species):
Cyprinodon variegatus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Sheepshead minnow
- Source: Commercial supplier in New Hampshire
- Age at study initiation: 17-22 days old
- Length at study initiation: Average 11 mm, range 10-13 mm, n=30
- Weight at study initiation: Average 0.028 g, range 0.02-0.05 g, n=30
- Feeding during test: The fish were not feed during the test
- Loading biomass: 0.056 g biomass/L

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Fish were held for a minimum of 13 days prior to testing
- Acclimation conditions: 16 hours light, 8 hours darkness, salinity range of 32-34 °/oo, pH range of 7.1-7.6, dissolved oxygen concentration of 100-103% saturation, temperature of 20-23°C
- Type and amount of food: Artemia nauplii provided ad libitum until the day prior to testing
- Feeding frequency: Fish were fed from <48 hours old (post hydration)
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): No mortality was observed during the seven days prior to testing
Test type:
other: Static renewal
Water media type:
saltwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
Not relevant
Test temperature:
Refer to Table 1
pH:
Refer to Table 2
Dissolved oxygen:
Refer to Table 3
Salinity:
Refer to Table 4
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Control and 10,000 mg/L WAF

Mean measured TOC in the 10,000 mg/L WAF treatment was 5.0 mg/L, compared to 3.6 mg/L in the control
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 5 L of test solution in a 18.9 L glass aquaria. The test solution depth was 6.0 cm, with a surface area of 985 cm²
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): About 90% of the test solution in each vessel renewed daily after 24, 48 and 72 hours.
- No. of organisms per vessel: Ten
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Two

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Natural seawater collected from Cape Cod Canal, Bourne, Massachusetts
- Total organic carbon: Refer to Table 5

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality and signs of toxicity

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Test concentrations: Control and 10,000 mg/L WAF loading rate
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
sodium lauryl sulphate
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL0
Effect conc.:
10 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 10 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
Control mortality did not exceed the test validity criterion (i.e. <10% mortality in controls).

No mortality or signs of toxicity were noted in either the control or the 10,000 mg/L WAF treatment throughout the test.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
96 hour LC50 was 1.2 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical analysis of the data was not warranted on the basis that no mortality occurred in this study.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The test substance was not toxic to the Sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus at a loading rate of 10,000 mg/L nominal WAF.
Executive summary:

In a 96-hour acute toxicity study, Sheepshead minnow (Cyprinidon variegatus) were exposed to sulphonic acid, petroleum derived calcium salt at nominal concentrations of 0 and 10,000 mg/L WAF under static renewal conditions.  The 96-hour LL50was >10,000 mg/L nominal WAF. No signs of toxicity were noted.

 

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for a fish acute toxicity study.

 

Results Synopsis

 

Test organism size/age (mean wet weight or length): 17 -22 days old, average length 11 mm, average weight 0.028 g

Test Type: Static renewal

 

96h LL50:  >10,000 mg/L nominal WAF

96h LL0:  10,000 mg/L nominal WAF

Endpoint(s) Effected: None

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1983
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Study meets the criteria for Klimisch code 2 (reliable with restrictions) because it followed an internationally recognised procedure (EPA OTS 797.1400) and was carried out to Good Laboratory Practice. However, there was no analytical confirmation of the test concentrations. In addition, there were deviations from the procedure, but these deviations did not affect the study outcome.
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
The read across follows Scenario 5 - Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects are caused by a common compound, which is formed from all category members (as described in the 2017 Read-Across Assessment Framework document).
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES)
TARGET: Benzenesulfonic acid, di-C10-14-alkyl derivs., sodium salts
SOURCE: Benzenesulfonic acid, mono C15-30 branched alkyl and di C11-13 branched and linear alkyl derivative/ benzenesulfonic acid, mono C15-30 branched alkyl and di C11-13 branched and linear alkyl derivative
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION

