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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Good study conducted according to sound scientific principles with analytical monitoring of test substance, however there is no detail on the analysis performed and no mention of GLP.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: US EPA 1975
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Sampling method: Concentrations of chemicals in water were measured in each tank throughout the test in all exposure treatments, although analysis details (methods and results) were not reported.

Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION

- Method: the test substance was tested at a level below the limit of solubility, no details on the method of dispersion were provided in the text.
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM

- Common name: fathead minnow

- Source: Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth culture

- Age at study initiation (mean): 30d

- Weight at study initiation (mean): 0.12 g

- Feeding during test: none


ACCLIMATION

- Acclimation period: not reported
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
none
Hardness:
56.3 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
25 ± 1°C
pH:
7.5
Dissolved oxygen:
>60%
Salinity:
N.A.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Five concentrations were tested in order to obtain 0 to 100% mortality, the values were not reported.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM

- Type of flow-through: proportional diluter

- No. of organisms per vessel: <30 fish per concentration

- No. of vessels per control: 2

- No. of vessels per concentration: 2


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS

- Source/preparation of dilution water: Lake Superior

- Alkalinity: 42.2 mg/L

- Intervals of water quality measurement: daily


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality was recorded at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.01 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
not specified
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- Mortality of control: The mortality values in the control are not reported; however fish mortalities were monitored daily.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The LC50 was calculated using the trimmed Spearman-Karber method (Hamilton et al. 1977) on a PDP-11/70 computer.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
A reliable 96h LC50 of 1.01 mg/L has been determined for the effects of the test substance on mortality of the fish Pimephales promelas.
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study without detailed documentation
Remarks:
Not key study: Other studies (same reliability score) showing greater toxicity are available
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Test type:
semi-static
Limit test:
yes
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 1 mg/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 1 mg/L

Description of key information

Short-term toxicity to fish: 96 hour LC50 1.01 mg/l (measured) in accordance with test guideline US EPA 1975 (Pimephales promelas).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
1.01 mg/L

Additional information

A reliable 96 hour LC50 value of 1.01 mg/l has been determined for the effects of dodecanol (CAS 112-53-8) on mortality of the fish Pimephales promelas in accordance with test guideline US EPA 1975. This study represents the lowest reliable experimental value available for this endpoint on dodecanol.

A second reliable short term toxicity to fish test has determined an LC50 of >1 mg/L for the effects of dodecanol (CAS 112-53-8) on mortality of the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss in accordance with test guideline OECD 203.

Discussion of trends in the Category of C6-24 linear and essentially-linear aliphatic alcohols:

Linear LCAAs

The data summarised in the table below show that the toxicity of the single carbon number chain length LCAAs increases from an LC50 of 97 mg/L for C6 to 1.0 mg/L for C12. At higher carbon number chain lengths there is an absence of short-term toxicity (LC50 values are reported as being greater than the highest test concentration or higher than the water solubility of the test substance) and this is explained by the water solubility of an LCAA limiting its bioavailability, such that a toxic concentration for short-term exposure is not achieved.

The results of a 7-day, semi-static toxicity test with 1-octanol using Pimephales promelas larvae aged 1, 4 and 7 days at the start of the study have also been reported by (Pickering et al., 1996) but are not included in the table. NOECs based on nominal concentrations were 1.5-11.9 mg/L for survival. Measured concentrations in the test were reduced to non-detectable levels in most test vessels in the old media. The poor maintenance of exposure concentrations means that the reported NOEC values are almost certainly underestimates of the true toxicity of the substance. The results of this test are also discussed later with respect to long-term toxicity.

The lowest reliable LC50 values determined in tests with single carbon chain length LCAAs are shown in the following table. 


Table: Key fish short-term toxicity studies on single carbon chain length linear LCAAs.

