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EC number: 253-575-7
CAS number: 37640-57-6
publications are available on the toxicity to birds.
experiment was conducted with Pekin ducks to determine the toxicity of
melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CYA) in ducks fed treatments from day
3 to day 21 of age. Two hundred and twenty three threeday-old male ducks
were assigned to one of 10 treatment groups. Treatments included: (1) a
basal diet (BD) containing no MEL or CYA; (2) BD+0.5% MEL; (3) BD+1.0%
MEL; (4) BD+1.5% MEL; (5) BD+0.5% CYA; (6) BD+1.0% CYA; (7) BD+1.5% CYA;
(8) BD+0.5% MEL +0.5% CYA; (9) BD+1.0% MEL +1.0% CYA and (1 OJ BD+1.5%
MEL +1.5% CYA Control and treatments fed MEL alone or MEL +CYA were fed
to 5 pens of 5 ducks each. Treatments fed CYA alone were fed to 4 pens
of 4 ducks each. Compared to controls, birds fed≥1.0%
MEL had lower (P<0.05) feed intake (Fl) and body weight gain (BWG),
heavier (P<0.05) relative kidney weights and higher (P<0.05) mortality.
No mortality was observed in birds fed CYA alone or MEL +CYA
combinations. No differences in Fl, BWG, relative kidney weights or
mortality were noted among controls and ducks fed CYA alone or MEL+CYA
combinations. Melamine crystals were only observed in the bile of ducks
MEL alone. Renal histopathology included mild dilation of the embryonal
nephrons and collecting tubules. Eosinophilic to basophilic casts, some
containing spherical eosinophilic crystals were also present in the
embryonal nephrons and collecting tubules. Histopathology results
% MEL in the diet of ducks could cause severe renal pathology and
mortality due to renal failure. The renal pathology observed in ducks
was similar to that seen in other poultry species fed toxic
concentrations of MEL. CYA alone up to 1.5% of the diet was not toxic to
ducks and CYA reduced the toxicity of MEL when the two compounds were
fed in combination.
a combinationof melamine(MEL)
andCYA in broilers.Atotalof
a 42-d experiment.The dietary
mg CYA per kg diet; T6to
observed in alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase
on d 22, uric
acid (UA) and creatinine (Crea) concentrations were significantly
were fed CYA ac33.3mg/kgwithMEL
Crea concentration was alsohigherwhen
found in kidneysbut dilatedrenaltubulesand
expansion were foundinkidneys
fed CYAand MELcontaminated
indicated that thedietaryaddition
induce kidney damage, andtheeffects
the ratio ofCYA/MELwas1:3.
purpose of this study was to characterize the toxicity potential of
melamine (MEL), cyanuric acid (CYA), and a combination of MEL and CYA in
broilers. A total of 720 commercial 1-day-old COBB 500 male broilers
were randomly allotted into 6 groups with 6 replicates each and 20
broilers in each replicate. The dietary treatments were as follows:
group I was the control group, group II included 10 mg/kg MEL and 3.3
mg/kg CYA, group III included 30 mg/kg MEL and 10 mg/kg CYA, group IV
included 100 mg/kg MEL and 33.3 mg/kg CYA, group V included 100 mg/kg
MEL, and group VI included 33.3 mg/kg CYA. The trial lasted for 42 days.
CYA alone and the combination of MEL and CYA had adverse effects on the
performance, but MEL alone had no effects on the performance. On day 21,
the uric acid (UA) content of group IV was increased in serum (p <
0.05); on day 42, the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity
and the level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αand
interleukin (IL)-8 increased in group IV (p < 0.05); 100 mg/kg MEL alone
increased the level of TNF-αand
the rate of renal apoptosis (p < 0.05); and 33.3 mg/kg CYA alone
increased the level of IL-8 and the rate of renal apoptosis (p < 0.05).
The livers contained MEL concentrations of 17–125 mg/kg wet weight and
CYA concentrations of 28–73 mg/kg, and the muscle contained MEL
concentrations of 14–105 mg/kg wet weight. It was indicated that MEL
alone, CYA alone, and a combination of MEL and CYA inhibit the growth
and damage the kidney and liver.
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