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Toxicological information

Genetic toxicity: in vitro

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Data is from peer reviewed journal

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
The Mutagenicity of Dinitrochlorobenzene
Author:
Homer S. Black
Year:
1985
Bibliographic source:
Arch Dermatol Vol 121 March 1985

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: as per mentioned below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
A sample of 2, 5 dinitrochlorobenzene, determined to be have purity greater than 98%, was tested in the Salmonella typhimurium plate assay.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of assay:
bacterial gene mutation assay

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Details on test material
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): 1,4-dichloro-2- nitrobenzene
- Molecular formula (if other than submission substance): C6-H3-Cl2-N-O2
- Molecular weight (if other than submission substance): 192.001 g/mol
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid
Purity: > 98%
- Impurities (identity and concentrations): No data available

Method

Target gene:
Reverse mutation assay
Species / strain
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Metabolic activation:
not specified
Metabolic activation system:
no data
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
1 µg/plate
Vehicle / solvent:
Vehicle
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: DMSO
- Justification for choice of solvent/vehicle: No data available
Controls
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
no
Positive control substance:
sodium azide
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
Details on test system and conditions
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in agar (plate incorporation)

DURATION
- Preincubation period: No data available
- Exposure duration: No data available
- Expression time (cells in growth medium): No data available
- Selection time (if incubation with a selection agent): No data available
- Fixation time (start of exposure up to fixation or harvest of cells): No data available

SELECTION AGENT (mutation assays): No data available
SPINDLE INHIBITOR (cytogenetic assays): No data available
STAIN (for cytogenetic assays): No data available

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: Four

NUMBER OF CELLS EVALUATED: No data available

DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: mitotic index; cloning efficiency; relative total growth; other: No data available

OTHER EXAMINATIONS:
- Determination of polyploidy: No data available
- Determination of endoreplication: No data available
- Other: No data available

OTHER: Colony counts were determined with an automatic colony counter (3M Model 620).
Evaluation criteria:
His+ Revertants/Plate was observed
Statistics:
The Student t test was employed to
statistically evaluate the mutation frequencies; Mean ± SEM

Results and discussion

Test results
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Metabolic activation:
not specified
Genotoxicity:
positive
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
No data available
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results (migrated information):
positive

The gene toxicity in vitro response for the test compound 2,5 dinitrochlorobenzene in the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA-100 is positive.
Executive summary:

2, 5 dinitrochlorobenzene was used as a test compound to evaluate its toxic nature in theSalmonella typhimuriumtester strain TA-100. The mutagenicity assay was performed as per the Ames et al without any modifications.

In accordance with the marked mutagenic response noted, 2, 5 dinitrochlorobenzene is mutagenic in vitro.