CAS

Chemical Name

Comments

Water solubility (mg/L)

Species

Method/ Guideline

Exposure regime

Endpoint

Value (mg/L)1,2

Reliability code

Reference

111-27-3

1-Hexanol

 

5900 at 20°C

Pimephales promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

97 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b

111-70-6

1-Heptanol

Supporting

1300 at 20°C

Pimephales promelas

ASTM 1980

Flow-through

96 h LC50

38 (m)

2

Broderius and Kahl, 1985

111-87-5

1-Octanol

 

550 at 25°C 

Pimephales promelas

ASTM 1980

Flow-through

96 h LC50

13 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b; University of Wisconsin-Superior., 1984; Broderius and Kahl, 1985

143-08-8

1-Nonanol

 

130 at 20 °C

Pimephales promelas

ASTM 1980

Flow-through

96 h LC50

5.5 (m)

2

Broderius and Kahl, 1985

112-30-1

1-Decanol

 

40

Pimephales promelas

(embryo)

OECD TG 236

Flow-through

120 h LC50

3.4 (m)

1

Wildlife International, 2015b

112-30-1

1-Decanol

 

40

Pimephales promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

2.3 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b; Brooke et al., 1984

112-42-5

1-Undecanol

 

8.0 at 20°C

Pimephales promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

1.0 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b

112-53-8

1-Dodecanol

 

1.9 at 20°C

Pimephales promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

1.0 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b

112-70-9

1-Tridecanol

Supporting

0.38 at 20°C

Pimephales promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

>0.33 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b

112-72-1

1-Tetradecanol

 

0.19 at 25°C

Salmo gairdneri i3

OECD 203

Semi-static

96 h LC50

>1 (n) (>LoS)

2

SafePharm, 1996b

36653-82-4

1-Hexadecanol

 

0.013 at 25°C

Salmo gairdneri3

OECD 203

Semi-static

96 h LC50

>0.4 (n) (>LoS)

2

SafePharm, 1996c

112-92-5

1-Octadecanol

 

0.0011 at 25°C

Salmo gairdneri3

OECD 203

Semi-static

96 h LC50

>0.4 (n) (>LoS)

2

SafePharm, 1996d

661-19-8

1-Docosanol

 

approx. 0.001 (estimate)

Oncorhynchus mykiss

OECD 203

Semi-static

96 h LC50

>1000 (n)
(>LoS)

2

SafePharm, 2000

Notes:

1 >LoS: concentration/Loading rate greater than the limit of water solubility

2 (n) based on nominal concentrations, (m) based on measured concentrations.

3 Now known as Oncorhynchus mykiss. The names used in the study reports are given here.


 


Multi-constituent LCAAs

The data for multi-constituent substances of different carbon chain length LCAAs (commercial products) are shown in the table below. The results show that substances containing LCAAs with carbon numbers in the ranges of C8-10 and C6-12 exert short-term toxic effects at concentrations of between 0.7 and 10 mg/L. At these concentrations, all the constituents are likely to have been fully dissolved.

 

In contrast, multi-constituent substances - Alcohols, C12-13; Alcohols, C12-13-branched and linear and Alcohols, C12-15-branched and linear - exhibited effects at loading rates where not all constituents were fully dissolved. Under such circumstances the presence of retained undissolved test material, such as occurred in the Shell Toxicology Laboratory (1978a) test, opens up the possibility for physical fouling of the test organism and this needs to be kept in mind when interpreting the result. The multi-constituent substances containing LCAAs with carbon chain length C12 and above did not exhibit short-term toxicity effects at loading rates where the solubility of the constituent LCAAs was exceeded.

 

The data for nonanol, branched and linear, decanol branched and linear, decanol branched and undecanol branched alcohols, have been read-across from their linear alcohols counterparts (C9, C10 and C11) since they are essentially linear alcohols.

 

Alcohols, C14-15 ecotoxicity assessment is based on weight of evidence from two studies; Shell Internationale Chemie (1973) and Shell Toxicology Lab (1978a). Both studies report the LC50 to be above the limit of solubility. The Shell Internationale Chemie (1973) study tested the toxicity of the substance via the WAF preparation method (the preferred method of testing with poorly soluble mixtures) however it does not report complete information on the study methods and conditions. The Shell Toxicology Lab (1978a) did not utilise WAF methods but it is reported more comprehensively.