Linear and non-linear or branched alkylbenzene sulfonates are anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a hydrophobic (apolar) and a hydrophilic (polar) group. As a group of chemicals, they are generally mixtures of closely related isomers and homologues. Each molecule contains an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to either a linear or a branched alkyl chain at any position except the terminal carbons. The sulfonate group is a common functional group present in each of the category members, and is expected to exhibit similar biological activities with little influence from the length of carbon chain. The cation components of the chemicals (e.g. calcium, magnesium, sodium, or barium) are not expected to contribute significantly to the toxicity.
4. DATA MATRIX
See Read Across document attached to CSR
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OTS 797.1400 (Fish Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
The TOC in the dilution water was >2 mg/l. Fish were fed until the beginning of the test and the WAF settled for >1 hour.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Total organic carbon (TOC) measurements of each freshly prepared test solution and control and after 24 hours on test just before daily renewal with fresh test solution.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Individual water accommodated fractions (WAFs) were prepared for each test level for daily renewal. A measured weight of test material was added to a measured volume of dilution water (30 L) in a glass vessel and stirred for 24 hours. Stiring was accomplished using a Telfon coated magnetic stir bar. Following the mixing period, the test solution were allowed to stand for 1 hour before the water phase was removed. The water phase was siphoned from the lower end of the vessels, 1-2 inches from the bottom, and was used for the toxicity test.

Dilution water was filtered well water collected at Hampton, New Hamshire. Water was adjusted to an appropriate hardness, passed through activated carbon and then an ultraviolet steriliser. Water was stored in a polyethylene tank where it was aerated.

No undissolved test material was reported on the surface of the test vessels during the entire toxicity test.
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead minnow
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms, Hampshire
- Age at study initiation: Juvenile
- Length at study initiation: Average 29 mm, longest fish not more than twice the shortest fish
- Weight at study initiation: Average 0.2 g
- Feeding during test: The fish were not fed during the test
- Loading biomass: <0.5 g biomass/L

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Fish were held for a minimum of 14 days prior to testing
- Health during acclimation: Fish were not treated for disease during acclimation. They were free of apparent sickness, injuies and abnormalities at the beginning of the test
Test type:
other: Static renewal
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
180 mg CaCO3/L
Test temperature:
Refer to Table 1
pH:
Refer to Table 2
Dissolved oxygen:
Refer to Table 3
Salinity:
Not relevant
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Control, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/l as water accommodated fraction (WAF) loading rate.

TOC levels were between 2.3 and 3.0 mg/L in the control, 2.8 and 3.2 mg/L at 100 mg/L loading, 2.6-3.2 mg/L at 300 mg/L loading, and 2.6-3.3 mg/L at 1000 mg/L loading. TOC levels were not considered to be indicative of actual test material concentrations and results are therefore based on nominal loading rates.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 20 L glass vessel containing 15 L of test solution, loosely covered to reduce the entry of dust
- Renewal rate of test solution: About 80% of the test solution in each vessel renewed daily after 24, 48 and 72 hours
- No. of organisms per vessel: Ten
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Two


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Filtered well water collected at Hampton, New Hamshire
- Total organic carbon: Refer to Table 4
- Conductivity: Refer to Table 5


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light per day
- Light intensity: 25 µEin/m²


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Test concentrations: Control, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/L WAF loading rate
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL0
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
Control mortality did not exceed the test validity criterion (i.e. <10% mortality in controls).

No mortality or signs of toxicity were noted in either the control or WAF treatments throughout the test.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical analysis of the data was not warranted on the basis that no mortality occurred in this study.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The test substance was not toxic to the Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) at a loading rate up to 1000 mg/L nominal WAF.
Executive summary:

In a 96-hour acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to mixed C15-C30 and C11-C13 alkaryl calcium salt, overbased derivative at nominal concentrations of 0 300 and 1000 mg/L WAF loading rate under static renewal conditions.  The 96-hour LL50was >1000 mg/L nominal WAF. No signs of toxicity were noted.

 

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for a fish acute toxicity study.

