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EC number: 627-083-1
CAS number: 244235-47-0
Table: Measured concentrations of phenol in total fish
In a flow-through test with Danio rerio (zebra fish) the
BCF value of phenol was determined. Phenol was measured in water, total
fish and fat. The BCF was calculated from kinetic parameters
The test was performed according to the OECD guideline 305E (1981)
using 1 concentration of 2 mg/L and a higher fish loading than
recommended in the current guideline. In the current guideline 2
concentrations are recommended.
The steady state of uptake was reached between 2 and 5 hours,
though only two successive analyses of the concentration in fish were
made (after 3 and 5 hours). The calculated uptake phase using the log
Kow according to the current OECD 305 is 10 hours and the calculated
depuration phase is also 10 hours, confirming the short periods used.
The uptake phase of 5 hours in the presented study is regarded to be
plausible and the study is regarded to be reliable. The concentrations
in fish during the uptake phase were measured after 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0
and 5.0 hours. After 2 and 5 hours same concentrations were found. After
1 hour the concentration in fish was only 25 % lower than the level
after 2 hours, slightly lower than the cut-off criteria for using the
concentration as a steady state concentration. Though there are only two
concentrations available with 20 % of each other, it can be assumed that
the steady-state was reached between 2 and 5 hours, due to the
comparable levels of the samples. Since there was a long time-span
between the samplings (in relation to the total uptake phase) it can be
expected that samplings between 2 and 5 hours would have confirmed the
With respect to the remaining uncertainties it should be
considered, that for substances with a log Kow 3 generally no potential
for bioaccumulation is expected and no bioaccumulation studies are
The BCF for total fish was calculated to be 17.5 and for total
lipid content 647. The depuration half-life (DT50) was calculated to be
0.83 hours and the DT90 was 2.75 hours.
(regression-based estimate): 0.50 (BCF
= 3.16 L/kg wet-wt)
Half-Life (days) : 0.518 (normalized
to 10 g fish)
(Arnot-Gobas upper trophic): 1.58 (BAF
= 37.9 L/kg wet-wt)
Log Kow used by
BCF estimates: 2.64
Equation Used to
Make BCF estimate:
Log BCF = 0.50
(Ionic; Log Kow dependent)
BCF = 0.500 (BCF
= 3.162 L/kg wet-wt)
Primary Biotransformation Rate Estimate for Fish:
TYPE | NUM | LOG
BIOTRANSFORMATION FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE
Frag | 1 | Linear
C4 terminal chain [CCC-CH3] | 0.0341
Frag | 1 | Aliphatic
acid [-C(=O)-OH] | 0.3803
Frag | 2 | Methyl [-CH3] | 0.2451
Frag | 4 | -CH2- [linear] | 0.0242
Frag | 1 | -CH- [linear] |
-0.1912 | -0.1912
L Kow| * | Log
Kow = 2.64
(experimental ) | 0.3073
MolWt| * | Molecular
Weight Parameter | |
Const| * | Equation
Constant | |
RESULT | LOG
Bio Half-Life (days) | |
RESULT | Bio
Half-Life (days) | | 0.5184
NOTE | Bio
Half-Life Normalized to 10 g fish at 15 deg C |
/day (10 gram fish)
/day (100 gram fish)
/day (1 kg fish)
/day (10 kg fish)
& BAF Methods (including biotransformation rate estimates):
BCF (upper trophic) = 1.579 (BCF
= 37.94 L/kg wet-wt)
BAF (upper trophic) = 1.579 (BAF
= 37.94 L/kg wet-wt)
BCF (mid trophic) = 1.441 (BCF
= 27.6 L/kg wet-wt)
BAF (mid trophic) = 1.441 (BAF
= 27.6 L/kg wet-wt)
BCF (lower trophic) = 1.394 (BCF
= 24.76 L/kg wet-wt)
BAF (lower trophic) = 1.394 (BAF
= 24.78 L/kg wet-wt)
& BAF Methods (assuming a biotransformation rate of zero):
BCF (upper trophic) = 1.677 (BCF
= 47.51 L/kg wet-wt)
BAF (upper trophic) = 1.705 (BAF
= 50.69 L/kg wet-wt)
See “Test material identity”
Date of QPRF
See “Data Source (Reference)”
QPRF author and contact details
Endpoint(OECD Principle 1)
- Bioconcentration factor (BCF)
- Bioaccumulation factor (BAF; 15 °C)
- Biotransformation rate (kM) and half-life
Algorithm(OECD Principle 2)
Model or submodel name
1) Bioconcentration factor (BCF; Meylan et al., 1997/1999)
2) Biotransformation rate in fish (kM; Arnot et al., 2008a/b)
3) Arnot & Gobas BAF and steady-state BCF Arnot & Gobas, 2003)
Reference to QMRF
Estimation of Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation and biotransformation in fish using BCFBAF v3.01 (EPI Suite v4.11)
Predicted value (model result)
See “Results and discussion”
Input for prediction
Chemical structure via CAS number or SMILES; log Kow (optional)
- SMILES: structure of the compound as SMILES notation
- log Kow
- Molecular weight
Applicability domain(OECD principle 3)
The substance is non-ionic.
