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EC number: -
CAS number: -
Dustiness (airborne fraction): total: 126.32
In the original study report by DMT, a
calculation of the mass median diameter was not conducted. Since the
deposited fractions were provided for each of the cascade impactor
stages, it was possible to fit a monomodal lognormal distribution to the
data by non-linear regression procedure. As a result, the MMAD and GSD
are calculable and reported (MMAD = 20.44 µm, GSD = 2.65).
As the cascade impactor already takes
aerodynamic characteristics of the particles into account, the reported
mass median diameter can be interpreted as the mass median aerodynamic
This figure and the corresponding GSD were
used as distribution parameters for the MPPD model enabling an
estimation of deposited dust fractions in the human respiratory tract:
These fractions were estimated as follows:
Head (ET): 55.61 %
Tracheobronchial (TB): 0.64
Pulmonary (PU): 0.79 %
The parameters d90, d50
and d10 are the cut off particle size below which 90 %,
50 % and 10 % of the total particle volume lies. The parameter dv and
ds are respectively the volume mean diameter and the surface
area mean diameter.
All values are calculated assuming
that the particles are spherical.
d50 = 11.9 µm
d90 = 29.4 µm
d10 = 2.8 µm
dv = 14.3 µm
ds = 6.2 µm
Particle size analysis by laser
diffraction (Mestre Beltrán, 2014)
d50 = 11.9 µm
d90 = 29.4 µm
(All values were calculated assuming that
the particles are spherical)
Dustiness (Parr, Grewe, 2015)
Total Dustiness (airborne fraction): 126.32
mg/g (experimental results, DMT Report).
Mass median aerodynamic diamater of airborne
fraction: MMAD = 20.44 µm, GSD = 2.65
Fractional deposition in human respiratory
tract (MPPD model, based on calculated MMAD):
Head (ET): 55.61 %
Tracheobronchial (TB): 0.64 %
The so-called physical particle size
distribution (PSD) was obtained by the laser diffraction method in a wet
dispersion after ultrasonic treatment for individualisation of the
particles and further mechanical stirring. The particle size of the
individualised particles is provided.
Any agglomerates of particles normally
existing in the pigment powder were destroyed by (i) the contact with
water, (ii) the ultrasonic treatment and (iii) the mechanical stirring.
Such agitation of the dry pigment does however not occur under intended
and foreseeable manufacture and use conditions and is therefore not
suitable to deduce the likelihood of inhalation exposure under workplace
A suitable method for determining the PSD of
a dry powder to assess the inhalation potential of airborne dust
resulting from the handling of that powder is cascade impactor testing
(Dustiness). During the cascade impactor testing, the material gets
moderately agitated in a rotating drum (to simulate agitation during
typical occupational powder handling activities). A constant airstream
directs any generated airborne dust to a cascade impactor in which the
particles and their agglomerates get separated according to their size.
The aerodynamic PSD is described as being
monomodal. With the given parameters it is possible to calculate the
cumulated mass percentage of particles at or below 4 µm. This fraction
does however not indicate how much is deposited in the deep lung if such
aerosol would be inhaled. Instead, the fractional deposition in the
human respiratory tract was calculated using the MPPD model.
Thus, only a sub-fraction of 0.79 %
particles could deposit in the alveoli of the human lung.
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