 

Results Synopsis

 

Test organism size/age: Juvenile, average length 29 mm, average weight 0.2 g

Test Type: Static renewal

 

96h LL50:  >1000 mg/L nominal WAF

96h LL0:  1000 mg/L nominal WAF

Endpoint(s) Effected: None

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1983
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Study meets criteria for Klimisch code 2 (reliable with restrictions) because it followed an internationally recognised procedure (EPA OTS 797.1400) and was carried out to Good Laboratory Practice. However, there was no analytical confirmation of the test concentrations. In addition, there were deviations from the procedure, but these deviations did not affect the study outcome.
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
The read across follows Scenario 5 - Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects are caused by a common compound, which is formed from all category members (as described in the 2017 Read-Across Assessment Framework document).
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES)
TARGET: Benzenesulfonic acid, di-C10-14-alkyl derivs., sodium salts
SOURCE: Benzenesulfonic acid, mono and dialkyl derivatives, magnesium salt
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION

Linear and non-linear or branched alkylbenzene sulfonates are anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a hydrophobic (apolar) and a hydrophilic (polar) group. As a group of chemicals, they are generally mixtures of closely related isomers and homologues. Each molecule contains an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to either a linear or a branched alkyl chain at any position except the terminal carbons. The sulfonate group is a common functional group present in each of the category members, and is expected to exhibit similar biological activities with little influence from the length of carbon chain. The cation components of the chemicals (e.g. calcium, magnesium, sodium, or barium) are not expected to contribute significantly to the toxicity.
4. DATA MATRIX
See Read Across document attached to CSR
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OTS 797.1400 (Fish Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
TOC at the beginning of the test was >2 mg/l. Hardness was not determined at the end of the test.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Total organic carbon (TOC) measurement of each freshly prepared test solution and control after 24 hours on test before daily renewal with fresh test solution.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Individual water accommodated fractions (WAFs) were prepared for each test level and renewed daily.
A measured weight of test material was added to a measured volume of dilution water (30 L) in a glass vessel and stirred for 24 hours.
Stiring was accomplished using a Telfon coated magnetic stir bar.
Following the mixing period, the test solution were allowed to stand for 1 hour before the water phase was removed.
The water phase was siphoned from the lower end of the vessels, 1-2 inches from the bottom, and was used for the toxicity test.

Dilution water was filtered well water collected at Hampton, New Hamshire. Water was adjusted to a hardness of 176 mg/L, passed through activated carbon and then an ultraviolet steriliser. Water was stored in a polyethylene tank where it was aerated.

No undissolved test material was reported on the surface of the test vessels during the entire toxicity test.
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead minnow
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms, Hampshire
- Age at study initiation: Juvenile
- Length at study initiation: Average 38.4 mm, longest fish not more than twice the shortest fish
- Weight at study initiation: Average 0.5 g
- Feeding during test: The fish were not fed during the test
- Loading biomass: <0.5 g biomass/L

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Fish were held for a minimum of 14 days prior to testing
- Health during acclimation: Fish were not treated for disease during acclimation. They were free of apparent sickness, injuies and abnormalities at the beginning of the test
Test type:
other: Static renewal
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
176 mg CaCO3/L
Test temperature:
Refer to Table 1
pH:
Refer to Table 2
Dissolved oxygen:
Refer to Table 3
Salinity:
Not relevant
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Control, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/L WAF loading rates.

TOC levels were between 2.3 and 3.2 mg/L in the control, 3.3 and 3.8 mg/L at 100 mg/L loading, 3.1-4.0 mg/L at 300 mg/L loading, and 3.2-4.4 mg/L at 1000 mg/L loading. TOC levels were not considered to be indicative of actual test material concentrations and results are therefore based on nominal loading rates.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 15 L vessel
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): About 80% of the test solution in each vessel renewed daily after 24, 48 and 72 hours.
- No. of organisms per vessel: Ten
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Two

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Filtered well water collected at Hampton, New Hamshire
- Total organic carbon: Refer to Table 4
- Conductivity: Refer to Table 5

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light per day
- Light intensity: 15 µEin/m²

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Test concentrations: Control, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/L WAF loading rate
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
Control mortality did not exceed the test validity criterion (i.e. <10% mortality in controls).

No mortality or signs of toxicity were noted in either the control or WAF treatments throughout the test.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical analysis of the data was not warranted on the basis that no mortality occurred in this study.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The test substance was not toxic to Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) up to 1000 mg/L nominal WAF.
Executive summary:

In a 96-hour acute toxicity study, Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to benzenesulfonic acid, mono and dialkyl derivatives, magnesium salt at nominal concentrations of 0 300 and 1000 mg/L WAF loading rate under static renewal conditions.  The 96-hour LL50was >1000 mg/L nominal WAF. No signs of toxicity were noted.