b) Molecular weight (range of test data set):
- Ionic: 68.08 to 991.80
- Non-ionic: 68.08 to 959.17
(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.1.3 Estimation Domain and Appendix G)
The substance is within range (370.58 g/mol).
c) log Kow (range of test data set):
- Ionic: -6.50 to 11.26
- Non-ionic: -1.37 to 11.26
The substance is within range (8.94).
d) Maximum number of instances of correction factor in any of the training set compounds (On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Appendix E)
a) The substance does not appreciably ionize at physiological pH.
(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.2.3)
b) Molecular weight (range of test data set): 68.08 to 959.17
c) The molecular weight is ≤ 600 g/mol.
d) Log Kow: 0.31 to 8.70
The substance is not within range (8.94).
e) The substance is no metal or organometal, pigment or dye, or a perfluorinated substance.
f) Maximum number of instances of biotransformation fragments in any of the training set compounds (On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Appendix F)
a) Log Kow ≤ 9
(On-Line BCFBAF Help File, Ch. 7.3.1)
b) The substance does not appreciably ionize.
c) The substance is no pigment, dye, or perfluorinated substance.
The uncertainty of the prediction(OECD principle 4)
1. Bioconcentration factor (BCF; Meylan et al., 1997/1999)
Statistical accuracy of the training data set (non-ionic plus ionic data):
- Correlation coefficient (r2) = 0.833
- Standard deviation = 0.502 log units
- Absolute mean error = 0.382 log units
2. Biotransformation Rate in Fish (kM)
Statistical accuracy (training set):
- Correlation coefficient (r2) = 0.821
- Correlation coefficient (Q2) = 0.753
- Standard deviation = 0.494 log units
- Absolute mean error = 0.383 log units
3. Arnot-Gobas BAF/BCF model
No information on the statistical accuracy given in the documentation.
The chemical mechanisms according to the model underpinning the predicted result(OECD principle 5)
1. The BCF model is mainly based on the relationship between bioconcentration and hydrophobicity. The model also takes into account the chemical structure and the ionic/non-ionic character of the substance.
2. Bioaccumulation is the net result of relative rates of chemical inputs to an organism from multimedia exposures (e.g., air, food, and water) and chemical outputs (or elimination) from the organism.
3. The model includes mechanistic processes for bioconcentration and bioaccumulation such as chemical uptake from the water at the gill surface (BCFs and BAFs) and the diet (BAFs only), and chemical elimination at the gill surface, fecal egestion, growth dilution and metabolic biotransformation (Arnot and Gobas 2003). Other processes included in the calculations are bioavailability in the water column (only the freely dissolved fraction can bioconcentrate) and absorption efficiencies at the gill and in the gastrointestinal tract.
Arnot JA, Gobas FAPC. 2003. A generic QSAR for assessing the
bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals in aquatic food webs.
QSAR and Combinatorial Science 22: 337-345.
Arnot JA, Mackay D, Parkerton TF, Bonnell M. 2008a. A database of fish
biotransformation rates for organic chemicals. Environmental Toxicology
and Chemistry 27(11), 2263-2270.
Arnot JA, Mackay D, Bonnell M. 2008b.Estimating
metabolic biotransformation rates in fish from laboratory data.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27: 341-351.
Meylan, W.M., Howard, P.H, Aronson, D., Printup, H. and S. Gouchie.
1997. "Improved Method for Estimating Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) from
Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient", SRC TR-97-006 (2nd Update), July
22, 1997; prepared for: Robert S. Boethling, EPA-OPPT, Washington, DC;
Contract No. 68-D5-0012; prepared by: ; Syracuse Research Corp.,
Environmental Science Center, 6225 Running Ridge Road, North Syracuse,
Meylan, WM, Howard, PH, Boethling, RS et al. 1999. Improved Method for
Estimating Bioconcentration / Bioaccumulation Factor from Octanol/Water
Partition Coefficient. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18(4): 664-672 (1999).