 

The results for both single carbon number LCAAs and the multi-constituent substances indicate that, for fish, there is a short-term toxicity cut-off for LCAAs with carbon numbers >C14.

 

The lowest reliable LC50 values determined in tests with multiconstituent carbon chain length LCAAs are shown in the following table.


Table: Fish short-term toxicity studies on mixed carbon chain length LCAAs.

CAS #

Chemical name

Comments1

Water solubility (mg/L)

Species

Method/ Guideline2

Exposure regime

Endpoint

Value (mg/L)3

Reliability code

Reference

n/a

Alcohols, C7-9

 

510 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L (estimated)

I. idus4

Not specified

Static

96 h LC50

0.7-0.8 (n)

2

Shell, 1978

67762-41-8

Alcohols, C8-10

Type C

SUPPORTING

2.4 at 25°C

Salmo gairdneri4 and Lepomis macrochirus

EPA 1975

Static

96 h LC50

6.5-10 (n)

2

EG&G Bionomics, 1975

n/a

Alcohols, C9-11- branched and linear

 Also valid for Alcohols, C9-11 CAS 66455-17-2

44 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L. (estimated)

S. gairdneri4

Not specified

Static

96 h LC50

6.3-10 (n)

2

Shell Toxicology Laboratory, 1979

n/a

Alcohols, C9-11- branched and linear

 Also valid for Alcohols, C9-11 CAS 66455-17-2

44 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L. (estimated)

Scopthalmus maximus (marine species)

Not specified

Semi-static

96 h LC50

5.8 (n)

2

Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd., 1991d

68515-81-1

Nonanol, branched and linear

 

121 (estimated)

Pimephales promelas

ASTM 1980

Flow-through

96 h LC50

5.5 (m)

 

(r-a from C9)

2

Broderius and Kahl, 1985

90342-32-8

Decanol, branched and linear

 

26.17 at 20°C

P. promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

2.3 (m)

 

(r-a from C10)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b; University of Wisconsin-Superior, 1984

128973-77-3

Undecanol, branched and linear.

Reaction mass of 2-methyldecan-1-ol and 2-propyloctan-1-ol and 2-ethylnonan-1-ol and 2-butylheptan-1-ol

 

6.3 at 25°C

P. promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

 96 h LC50

1.0 (m)

(r-a from C11)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b

75782-87-5

Alcohols, C12-13

 

2.4 at 25oC

S. gairdneri4

Not specified

Static

96 h LC50

4.0-10 (>LoS)

2

Shell Toxicology Laboratory, 1978a

75782-87-5

Alcohols, C12-13

 

2.4 at 25oC

S. maximus (marine species)

Not specified

Semi-static

96 h LC50

10 (n) (>LoS)

2

Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd., 1991c

740817-83-8

Alcohols, C12-13-branched and linear

 

2.9-3.1 at 20°C

Brachydanio rerio

OECD 203 WAF

Semi-static

96-hr LL50

15 (n) (>LoS)

1

TNO, 2000a

90604-40-3

Alcohols, C12-15-branched and linear

 

0.80 at 20°C

Oncorhynchus mykiss

OECD 203 WAF

Semi-Static

96 h LL50

100-300 (n) (>LoS)

1

Shell Global Solutions, 2000

68855-56-1

Alcohols, C 12-16

Type B

SUPPORTING

0.80 at 20°C

O. mykiss

Not specified

Static

96 h LC50

57 (n) (>LoS)

2

Huntingdon Life Sciences 1996i

80206-82-2

Alcohols, C 12-14

not possible to determine compositional type

SUPPORTING

approx. 4 predicted at 1000 mg/L loading rate

L. idus

OECD 203

Static

48 h LC50

>5000 (n) (>LoS)

2

Henkel, 1999m

75782-87-5

Alcohols, C14-15

 