 

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for a fish acute toxicity study.

 

Results Synopsis

 

Test organism size/age: Juvenile, average length 38.4 mm, average weight 0.5 g

Test Type: Static renewal

 

96h LL50:  >1000 mg/L nominal WAF

96h NOELR:  1000 mg/L nominal WAF

Endpoint(s) Effected: None

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Study meets the critria for Klimisch score 2 because it followed an internationally recognised method (OECD Guideline 203) and was carried out to Good Laboratory Practice. However, there was no analytical confirmation of the test concentrations.
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
The read across follows Scenario 5 - Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects are caused by a common compound, which is formed from all category members (as described in the 2017 Read-Across Assessment Framework document).
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES)
TARGET: Benzenesulfonic acid, di-C10-14-alkyl derivs., sodium salts
SOURCE: Sulphonic acids, petroleum, sodium salts
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION

Linear and non-linear or branched alkylbenzene sulfonates are anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a hydrophobic (apolar) and a hydrophilic (polar) group. As a group of chemicals, they are generally mixtures of closely related isomers and homologues. Each molecule contains an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to either a linear or a branched alkyl chain at any position except the terminal carbons. The sulfonate group is a common functional group present in each of the category members, and is expected to exhibit similar biological activities with little influence from the length of carbon chain. The cation components of the chemicals (e.g. calcium, magnesium, sodium, or barium) are not expected to contribute significantly to the toxicity.
4. DATA MATRIX
See Read Across document attached to CSR
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.1 (Acute Toxicity for Fish)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 0 and 100 mg/l nominal WAF loading rates
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: An amount of test material (2100 mg) was added to the surface of 21 litres of dechlorinated tap water. The test solution was stirred for 24 hours using a magnetic stirrer using a stirring rate such that a slight dimple was formed on the surface. After stirring the mixture was allowed to stand for 1 hour. Microscopic observations of the WAF indicated that a significant amount of dispersed test material was present in the water column. Therefore, it was considered appropriate to remove the WAF by filtering through a glass wool plug (2-4 cm in length). A wide bore glass tube, covered at one end with Nescofilm was submerged into the vessel, sealed end down, to a depth of 5 cm for from the bottom of the vessel. A length of Tygon tubing was inserted into the glass tube and pushed through the Nescofilm seal. The aqueous phase was removed by mid-depth siphoning (the first 75-100 ml discarded).
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): Microscopic inspection of the WAF after filtering showed no micro-dispersions or undissolved test material to be present
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Rainbow trout
- Source: Brow Well Fisheries Limited, Hebden, Yorkshire, UK
- Age at study initiation: Juvenile
- Length at study initiation: mean standard length of 5.5 cm (SD = 0.3)
- Weight at study initiation: mean weight 1.76 g (SD = 0.20)
- Feeding during test: Fish were not fed during the test


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 30 March 2005 to 11 April 2005
- Acclimation conditions: Water temperature controlled at 14°C, dissolved oxygen concentration of greater than or equal to 9.7 mg O2/l
- Type and amount of food: Commercial trout pellets which were discontinued 24 hours prior to the test
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): There was no mortality for 7 days prior to the initiation of the test


Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
Approximately 100 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
Refer to Table 1
pH:
Refer to Table 2
Dissolved oxygen:
Refer to Table 3
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 20 litre glass vessel, covered to reduce evaporation
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): After each 24 hour period, the fish were removed from the old media using a net and transeferred into a 20 litre tank containing fresh media
- No. of organisms per vessel: Ten
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Two
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): One
- Biomass loading rate: Not reported


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Laboratory tap water, dechlorinated by passing through an activated carbon filter (Purite Series 500) and partly softened (Elga Nimbus 1248D Duplex water softener). The water was then passed through a series of computer controlled plate heat exchangers to achieve the required temperature.


