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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

NOEC - 0.56 mg/L 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater invertebrates:
0.56 mg/L

Additional information

The phthalate esters are1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acids with side chain esters ranging in carbon chain length from C1 to C13.The US EPA High Production Volume (HPV) chemical challenge program has proposed grouping phthalate esters into a single category, divided into 3 sub-categories, this based on the structural similarities of the substances and theirphysicochemical and toxicological properties. These sub-categories are: low molecular weight phthalates, transitional phthalates, and high molecular weight phthalates. The high molecular weight phthalates are defined as being produced from alcohols with straight-chain carbon backbones of >C7 or a ring structure. These include varying mixed isomers of linear and branched diheptyl, dioctyl, dinonyl, didecyl, diundecyl and ditridecyl phthalate. All have low solubility in water and are regarded as being too insoluble to exhibit acute or chronic toxicity. Read-across from closely related phthalates thus appears reasonable.

Long-term toxicity to Daphnia magna of di-n-nonyl/n-undecyl phthalate (L9 -11P) has been investigated in accordance with OECD test guidelines. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was determined to be 0.56 mg/L.

In a 21-day test with a phthalate ester with C11 chain length, no adverse effect on the reproduction of Daphnia magna were apparent when compared with the test medium control or dispersion control. The NOEC was estimated to be 1.0 mg/L. A second study reported a NOEC for survival and reproduction of daphnids as 0.059 mg/L, comparable to the survival & reproduction of daphnids in control group(s).