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Toxicological information

Genetic toxicity: in vitro

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study is not done according to OECD guideline. But it is a well documented study.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
A comparative genotoxicity study of chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid).
Author:
Stich, H. F., Rosin, M. P., Wu, C. H. and Powrie, W. D.
Year:
1981
Bibliographic source:
Mutat Res. 90:201-212

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Experimental treatments consisted of adding to a tube in the indicated order 0.1 ml of an overnight culture of the bacterial tester strain; 0.5 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) or a standard S9 liver microsomal mixture (prepared as in Ames et al. (1975): 100 µl liver supernatant/ml mix) and 0.4 ml of the test sample dissolved in PBS. The treatment suspensions were then incubated at 37°C in a shaker-water bath for a 20-min duration. At this time, 2.0 ml of molten top agar (45°C) containing minimal histidine was added to each tube and the mixture was overlaid on minimal glucose agar plates (Ames et al., 1975). A minimum of 2 replicate tubes were prepared per sample dilution. All plates were incubated at 37°C for 2days. The number of histidine prototrophs on each plate was scored by using an Artek automatic colony counter.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
not specified
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Quinic acid
- other: obtained from Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO

Method

Species / strainopen allclose all
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 98
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
rat liver microsomal Aroclor 1254
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
0 mg/plate, 162 mg/plate and 203 mg/plate
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: PBS (phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.4)
Controls
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
PBS
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
2-nitrofluorene
sodium azide
benzo(a)pyrene
Remarks:
Sodium azide and benzo(a)pyrene for TA100 and 2-nitrofluorene for TA98
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: preincubation

DURATION
- Preincubation period: 2 days
- Exposure duration: 20 min

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: minimum 2 replicated tubes

Results and discussion

Test results
Species / strain:
other: S. typhimurium TA 98, TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
other: strain/cell type: S. typhimurium TA 98, TA 100
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.

Any other information on results incl. tables

 Compound

 Concentration (mg/plate)

 His+ revertant colonies/plate Strain TA100     His+ revertant colonies/plate Strain TA98
     -S9  +S9  -S9  +S9

 Quinic acid

 203  116  110  Toxic  32
   162  140  131  26  35
    0  129  122 32   31

Controls:

TA100 sodium azide (5 µg/plate): 1329 revertans/plate

TA100 benzo(a)pyrene (10 µg/plate): -S9 122 revertants/plate; +S9 613 revertants/plate

TA98 2-nitrofluorene (5 µg/plate): 646 revertants/plate

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results (migrated information):
negative with metabolic activation
negative without metabolic activation

The genetic toxicity of quinic acid was determined using the Ames test with and without metabolic activation. For the two Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100 no mutations were detected.
Executive summary:

In the publication of Stich et al., 1981, quinic acid was tested in the Ames test with the two Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 100 and TA 98 with and without metabolic activation. No mutation was found for any tested strain. Therefore, we consider that quinic acid is not genotoxic.