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light, 8 hours dark with 20 minute transition periods for dawn and dusk


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED : Mortality


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 0, 10 and 100 mg/l nominal WAF loading rates in an initial range finding study, 0, 32 and 320 mg/l nominal WAF loading rates in a second range finding study, and 0, 10 and 100 mg/l nominal WAF loading rates in a third range finding study
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: In the first range finding study, a single mortality and sub-lethal effects were noted at the top dose, therefore the second range finding study was conducted. In the second range finding study, a single mortality with sub-lethal effects was noted at the top dose, therefore the third range finding study was conducted under semi-static conditions. No mortalities were observed in the third range finding study.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
No mortalities and no sublethal effects were noted at 100 mg/l WAF loading rate
Executive summary:

In a 96-hour acute toxicity study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to sulphonic acids, petroleum, sodium salts at nominal concentrations of 0 and 100 mg/L WAF loading rate under semi-static conditions.  The 96-hour LL50was >100 mg/L nominal WAF. No signs of toxicity were noted.

 

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for a fish acute toxicity study.

 

Results Synopsis

 

Test organism size/age: Juvenile, mean length 5.5 cm (SD = 0.3), mean weight 1.76 g (SD = 0.20)

Test Type: Semi-static

 

96h LL50:  >100 mg/L nominal WAF

96h NOELR:  100 mg/L nominal WAF

Endpoint(s) Effected: None

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Study meets the critria for Klimisch score 2 because it followed an internationally recognised method (OECD Guideline 203) and was carried out to Good Laboratory Practice. However, there was no analytical confirmation of the test concentrations.
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
The read across follows Scenario 5 - Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects are caused by a common compound, which is formed from all category members (as described in the 2017 Read-Across Assessment Framework document).
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES)
TARGET: Benzenesulfonic acid, di-C10-14-alkyl derivs., sodium salts
SOURCE: Sulfonic acids, petroleum, barium salts
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION

Linear and non-linear or branched alkylbenzene sulfonates are anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a hydrophobic (apolar) and a hydrophilic (polar) group. As a group of chemicals, they are generally mixtures of closely related isomers and homologues. Each molecule contains an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to either a linear or a branched alkyl chain at any position except the terminal carbons. The sulfonate group is a common functional group present in each of the category members, and is expected to exhibit similar biological activities with little influence from the length of carbon chain. The cation components of the chemicals (e.g. calcium, magnesium, sodium, or barium) are not expected to contribute significantly to the toxicity.
4. DATA MATRIX
See Read Across document attached to CSR
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.1 (Acute Toxicity for Fish)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 0 and 100 mg/l nominal WAF loading rates
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
- Method: An amount of test material (2100 mg) was added to the surface of 21 litres of dechlorinated tap water. The test solution was stirred for 24 hours using a magnetic stirrer using a stirring rate such that a slight dimple was formed on the surface. After stirring the mixture was allowed to stand for 1 hour. Microscopic observations of the WAF indicated that a significant amount of dispersed test material was present in the water column. Therefore, it was considered appropriate to remove the WAF by filtering through a glass wool plug (2-4 cm in length). A wide bore glass tube, covered at one end with Nescofilm was submerged into the vessel, sealed end down, to a depth of 5 cm for from the bottom of the vessel. A length of Tygon tubing was inserted into the glass tube and pushed through the Nescofilm seal. The aqueous phase was removed by mid-depth siphoning (the first 75-100 ml discarded).
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): Microscopic inspection of the WAF after filtering showed no micro-dispersions or undissolved test material to be present
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Rainbow trout
- Source: Brow Well Fisheries Limited, Hebden, Yorkshire, UK
- Age at study initiation: Juvenile
- Length at study initiation: mean standard length 4.2 cm (SD = 0.3)
- Weight at study initiation: mean weight 0.88 g (SD = 0.19)
- Feeding during test: Fish were not fed during the test


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 23 February 2005 to 7 March 2005
- Acclimation conditions: Water temperature controlled at 14°C, dissolved oxygen concentration of greater than or equal to 9.7 mg O2/l
- Type and amount of food: Commercial trout pellets which were discontinued 24 hours prior to the test
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): There was no mortality for 7 days prior to the initiation of the test

Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
Approximately 100 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
Refer to Table 1
pH:
Refer to Table 2
Dissolved oxygen:
Refer to Table 3
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 20 litre glass vessel, covered to reduce evaporation
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): After each 24 hour period, the fish were removed from the old media using a net and transeferred into a 20 litre tank containing fresh media
- No. of organisms per vessel: Ten
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Two
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): One
- Biomass loading rate: 0.44 g/l


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Laboratory tap water, dechlorinated by passing through an activated carbon filter (Purite Series 500) and partly softened (Elga Nimbus 1248D Duplex water softener). The water was then passed through a series of computer controlled plate heat exchangers to achieve the required temperature.


