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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
April 8 to May 15, 1997
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Test procedure in accordance with generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient detail
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia acute immobilisation test and reproduction test 1984
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
see below
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
see below
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
see below
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Hardness:
55.6 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
20+/- C
pH:
7.7
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Concentrations of PAP maintained between 82.5 an d 87.8 % depending on the nominal concentration.
Details on test conditions:
see below
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.206 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
concentrations of PAP maintained between 82.5 an d 87.8 % depending on the nominal concentration
Basis for effect:
other: mean cumulative number of juveniles produced per adult
Remarks on result:
other: Values based on mean measured concentrations calculated directly from data in the study report.
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.171 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
immobilisation
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL
Details on results:
Values based on mean measured concentrations calculated directly from data in the study report.

- Measured Concentrations: The test concentrations were measured 5 times (0, 4, 7, 14, 21st-day) using HPLC.

Nominal Conc. (mg/L) Measured Concentration (mg/L)
0 4 7 14 21
Control --- --- --- --- ---
0.0156 0.0134 0.0131 0.0138 0.0121 0.0135
0.0313 0.0263 0.027 0.028 0.0277 0.0273
0.0625 0.0539 0.0521 0.056 0.0566 0.0558
0.125 0.105 0.103 0.109 0.105 0.104
0.25 0.208 0.191 0.208 0.215 0.209


Nominal Conc. (mg/L) Arithmetic Mean % of Nominal
Control -- --
0.0156 0.0132 84.6
0.0313 0.0273 87.1
0.0625 0.0549 87.8
0.125 0.105 84.2
0.25 0.206 82.5


- Water chemistry (pH, DO, total hardness and temperature in test): Water chemistry and temperature were measured for control and each concentration at 0, 4, 8, 12, 17 and 21st-day.
pH: 7.1 - 7.7
DO: 8.8 - 9.0 mg/L (more than 60% of saturation)
Water Temperature: 19.9 - 20.1 C

- Cumulative Number of Died Parental Daphnia:

Measured Conc. (mg/L) Cumulative Number of dead parental Daphnia (Percent Mortality)
0 4 7 14 21
Control 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (5.0) 6 (15.0)
0.0132 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 6 (15.0)
0.0273 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (2.5) 6 (15.0) 10 (25.0)
0.0549 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 8 (20.0)
0.105 0 (0) 0 (0) 7 (17.5) 11 (27.5) 14 (35.0)
0.206 0 (0) 1 (2.5) 20 (50.0) 22 (55.0) 25 (62.5)


-Time (days) to First Brood Production
Control: 7 days
Concentrations: 7 - 9 days

-Cumulative numbers of juveniles produced per adult alive

Nominal Conc. (mg/L) Measured Conc. (mg/L) Mean Cumulative Numbers of Juveniles Produced Per Adult Alive for 21 days
Days
0---6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Control --- 0---0 0.4 0.4 4.3 4.3 4.3 13.4 13.4 32.8
0.0156 0.0132 0---0 0.5 0.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 19.2 19.2 30.1
0.0313 0.0273 0---0 1.0 1.0 5.1 5.1 5.1 17 17 35.5
0.0625 0.0549 0---0 1.4 1.4 5.2 5.2 5.2 15.7 15.7 32
0.125 0.105 0---0 2.6 2.6 4.8 4.8 8.4 17.8 17.8 53
0.25 0.206 0---0 3.7 3.7 5.6 5.6 5.6 18.2 18.2 53.2

Nominal Conc. (mg/L) Measured Conc. (mg/L) Mean Cumulative Numbers of Juveniles Produced Per Adult Alive for 21 days
Days
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Control -- 32.8 66.6 66.6 66.6 97.4 97.4 124
0.0156 0.0132 30.1 65.6 65.6 65.6 110 110 142
0.0313 0.0273 35.5 71 71 71 113 113 135
0.0625 0.0549 32 74 74 74 105 105 128
0.125 0.105 53 108 108 108 158 158 182
0.25 0.206 53.2 111 111 111 163 163 200


-Cumulative numbers of juveniles produced per adult alive for 21 days

Vessel No. Measured Concentration* (mg/L)
Control 0.0132 0.0273 0.0549 0.105 0.206
1 95 129 126 104 170 140
2 155 111 169 129 199 234
3 96 173 112 118 136 286
4 150 156 133 161 223 141
Mean 124 142 135 128 182 200
S.D. 32.7 27.5 24.6 24.4 37.5 72.2

*: Arithmetic mean of measured concentration

The average numbers of offspring in each treated groups were larger than that of control of 124 juveniles per female.
The significant parent mortalities were observed at 0.11 and 0.21 mg/L as 28 and 55%, respectively

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The EC50 at 21 days immobilization was 0.171 mg/L, the NOEC based on the mean cumulative number of juveniles produced per adult was 0.206 mg/l and the LOEC was > 0.206 mg/L.

Description of key information

The long-term to invertebrates key study reported a 21 day NOEC of 0.206 mg/L based on cumulative number of juveniles produced per adult.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater invertebrates:
0.206 mg/L

Additional information

For long-term toxicity to invertebrates, one key experimental study in daphnia magna was reported. Daphnia Acute Immobilisation test and Reproduction test according to OECD 202 with a NOEC (21 d) of 0.206 mg/L based on cumulative number of juveniles produced per adult on freshwater invertebrates.Values based on mean measured concentrations calculated directly from data in the study report.