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Explosiveness

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Endpoint:
explosive properties of explosives
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
10.12.-12.12.2012
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
EU Method A.14 (Explosive properties)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
only test for mechanical sensitivity (shock) performed
GLP compliance:
no
Parameter:
other: More sensitive to shock than m-dinitrobenzene
Remarks:
migrated information
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)
Parameter:
other: More sensitive to friction than m-dinitrobenzene
Remarks:
migrated information
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)
Parameter:
other: Explosive under influence of flame
Remarks:
migrated information
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)
Parameter:
other: Explosive (not specified)
Remarks:
migrated information
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)

All observations are presented in the following table.

 Method number of conducts  loading  number of positive reactions   results 
 Thermal Sensitivity 3 with 2 mm; 3 with 6 mm  18 g  not explosive 
 Mechanical Sensitivity (shock) 6 with 40 J  40 mm3  not explosive 
 Mechanical Sensitivity (friction) 6 with 360 N  10 mm3  not explosive 

In the test for thermal sensitivity with an orifice of 6 mm, after ten seconds, white fume was observed for about ten seconds, and after 2.5 minutes, the test item started to burn under formation of white fume. In the test with an orifice of 2 mm, a short hissing noise was observed with white fume and sparkles after ten seconds. After two minutes, the test item burned with a flame fountain under formation of white fume.

In the test for mechanical sensitivity (shock) only formation of a little white smoke and brown deposits on the steel cylinders could be observed in some cases, but no bang or flame. The test substance decomposed using an impact energy of 40 J, but showed no sign of explosive properties.

The test for mechanical sensitivity (friction) yielded a grey line on the porcelain peg in every experiment.

According to the national reference institute (BAM, Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung), these observations are no sign of explosive properties.

Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Conclusions:
The substance is not explosive upon heat, mechanical shock or friction.
Executive summary:

The explosive properties of the test item were determined following EU A.14.

In the test for thermal sensitivity, no explosion was observed.

In the test for mechanical sensitivity (shock), no explosion was observed using an impact energy of 40 J.

In the test for mechanical sensitivity (friction), no explosion was observed using a weight of 360 N and a speed of 10 mm in 0.44 seconds.

Endpoint:
explosive properties of explosives
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: statement from national authority with test results, limited documentation
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Test series of the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Good, Manual of Tests and Criteria
Principles of method if other than guideline:
UN-Test E.1
UN-Test E.2
UN-Test A.1
UN-Test C.1
UN-Test C.2
UN-Test F.3
UN-Test H.4
sensitivity to mechanical shock
sensitivity to friction
Additionally Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
GLP compliance:
no
Key result
Parameter:
other: More sensitive to shock than m-dinitrobenzene
Remarks:
migrated information
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)
Key result
Parameter:
other: More sensitive to friction than m-dinitrobenzene
Remarks:
migrated information
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)
Key result
Parameter:
other: Explosive under influence of flame
Remarks:
migrated information
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)
Key result
Parameter:
other: Explosive (not specified)
Remarks:
migrated information
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)

Differential thermal analysis:

up to 144 °C no reaction observed. Above 144 °C, an exothermic reaction began with a maximum of dT = 128 K at 158 °C oven temperature.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry:

experiment Nr.  mass   decomposition heat extrapolated ONSET temperature 
 1 3.01 mg  664 J/g  168 °C 
 2 5.55 mg  596 J/g  167 °C 

UN-Test E.1

experiment Nr. 
 mass (g) 18.0  18.0  18.0 
 nozzle diameter (mm) 1.0  1.0  1.0 
 t1 / t1 +t2 / t2 6/240/234  6/240/234  6/240/234 
 fragment picture (number) 0(0)  0(0)  0(0) 
 Evaluation no explosion       

UN-Test E.2

Experiment Nr.  mass (g)  nozzle diameter (mm)  Reaction time t1 (s)  reaction time t2 (s)  Result 
 1 10  1.0  77  smoke and fizzling 
 2 10  1.0  75  smoke and fizzling 
 3 10  1.0  76  smoke and fizzling 
 4 50  1.0  86  explosion 

Evaluation: Low

UN-Test A.1

Against the detonation of 50 g Hexogen enhancement load with 5 % wax in a 2'' steel pipe, the substance (638 g) was not sensible. 39 cm of the pipe and about 300 g substance remained.

Evaluation: No

UN-Test C.1

Incorporation in the pressure-time-bomb and measuring the times for the pressure increase from 790 kPa to 2170 kPa, in three runs the following results were obtained: 412 ms, 194 ms, 273 ms

Evaluation: yes, slowly

UN-Test C.2

The deflagration test was conducted at 50 °C substance temperature. The deflagration speeds where 1.28 mm/s and 1.72 mm/s.

Evaluation: yes, slowly

UN-Test F.3

In the lead block test, a volume increase of 7 ml resp. 5 ml based on 10 g was obtained.

Evaluation: No

UN-Test H.4

In the Heat accumulation storage test, 255.1 g of substance were stored in a 500 mL Dewar-container. A storage temperature of 75 °C did not result in an exothermic reaction within 7 days. The SADT is > 75 °C.

sensitivity to mechanical shock

The substance is sensitive to shock with a shock energy of > 30 J.

sensitivity to friction

The substance is not sensitive to friction at 360 N stress.

Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Conclusions:
The substance is not explosive but self decomposing.
Executive summary:

The following tests were conducted and following results were obtained with the substance 2,2'-azobis[2 -methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride:

DSC: decomposition heat 596 - 664 J/g, ONSET temperature 168 °C

DTA: ONSET temperature 155 °C

UN-Test E.1: No

UN-Test E.2: Low

UN-Test A.1: No

UN-Test C.1: Yes, slowly

UN-Test C.2: Yes, slowly

UN-Test F.3: No

UN-Test H.4: SADT > 75 °C

sensitivity to mechanical shock: sensitive, > 30 J

sensitivity to friction: not sensitive

Description of key information

In the test for thermal sensitivity, no explosion was observed.
In the test for mechanical sensitivity (shock), no explosion was observed using impact energy of 40 J.
In the test for mechanical sensitivity (friction), no explosion was observed using a weight of 360 N and a speed of 10 mm in 0.44 seconds.
DSC: decomposition heat 596 - 664 J/g, ONSET temperature 168 °C
DTA: ONSET temperature 155 °C
UN-Test E.1: No
UN-Test E.2: Low
UN-Test A.1: No
UN-Test C.1: Yes, slowly
UN-Test C.2: Yes, slowly
UN-Test F.3: No
UN-Test H.4: SADT > 75 °C
sensitivity to mechanical shock: sensitive, > 30 J
sensitivity to friction: not sensitive

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Explosiveness:
non explosive

Additional information

Two studies are available comprising of several tests conducted.

Most of the tests results were negative, if a positive result was obtained, this result was only weak (e.g. slow deflagration) in nature. Therefore, the substance is rated as non explosive. Nevertheless, a classification as self-decomposing substance may be taken into account.

Justification for classification or non-classification