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light, 8 hours dark with 20 minute transition periods for dawn and dusk


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 0, 10 and 100 mg/l nominal WAF loading rates
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: No mortalities or sublethal affects occurred at 10 or 100 mg/l WAF loading rates
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
No mortalities and no sublethal effects were noted at 100 mg/l WAF loading rate
Executive summary:

In a 96-hour acute toxicity study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to sulfonic acids, petroleum, barium salts at nominal concentrations of 0 and 100 mg/L WAF loading rate under semi-static conditions.  The 96-hour LL50was >100 mg/L nominal WAF. No signs of toxicity were noted.

 

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for a fish acute toxicity study.

 

Results Synopsis

 

Test organism size/age: Juvenile, mean standard length 4.2 cm (SD = 0.3), mean weight 0.88 g (SD = 0.19)

Test Type: Semi-static

 

96h LL50:  >100 mg/L nominal WAF

96h NOELR:  100 mg/L nominal WAF

Endpoint(s) Effected: None

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
The read across follows Scenario 5 - Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects are caused by a common compound, which is formed from all category members (as described in the 2017 Read-Across Assessment Framework document).
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES)
TARGET: Benzenesulfonic acid, di-C10-14-alkyl derivs., sodium salts
SOURCE: Sulphonic acids, petroleum, calcium salts
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION

Linear and non-linear or branched alkylbenzene sulfonates are anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a hydrophobic (apolar) and a hydrophilic (polar) group. As a group of chemicals, they are generally mixtures of closely related isomers and homologues. Each molecule contains an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to either a linear or a branched alkyl chain at any position except the terminal carbons. The sulfonate group is a common functional group present in each of the category members, and is expected to exhibit similar biological activities with little influence from the length of carbon chain. The cation components of the chemicals (e.g. calcium, magnesium, sodium, or barium) are not expected to contribute significantly to the toxicity.
4. DATA MATRIX
See Read Across document attached to CSR
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.1 (Acute Toxicity for Fish)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 0 and 100 mg/l nominal WAF loading rates
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
- Method: An amount of test material (2100 mg) was added to the surface of 21 litres of dechlorinated tap water. The test solution was stirred for 24 hours using a magnetic stirrer using a stirring rate such that a slight dimple was formed on the surface. After stirring the mixture was allowed to stand for 1 hour. Microscopic observations of the WAF indicated that a significant amount of dispersed test material was present in the water column. Therefore, it was considered appropriate to remove the WAF by filtering through a glass wool plug (2-4 cm in length). A wide bore glass tube, covered at one end with Nescofilm was submerged into the vessel, sealed end down, to a depth of 5 cm for from the bottom of the vessel. A length of Tygon tubing was inserted into the glass tube and pushed through the Nescofilm seal. The aqueous phase was removed by mid-depth siphoning (the first 75-100 ml discarded).
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): Microscopic inspection of the WAF after filtering showed no micro-dispersions or undissolved test material to be present
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Rainbow trout
- Source: Brow Well Fisheries Limited, Hebden, Yorkshire, UK
- Age at study initiation: Juvenile
- Length at study initiation: mean standard length 4.6 cm (SD = 0.3)
- Weight at study initiation: mean weight 1.26 g (SD = 0.3)
- Feeding during test: Fish were not fed during the test


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 17 March 2005 to 29 March 2005
- Acclimation conditions: Water temperature controlled at 14°C, dissolved oxygen concentration of greater than or equal to 9.7 mg O2/l
- Type and amount of food:
- Feeding frequency: Commercial trout pellets which were discontinued 24 hours prior to the test
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): There was no mortality for 7 days prior to the initiation of the test

Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
Approximately 100 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
Refer to Table 1
pH:
Refer to Table 2
Dissolved oxygen:
Refer to Table 3
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 20 litre glass vessel, covered to reduce evaporation
- Renewal rate of test solution: Daily
- No. of organisms per vessel: Ten
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Two
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): One
- Biomass loading rate: 0.63 g/litre


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Laboratory tap water, dechlorinated by passing through an activated carbon filter (Purite Series 500) and partly softened (Elga Nimbus 1248D Duplex water softener). The water was then passed through a series of computer controlled plate heat exchangers to achieve the required temperature.


