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EC number: 200-772-0
CAS number: 72-17-3
A non-guideline study was conducted to
investigate the effect of NaCl on the growth and other parameters of the
protist Euglena gracilis. Cells were grown in the dark or under
illumination and were exposed to the chemical for 7 days. The rate and
extent of growth of Euglena gracilis under both auto- and heterotrophic
conditions diminished when 100 and 200 mM NaCl were included in the
growth media. Cells grown in the light were more resistant to the
inhibitory effects of NaCl. 100 mM (5844 mg/L) NaCl caused a 16%
reduction in cell density after 7 days in the light vs a 38% reduction
for cells grown in the dark. At a higher (200 mM or 11688 mg/L) NaCl
concentration, cell growth was inhibited to a similar extent (80%
inhibition) either in the dark or under illumination. In conclusion,
NaCl reduced the cell number of Euglena gracilis resulting in 38% (EC38)
at 100 mM and 80% (EC80) at 200 mM but the ECx values were not
This information is used in a read-across
approach in the assessment of the target substance. For details and
justification of read-across please refer to the read-across report
attached to IUCLID section 13.
In a 72 hour acute toxicity study, cultures
of Selenastrum capricornutum (ATCC 22662) were exposed to L(+)
lactic acid (80 %) at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.10, 0.33, 0.56,
1.0, 1.9 and 2.8 g/L under static conditions in accordance with the OECD
201 guideline. The NOEC and EC50 values based on growth rate
were 1.9 g/L and 3.5 g/L, respectively. There were no compound related
phytotoxic effects. This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and
satisfies the guideline requirements for alga growth inhibition study
with S. capricornutum.
Test organism: Selenastrum capricornutum
Test type: Static
72-hr EbC50: > 2.8 g/L
(95% C.I.: 2.24–3.52 g/L), in terms of lactic acid
72-hr NOEC: > 533 mg/L, in terms of lactic
Endpoint(s) effected: Growth, abnormalities
of the cells
An effect on the inoculum viability, as
found in this test, may be expected when a substance loses its toxicity
during the test, in this case probably due to biodegradation. The
concentrations quoted in this report are the nominal concentrations of
the test substance (a solution of about 80 % L(+) lactic acid) as
supplied by sponsor. At the start of the test 65–82 % of the nominal
test substance concentrations were found by chemical analysis. At the
end of the test the concentrations were considerably lower: 15, 57 and
73 % at the three concentrations analysed. The actual concentrations of
lactic acid tested at the start of the test were < 0.005, 0.020–0.065,
0.44–0.62, 1.45–1.74 g/L. According to the calculated time-weighted mean
(see formula below from the OECD guideline 211: TWM = (conc0 –
conc1)/(LN(conc0) – (LN(conc1))) the concentrations which should be used
for effect calculations are 31 mg/L, 533 mg/L, and 1620 mg/L. The EC50
and the NOEC from the test report have to be regarded as invalid, as
they were calculated on the basis of nominal values. Concerning the NOEC
of 1.9 g/L, the replicates with the test concentration of 1.9 g/L were
not verified analytically. Therefore, no conclusion on the actual
concentration can be drawn. However, the next lower concentration was
assessed analytically, revealing that the NOEC is above 533 mg/L
(time-weighted mean of the measured lactic acid concentration).
This information is used in a
read-across approach in the assessment of the target substance. For
details and justification of read-across please refer to the read-across
report attached to IUCLID section 13.
In a 120 hour acute toxicity study, cultures
of Nitschia linearis (diatom) were exposed to Sodium chloride. The EC50
value for 120 hours based on cell number was 2430 mg/L, respectively.
Test Organism: Nitschia linearis
120 hr EC50: 2430 mg/L
By way of read-across from lactic acid and
sodium chloride, it is concluded that Sodium lactate is non-toxic to
Sodium lactate fully dissociates into Na+
ions and lactate. The ecotoxicology of Sodium lactate can thus be
understood in terms of the ecotoxicology of sodium chloride and lactic
The NOEC (72 h) for algal growth inhibition
by lactic acid is > 533 mg lactate/L (measured TWA; Hanstveit, 1992).
Experiments were performed in buffered
solutions, i.e., the adjusted pH of the algal medium containing
different test substance concentrations (pH 7.5–8.0 at the start of the
test) remained largely constant (pH 8.0–8.1, pH 8.2–8.7 in the presence
of algae) during the tests. Effects can therefore be assigned to lactate
since lowering the pH as a result of administration of lactic acid was
For sodium chloride, two different studies
were considered. Both studies reported similar effect values ranging
from 2430 to 5800 mg/L, demonstrating only weak effects of sodium
chloride on different algae and cyanobacteria species.
Based on the effect values for two suitable
read-across partners, the target substance would neither be classified
as acutely nor chronically toxic to algae and cyanobacteria in
accordance with the CLP Regulation.
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