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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
June 26, 1997 - December 16, 1997
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Test procedure in accordance with generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient detail
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 305 C (Bioaccumulation: Test for the Degree of Bioconcentration in Fish)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Details on sampling:
- Sampling intervals/frequency for test organisms: Every 2 weeks over 8 weeks
- Sampling intervals/frequency for test medium samples: Every 2 weeks over 8 weeks
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
7.36 mg of the test sample was dissolved in 1 mL dimethylformamide. Then this solution was diluted by water to be 300 ug/L concentration and 30 ug/L concentration. The solution with concentration of 300 ug/L was used as a stock solution for higher concentration, and the solution with concentration of 30 ug/L was used as a stock solution for lower concentration.
Stock solution and dilution water were provied with 0.7 mL/minute and 140 mL/minute respectivly into the test vessel with 60 L.

Test organisms (species):
Cyprinus carpio
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Japanese carp
- Source: Sugishima yougyojyo (in Japan)
- Weight at study initiation: Average body weight is 21.2 g before the exposure
- Length at study initiation: Average body length is 9.4 cm before the exposure
- Weight at termination: Not stated
- Feeding during test
- Food type: Compounded diet for carp
- Amount: 2 % to the body weight
- Frequency: Twice a day
- Acclimation period: 68 days followed by 14 days
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Fish wih any abnormalities was removed.
Route of exposure:
Test type:
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Total exposure / uptake duration:
8 wk
38.5 mg/L
Test temperature:
25 +/- 2 degree C over the exposure period
Dissolved oxygen:
6.4 - 7.3 mg/L for higher concentration
6.4 - 7.4 mg/L for lower concentration
6.7 - 7.8 mg/L for control
1.2 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
-Type of the test system: Flow through system
-Test vessel: 60 L made of glass
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate):
Stock solution: 0.7 mL/minute
Dilution water: 140 mL/minute
Total: 203 L/day
- No. of organisms per vessel:
11 fish for higher concentration
11 fish for lower concentration
5 fish for control
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): One
- No. of vessels per control / vehicle control (replicates): One

- Source/preparation of dilution water: Tap water with treatment by activated carbon filtration
- Metals:
Alkylmercury: < 0.0005 mg/L
Mercury: < 0.0005 mg/L
Cadmium: < 0.005 mg/L
Cr6+: < 0.02 mg/L
Lead: < 0.005 mg/L
Arsenic: < 0.002 mg/L
Iron: < < 0.01 mg/L
Copper: < 0.005 mg/L
- Chlorine: Residula chlorine is < 0.01 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 42.0 mg/L
- Conductance: Electric conductivity is 138 us/cm

Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentration
1.5 ug/L for higher concentration
0.15 ug/L for lower concentration
Reference substance (positive control):
not required
Lipid content:
3.5 %
10 - 39
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: environment / dose:1.50 ug/L
15 - 46
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: environment / dose:0.15 ug/L
Results with reference substance (positive control):
No positive control
Details on results:
- Mortality of test organisms: No mortaility was observed during the exposure period
- Behavioural abnormalities: No abnormal behavior was observed during the exposure period
- Mortality and/or behavioural abnormalities of control: No motality abnormal behavior were observed during the exposure period for control
- Results with vehicle control: No bio-concentration phenomena was observed for control which contains vehicle only

The mean concentration of the test compound in water samples was maintained at 90% or higher of the set-up concentration.

Concentrations of p-aminophenol in the test water are as follows.


After 2 weeks

After 4 weeks

After 6 weeks

After 8 weeks

Higher concentration

1.48 ug/L

1.47 ug/L

1.47 ug/L

1.47 ug/L

Lower concentration

0.143 ug/L

0.145 ug/L

0.146 ug/L

0.147 ug/L

Bio-concentration factors of p-aminophenol are as follows.


After 2 weeks

After 4 weeks

After 6 weeks

After 8 weeks

Higher concentration

13, 10

26, 13

23, 23

37, 39

Lower concentration

19, 15

28, 21

25, 46

39, 42

Validity criteria fulfilled:
Bio-concentration factors of p-aminophenol are 10 - 39 for higher concentration and 15 - 46 for lower concentration.

Description of key information

Study conducted with reported BCF of 10-39 at 1.50 ug/l and  14-46  at 0.15 ug/l.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

BCF (aquatic species):
46 L/kg ww

Additional information

Based on a BCF value in Cyprinus carpio that is ≤ 46, there is a low bioaccumulation potential in aquatic organisms.