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light, 8 hours dark with 20 minute transition periods for dawn and dusk


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 0, 10 and 100 mg/l nominal WAF loading rates
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: No mortalities or sublethal affects occurred at 10 or 100 mg/l WAF loading rates
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
No mortalities and no sublethal effects were noted at 100 mg/l WAF loading rate
Executive summary:

In a 96-hour acute toxicity study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to sulphonic acids, petroleum, calcium salts at nominal concentrations of 0 and 100 mg/L WAF loading rate under semi-static conditions.  The 96-hour LL50was >100 mg/L nominal WAF. No signs of toxicity were noted.

 

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for a fish acute toxicity study.

 

Results Synopsis

 

Test organism size/age: Juvenile, mean standard length 4.6 cm (SD = 0.3), mean weight 1.26 g (SD = 0.3)

Test Type: Semi-static

 

96h LL50:  >100 mg/L nominal WAF

96h NOELR:  100 mg/L nominal WAF

Endpoint(s) Effected: None

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Study meets the critria for Klimisch score 2 because it followed an internationally recognised method (OECD Guideline 203) and was carried out to Good Laboratory Practice. However, there was no analytical confirmation of the test concentrations.
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
The read across follows Scenario 5 - Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects are caused by a common compound, which is formed from all category members (as described in the 2017 Read-Across Assessment Framework document).
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES)
TARGET: Benzenesulfonic acid, di-C10-14-alkyl derivs., sodium salts
SOURCE: Benzenesulfonic acid, C14-24-branched and linear alkyl derivs., calcium salts
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION

Linear and non-linear or branched alkylbenzene sulfonates are anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a hydrophobic (apolar) and a hydrophilic (polar) group. As a group of chemicals, they are generally mixtures of closely related isomers and homologues. Each molecule contains an aromatic ring sulfonated at the para position and attached to either a linear or a branched alkyl chain at any position except the terminal carbons. The sulfonate group is a common functional group present in each of the category members, and is expected to exhibit similar biological activities with little influence from the length of carbon chain. The cation components of the chemicals (e.g. calcium, magnesium, sodium, or barium) are not expected to contribute significantly to the toxicity.
4. DATA MATRIX
See Read Across document attached to CSR
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.1 (Acute Toxicity for Fish)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 0 and 100 mg/l nominal WAF loading rates
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
- Method: An amount of test material (2100 mg) was added, via syringe, to the surface of 21 litres of dechlorinated tap water. The test solution was stirred for 24 hours using a magnetic stirrer using a stirring rate such that a slight dimple was formed on the surface. After stirring the mixture was allowed to stand for 1 hour. A wide bore glass tube, covered at one end with Parafilm was submerged into the vessel, sealed end down, to a depth of 5 cm for from the bottom of the vessel. A length of Tygon tubing was inserted into the glass tube and pushed through the Parafilm seal. The aqueous phase was removed by mid-depth siphoning (the first 75-100 ml discarded).
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): Microscopic inspection of the WAF after filtering showed no micro-dispersions or undissolved test material to be present
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Rainbow trout
- Source: Brow Well Fisheries Limited, Hebden, Yorkshire, UK
- Age at study initiation: Juvenile
- Length at study initiation: mean standard length 4.7 cm (SD = 0.2)
- Weight at study initiation: mean weight 1.54 g (SD = 0.35)
- Feeding during test: Fish were not fed during the test


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 8 December 2004 to 20 December 2004
- Acclimation conditions: Water temperature controlled at 14°C, dissolved oxygen concentration of greater than or equal to 10.1 mg O2/l
- Type and amount of food:
- Feeding frequency: Commercial trout pellets which were discontinued 24 hours prior to the test
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): There was no mortality for 7 days prior to the initiation of the test
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not reported
Hardness:
Approximately 100 mg CaCO3/l
Test temperature:
Refer to Table 1
pH:
Refer to Table 2
Dissolved oxygen:
Refer to Table 3
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 20 litre glass vessel, covered to reduce evaporation
- Renewal rate of test solution: Daily
- No. of organisms per vessel: Ten
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Two
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): One
- Biomass loading rate: 0.77 g/litre


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Laboratory tap water, dechlorinated by passing through an activated carbon filter (Purite Series 500) and partly softened (Elga Nimbus 1248D Duplex water softener). The water was then passed through a series of computer controlled plate heat exchangers to achieve the required temperature.