0.7 at 20°C and 0.15 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L. (estimated)

S. gairdneri4

Not specified

Static

96 h LL50

>500 (n) (>LoS)

2

Shell Toxicology Lab 1978b

75782-87-5

Alcohols, C14-15

 

0.7 at 20°C and 0.15 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L. (estimated)

Carassius auratus

Not specified

Static

96 h LL50

>0.7 (n)

(>LoS)

2

Shell Internationale Chemie, 1973

68002-94-8

Alcohols, C 16-18 and 18 Unsaturated 

SUPPORTING

0.0404 predicted at 1000 mg/L loading rate

L. idus

OECD 203

Static

48 h LC50

>10000 (>LoS)

2

Henkel, 1999o

Notes:

1 Compositional Types are described in section 1.4.7 of the category report.

2 WAF denotes test medium was a water-accommodated fraction      

3 >LoS: LC50 observed was greater than the limit of solubility of at least some constituents of the substance. (n) based on nominal concentrations, (m) based on measured concentrations.

4 Now known as Oncorhynchus mykiss. The names used in the study reports are given here.


 


References:

Broderius, S. and Kahl, M., 1985. Acute toxicity of organic chemical mixtures to the fathead minnow. Aquatic Toxicology 6:307-322.

 

E.G.& G. Bionomics, 1975. Acute toxicity of two Conoco compounds to bluegill (lepomis macrochirus) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Bioassay report submitted to Conoco Chemicals, Ponca City, Oklahoma.

 

Henkel KGaA, 1999m. Biological research and Product Safety/Ecology: Unpublished results; test substance registration No. 6801.

 

Henkel KGaA, 1999o. Biological Research and Product safety/Ecology: unpublished results, test substance registration no. 6802.

 

Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd. (HLS), 1991d. Report No. SLL 207(d)/911034.

 

Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd. (HLS), 1991c. Report No. SLL 207(c)/911033.

 

Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd. (HLS), 1996i. Report No. 96/KAS231/0417.

 

SafePharm Laboratories, 1996b. SafePharm Laboratories SPL Project Number 140/599.

 

SafePharm Laboratories, 1996c. SafePharm Laboratories SPL Project Number 140/500.

 

SafePharm Laboratories, 1996d. SafePharm Laboratories SPL Project Number 140/506.

 

SafePharm Laboratories, 2000. SafePharm Laboratories SPL Project Number 140/1001.

 

Shell, 1978. The acute toxicity of Linevol 79 to the golden orfe (idus idus melanotus), Shell Group Research Report, TLGR.0024.78.

 

Shell Global Solutions, 2000. Shell Global Solutions Report CT.99.47088.

 

Shell Internationale Chemie, 1973. Determination of acute toxicity to fish of Shell chemicals. I. AMGR.0095.73. Shell Toxicology Laboratory, 1978a. GRR-TLGR.0161.78.

 

Shell Toxicology Laboratory, 1978b. GRR-TLGR.0162.78.

 

Shell Toxicology Laboratory, 1979. GRR-TLGR.0166.78.

 

TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, 2000a. Semi-static acute toxicity test with Compound 33A and the zebra fish Brachydanio rerio. TNO report V98.1319. University of Wisconsin-Superior, 1984. Acute Toxicities of Organic Chemicals to Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas). Center for Lake Superior Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Superior.

 

Veith, G.D., Call, D.J., and Brooke, L.T., 1983a. Estimating the acute toxicity of narcotic chemicals to fathead minnows. In: Bishop, W.E., Cardwell, R.D., and Heidolph, B.B. (eds.). Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment: Sixth Symposium. ASTM STP 802. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.

 

Veith, G.D., Call, D.J., and Brooke, L.T., 1983b. Structure-toxicity relationships for the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas: Narcotic industrial chemicals. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40:743-748.

 

Wildlife International, 2015b. Decanol: A static-renewal fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) test with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Draft Report; Wildlife International Project Number: 774A-101; OECD Guideline 236.