US EPA (2012). On-Line BCFBAF Help File.
Correction Factors (Appendix E), Biotransformation Fragments and
Coefficient values (Appendix F)
The Training Set used to derive the Coefficient Values listed below contained a total of 421 compounds (see Appendix I for the compound list).
No. compounds containing fragment in total training set
Maximum number of each fragment in any individual compound
No. of instances of each fragment for the current substance
Linear C4 terminal chain [CCC-CH3]
Aliphatic acid [-C(=O)-OH]
of Applicability Domain Based on Molecular Weight and log Kow
1. Bioconcentration Factor (BCF; Meylan et al., 1997/1999)
Training set: Molecular weights
Assessment of molecular weight
Molecular weight within range of training set.
Training set: Log Kow
Assessment of log Kow
Log Kow within range of training set.
2. Biotransformation Rate in Fish (kM; Arnot et al., 2008a/b)
Log Kow outside of range of training set. Therefore, the estimate may be less accurate.
Concentrations in Marine Biota from Bohai Bay
4-NP was detected in all samples, and the concentration ranged from
142.6 to 677.8 ng/g lipid. 4-NP concentration levels have been reported
previously in mollusks such as clams, cuttlefish, squid,andmussels from
marine ecosystems. Wenzel et al. reported the retrospective monitoring
of 4-NP in common mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the North Sea and
Baltic Sea (2004). Wenzel’s study clarified the fact that 4-NP was
detected in all mussel samples from 1985 until 1997, with the highest
value of 9.7 ng/g wet weight at Eckwarderhorne in 1985, while the 4-NP
concentrations were lower than limit of quantification (2 ng/g wet
weight) after 1997. The concentrations detected in clams and mussels
from the Adriatic Sea (Ferrara et al. 2001) were 243-265 ng/g lipid. The
4-NP concentration in short-necked clams detected in this study was 170
ng/g lipid which is slightly lower than for shortnecked clams from the
Adriatic Sea. The concentrations in bay scallops, crabs, burrowing
shrimp, and veined rapa Whelk were also determined and were similar to
the 4-NP concentration in short-necked clams. Of six fish species, the
4-NP concentration in catfish was the lowest (151.4 ng/g lipid), and the
highest concentration (more than 300 ng/g lipid) was found in mullet and
wolfish. Although little reports were found for 4-NP concentration level
in marine fish, the 4-NP concentrations in flounder from a United
Kingdom estuary were reported in the range of 5-55 ng/g wet weight,
which was slightly higher those (5.0-24.3 ng/g wet weight) detected in
the present study. This study also presents the 4-NP concentration in
herring gull and phytoplankton, and the concentration for the former is
239.6 ( 99.9 ng/g lipid (n = 4) and that for the latter is 440 ng/g
lipid (composite sample from six sampling sites) which was slightly
lower than the 4-NP concentration in zooplankton, 677.8 ng/g lipid
(composite sample from six sampling sites).
Predator/Prey Biomagnification Factors (BMFs)
Although seabirds often feed on a range of diet items, fish were
commonly found in the stomach of herring gull. For the herring gull to
catfish, bartail flathead, white flower croaker predator/prey
relationship, the BMFs for 4-NP were 1.15-1.51 and the average BMF was
1.02, suggesting no biomagnification between trophic levels.
On the other hand, the average BMFs of p,p’-DDE, DDMU, and DDTs were
26.1, 10.8, and 13.6, respectively. When comparing BMFs for p,p’-DDE,
DDMU, and DDTs to 4-NP, the large discrepancy was observed for all
herring gull to fish predator/prey.
Uptake phase: The uptake phase was characterised by a distinct increase
of the concentration of the test substance in the fish within 6 days
followed by a clear plateau phase (steady state phase) where no further
increase was found. The plateau phase was observed for both exposure
levels from day 6 to day 28 (22 days). The mean measured concentrations
of the water samples were 3.5 and 13.4 µg/L (50 % and 38 % of the
nominal concentrations), respectively.
Depuration phase: After the transfer of the remaining fish to untreated
water a rapid decrease of the concentration of the test substance in the
fish was observed. The concentration in the fish of the lower exposure
group of 7 1 µg/L had dropped below the limit of quantification on day 4
of the depuration phase. At the higher exposure group (35 µg/L) this was
observed on day 8.
