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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1989-02-06 - 1989-02-24
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: well-dcoumented guideline study with some restrictions: e.g. no experimental verification of substrate concentration was possible
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Because of the instability and thermolability of the test substance, a standardized analytical determination of substrate concentration was not possible. Because of the rate of lethality, a probit analysis was not possible.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method C.1 (Acute Toxicity for Fish)
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: "Letale Wirkung beim Zebrabärbling Brachydanio rerio" - Empfehlung des Umweltbundesamtes zur Durchführung der Prüfung nach §4 Abs.1 Nr 6 der Verordnung über Anmeldeunterlagen und Prüfnachweise nach dem Chemikalinegesetz Texte 16/84, Umweltbundesamt
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio)
Details on test organisms:
- Strain: Hamilton-Buchanan
- Source: West Aquarium Bad Lauterbert, Germany
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 3 months
- Length at study initiation (mean, range and SD): 3.0 cm, 2.7 - 3.4 cm, 0.2 cm
- Method of breeding: 22 +- 1 °C; O2-content >= 80% ; 12 h day/night cycle, 700 Lux; <= 1g fish/l water;
- Feeding during test: no feeding during test

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period:14 days
- Acclimation conditions: same as test
- Type and amount of food:
- Food type: Tetra Min, Tetra Werke, Mell, Germany;
- Amount: ad libitum;
- Frequency: 2 times a day;
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Test temperature:
Test groups: 21.0 - 23.0 °C
Control groups: 21.0 - 23.0 °C
pH:
Test groups: 7.4 - 8.0
Control groups: 6.6 - 8.2
Dissolved oxygen:
Test groups: 7.6 - 9.2 mg/l
Control groups: 6.8 - 9.7 mg/l
Details on test conditions:
Water: reconstituted water according to ISO/DIS 7346/I
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
14.83 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
14.83 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
22 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
22 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities were observed already at 10 mg/l (no lethality): abnormal swimming; abducted operculi; reduced, enhanced, intermittentor irregular breathing, negative or enhanced startle response, reduced or enhanced activity.
- Dead animals showed abnormal dark or light colouring, lockjaw and reddened gills.
- Mortality of control: none, no behvioural abnormalities;
- Any observations that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: Substance reported as instable and thermolabile - nonetheless substance dispersed by ultra-turrax and ultrasonification and used in a static system. At 10 mg/L, small flocculations of the substance on the watersurface reported.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 values were determined from the geometric mean of the LC0 and LC100. Because of the rate of lethality, a probit analysis was not possible.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
From this study, LC0 (48 h and 96 h) for 2-chlorobenzaldhyde was determined to be 10 mg/l, LC50 (48 h and 96 h) to be 14.83 mg/l and LC100 (48h and 96 h) to be 22 mg/l.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity for the test item 2-chlorobenzaldehyde to zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) was determined according to OECD-Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 203 (1984), EC Commission Directive 84/449/EC Method C.1 (1984) and according to German Chemikaliengesetzt (Texte 16/48 Umweltbundesamt). Testing laboratory was Deptm. Pharma Forschung Toxikologie u. Pathologie at Hoechst AG Frankfurt/Main, Germany. A static test with nominal dissolved test substance concentrations was conducted. Duration of the test was 96 h. 10 test organisms were exposed to 0, 10, 22 and 50 mg/L of 2-chlorobenzaldehyde. Water quality parameters (pH, temperature, oxygen content) were determined at time points 0, 3, 24, 72, and 96 hours to be within the acceptable limits. No lethality occurred in the control groups.

Although at 10 mg/L already signs of behavoural abnormalitys were observed, no lethality occured till the end of the test. At the second concentration of 22 mg/L, after 24 hours, all animals in the test group were dead, as was the case for the higher concentration. The LC50 value therefore was deduced as the geometric mean of the LC0 and the LC100 value.

Description of key information

In a guideline study (OECD 203, static) with Danio rerio (Brachydanio rerio) a LC50 of 14.83 mg/L was obtained. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
14.83 mg/L

Additional information

The key study from Hoechst on Brachydanio rerio was performed according to OECD guideline 203 with a static system. Determination of actual test concentrations had been precluded because of substance instability. Thus, the reliability of this study is considered to be Klimisch category 2. The 96h LC50 value for Brachydanio rerio determined in this study is 14.83 mg/L.

The published study by Abram and Wilson (1979) found decreasing LC50 values (from 5.2 mg/L to 2.45 mg/L) with increasing exposure time from 12 to 96 hours. In this pre-guideline study juvenile trouts with an average length of 24.4 mm and average weight of 146 mg were used, compared to a recommended length of 50 +/- 10 mm in OECD test guideline 203. As described by Capkin et al. (Chemosphere 64 (10), 825 -830, 2006) toxicity is heavily depending on the size of the organisms. Taking into account the higher susceptibility of the juveline organsisms the results of this study are supporting the findings in the key study (Hoechst, 1989).

Two studies with reliability score 3 (Wolverton 1970) on Lepomis and Gambusia support the order of magnitude of the 96h LC50 value from the key study with values for 96h LC50 Lepomis of 4.25 mg/L and for 96h LC50 Gambusia of 8.9 mg/L.