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light, 8 hours dark with 20 minute transition periods for dawn and dusk


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 0, 10 and 100 mg/l nominal WAF loading rates
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: No mortalities or sublethal affects occurred at 10 or 100 mg/l WAF loading rates
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: WAF loading rate
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
No mortalities and no sublethal effects were noted at 100 mg/l WAF loading rate
Executive summary:

In a 96-hour acute toxicity study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to benzenesulfonic acid, C14-24-branched and linear alkyl derivs., calcium salts at nominal concentrations of 0 and 100 mg/L WAF loading rate under semi-static conditions.  The 96-hour LL50was >100 mg/L nominal WAF. No signs of toxicity were noted.

 

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for a fish acute toxicity study.

 

Results Synopsis

 

Test organism size/age: Juvenile, mean standard length 4.7 cm (SD = 0.2), mean weight 1.54 g (SD = 0.35)

Test Type: Semi-static

 

96h LL50:  >100 mg/L nominal WAF

96h NOELR:  100 mg/L nominal WAF

Endpoint(s) Effected: None

Description of key information

Short-term aquatic ecotoxicological data are available for fresh water and marine fish studies on read across source substances. In fish, there are report data reviewed for sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon vaiegatus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), performed according to either US EPA method OTS 797.1400 or OECD TG 203. No toxicity was noted in any of these studies at highest test concentrations tested.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
100 mg/L
LC50 for marine water fish:
10 000 mg/L

Additional information

Short-term aquatic ecotoxicological data are available for fish. In fish, there are report data reviewed for sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon vaiegatus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), performed according to either US EPA method OTS 797.1400 or OECD TG 203. No toxicity was noted in any of these studies at highest test concentrations tested. In a study performed according to OECD TG 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) were exposed to a control and a 10,000 mg/L Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) loading rate of benzenesulfonic acid C20-24 alkyl calcium salt (CAS 70024-71-4; an analog for the group of C20-C24 alky calcium salts) for 96 hours under a static renewal rate of every 24 hours until the 96 hour test period was achieved (Nicholson, 1986). No mortality was observed during the course of the study in any of the exposure groups; therefore, the 96-hour LL50 is > 10,000 mg/L, based on mean measured concentrations. Similar studies performed according to the same conditions as stated above were also conducted on the sheepshead minnow using the test substances sulfonic acid, petroleum, calcium salt (61789-86-4) and benzenesulfonic acid, mono and dialkyl derivatives, magnesium salt (71786-47-5). These tests both yielded a 96-hour static renewal LL50 is >10,000 mg/L nominal WAF (Nicholson, 1986).

Other fish studies located were conducted on the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) performed as a series of exposures to several read-across chemicals according to OECD TG 203 (Goodband, 2005). In this study, fish were exposed under semi-static conditions to nominal concentrations of 0 mg/l or 100 mg/l concentration of Benzenesulfonic acid, C14-24- branched linear alky derivatives, calcium salts (115733-09-0) or sulphonic acids, petroleum, calcium salts (61789-86-4) or sulfonic acids, petroleum, barium salts (61790-48-5) or sulphonic acids, petroleum, sodium salts (68608-26-4), independently. In each study, after 96 hours the LL50 was >100 mg/L nominal WAF.

Studies conducted on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were performed according to US EPA method OTS 797.1400 using the chemicals benzenesulfonic acid, mono C15-30 branched alkyl and di C11-13 branched linear alkyl derivative, calcium salt, over based (71486 -79-8) and benzenesulfonic acid, mono and dialkyl derivative, magnesium salt (71786-47-5) (Ward, 1993). In both of these studies, fathead minnows were exposed to four concentrations of each chemical (0 mg/l, 100 mg/l, 300 mg/l and 1000 mg/l nominal WAF) for 96 hours. In both cases, the 96-hour LL50 was >1000 mg/l nominal WAF.