The test substance was tested for its bioaccumulation in a study
according to OECD Guideline 305 (Bioconcentration: Flow-through Fish
Test) using the species Oncorhynchus mykiss under GLP conditions.
The fish were exposed for 4 weeks followed by a three week depuration
period. the two concentration of 7 and 35 µg/l were used. Based on whole
body weight and total fat and assuming steady state, for both
concentrations a plateau was reached after 6 days. The BCF were approx.
138 and 159, respectively. While one fish died, neither abnormal
behaviour nor abnormal growth was observed. Depuration was achieved
after 4 and 8 days, respectively.
From the low BCF and the depuration, it can be concluded that the test
substance does not accumulate remarkably in fish.
All constituents of Ethanone, 1-(2-hydroxy-5-nonylphenyl)-, oxime,
branched do not bioaccumulate in aquatic or sediment organisms.
Since no study assessing the bioaccumulation potential of
Ethanone, 1-(2-hydroxy-5-nonylphenyl)-, oxime, branched (CAS
244235-47-0) is available, in accordance to Regulation (EC) No.
1907/2006 Annex XI, 1.5 Grouping of substances, a read-across approach
was applied. To assess the bioaccumulation potential of the main
component (C9 Ketoxime) read across to the structurally related source
substance Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched (CAS
174333-80-3) was conducted. The only structural difference between the
source substance and the main component of the target substance is the
lack of a methyl group at the oxime carbon of the source substance. The
read across is justified due to (i) the similarity of structure and
functional groups and accordingly (ii) similar physico-chemical
properties resulting in a similar environmental fate and ecotoxicity
profile (see table below).
In addition, available experimental data and QSAR calculations
with the minor constituents branched nonylphenol (CAS 84852-15-3),
phenol (CAS 108-95-2) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (CAS 149-57-5) were used
to be able to adequately conclude on the bioaccumulation potential of
the whole UVCB target substance.
Ethanone, 1-(2-hydroxy-5-nonylphenyl)-, oxime, branched
Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched
~ 277 g/mole
~ 263 g/mole
> 0.02 < 0.1 mg/L (EU method A.6)
0.4 mg/L (EU method A.6)
> 5.7 (EU method A.8)
5.5 (EU method A.8)
< 1.5 Pa at 20 °C (OECD 104)
0.37 Pa at 20 °C (OECD 104)
1 % in 28 days (BODIS)
0 % in 28 days (OECD 302c)
Adsorption [log KOC]
3.9 (OECD 121)
3.7 (OECD 121)
not relevant due to very low water solubility
Short-term toxicity to fish
0.46 mg/L (EU method C.1)
1.1 mg/L (EU method C.1)
Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
2.7 mg/L (EU method C.2)
Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
2.8 mg/L (OECD 211)
0.189 mg/L (OECD 211)
Short-term toxicity to algae
760 mg/L (OECD 201)
36.3 mg/L (OECD 201)
Long-term toxicity to algae
472 mg/L (OECD 201)
14.9 mg/L (OECD 201)
Toxicity to microorganisms
260.1mg/L (OECD 209)
200.4 mg/L (OECD 209)
The bioaccumulation study with the source substance Benzaldehyde,
2-hydroxy-5-nonyl, oxime, branched was performed according to GLP and
OECD guideline 305 using Oncorhynchus mykiss as test organism.
The fish were exposed for 4 weeks followed by a three week depuration
period. Test substance concentrations of 7 and 35 µg/L were used. Based
on whole body weight and total fat and assuming steady state, for both
concentrations a plateau was reached after 6 days. The BCF is determined
to be 138 and 159, respectively. While one fish died, neither abnormal
behaviour nor abnormal growth was observed. Depuration was achieved
after 4 and 8 days, respectively. Thus it can be concluded that the
bioaccumulation potential of the main component is low. This
conclusion is supported by results of numerous publications showing
similar low BCF values (167-740) of branched nonylphenol (CAS
84852-15-3) for different taxa (see respective dossier at ECHA
database). In addition, the two minor constituents phenol (CAS 108-95-2)
and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (CAS 149-57-5) do also not bioaccumulate as
shown in available test data or valid QSAR calculations.
Based on the low measured BCF values (which is much lower than the
threshold value of 2000 listed in ECHAs Guidance on information
requirement and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.11) and the
depuration rates measured for a suitable source substance as well as the
constituents of the substance to be registered, it can be concluded that
the whole UVCB substance does not accumulate remarkably in fish.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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