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Toxicological information

Toxicity to reproduction

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
one-generation reproductive toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Experiment start date - 01 October 2012; Experiment completion date - 26 November 2012; Study completion date - 06 March 2013.
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2013
Report date:
2013

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 421 (Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: The United States EPA Health Effects Test Guidelines, OPPTS 870.3550, Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, July 2000.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
Remarks:
migrated information: powder
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): FAT 40571/C TE
- Substance type: Black powder
- Physical state: Powder
- Purity: Unknown
- Lot/batch No.: DER 8107 / BOP 01-12 (Lot: MHC-0016088200)
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: 25 January 2017
- Storage condition of test material: At room temperature in the dark
- Purity/composition correction factor required: No
- Volatile No
- pH: 4.6 at concentration of 27.7% (%w/w)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Identification: FAT 40571/C TE
Description: Black powder (determined at WIL Research Europe B.V.)
Batch: DER 8107 / BOP 01-12 (Lot: MHC-0016088200)
Test substance storage: At room temperature in the dark
Stability under storage conditions: Stable
Expiry date: 25 January 2017.

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Deutschland, Sulzfeld, Germany.
Nulliparous and nonpregnant females and untreated animals were used at initiation of the study.
- Age at study initiation: Approximately 11 weeks.
- Weight at study initiation: mean weight at start of treatment was 325 g (males) or 211 g (females).
- Fasting period before study: no
- Housing:
Pre-mating: Animals were housed in groups of 5 animals/sex/cage in Macrolon cages.
Mating: Females were caged together with males on a one-to-one-basis in Macrolon cages.
Post-mating: Males were housed in their home cage with a maximum of 5 animals/cage. Females were individually housed in Macrolon cages. Pups were kept with the dam until termination.
General: Sterilised sawdust as bedding material and paper as cage enrichment were supplied.
- Diet: Free access to pelleted rodent diet (SM R/M-Z from SSNIFF® Spezialdiäten GmbH, Soest, Germany).
- Water: Free access to tap water.
- Acclimation period: At least 5 days.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Environmental controls for the animal room were set to maintain 18 to 24 °C, a relative humidity of 40 to 70 %, approximately 15 room air changes/hour, and a 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycle.

IN-LIFE DATES
From: 04 October - 26 November 2012.

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on exposure:
- Method of formulation: Formulations (w/w) were prepared daily within 5 hours prior to dosing and were homogenized to a visually acceptable level. No adjustment was made for specific gravity/density of the test substance, vehicle, and/or formulation. No correction was made for the purity/composition of the test substance.
- Storage conditions of formulations: At ambient temperature.
- Dose volume: 5 mL/kg body weight. Actual dose volumes were calculated according to the latest body weight.
Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1/1 (one female was cohabitated with one male of the same treatment group, avoiding sibling mating).
- Length of cohabitation: A maximum of 14 days was allowed for mating.
- Proof of pregnancy: Detection of mating was confirmed by evidence of sperm in the vaginal lavage and/or by the appearance of an intravaginal copulatory plug. This day was designated Day 0 post-coitum. Once mating had occurred, the males and females were separated. Detection of mating was not confirmed for one animal at 100 mg/kg which did deliver live offspring. The mating date of this animal was estimated at 21 days prior to the actual delivery date. This day was designated Day 0 postcoitum.
- After successful mating each pregnant female was caged individually in Macrolon cages (MIII type, height 18 cm).
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Samples (0.5 mL) were taken using a pipette (a clean pipette tip was used for every group), and were weighed on an analytical balance at 4 decimals precision. During sampling, formulations were placed on a magnetic stirrer. Immediately after sampling (accuracy and homogeneity samples) or after 5 hours at room temperature under normal laboratory light conditions (stability samples), samples were stored on dry ice. Samples remained on dry ice until receipt at ABL, The Netherlands, where samples were stored at ≤-70 °C until analysis. Samples of formulations were analyzed for homogeneity (highest and lowest concentration) and accuracy of preparation (all concentrations). Stability in vehicle over 5 hours at room temperature under normal laboratory light conditions was also determined (highest and lowest concentration). The accuracy of preparation was considered acceptable if the mean measured concentrations were 90 - 110 % of the target concentration. Homogeneity was demonstrated if the coefficient of variation was ≤10 %. Formulations were considered stable if the relative difference before and after storage was maximally 10 %. No test substance was detected in the Group 1 formulations. The concentrations analysed in the formulations of Group 2, 3 and 4 were in agreement with target concentrations (i.e. mean accuracies between 90 % and 110 %). The formulations of Group 2 and 4 were homogeneous (i.e. coefficient of variation ≤10 %). Formulations at the entire range were stable when stored at room temperature under normal laboratory light conditions for at least 5 hours (i.e. relative difference ≤10 %). The long term storage samples were stable at ≤-70 °C for at least 20 days.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males were exposed for 28 days, i.e. 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to termination.
Females were exposed for 41-53 days, i.e. during 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during post-coitum, and during at least 4 days of lactation. Pups were not dosed directly but could have potentially be exposed to the test substance in utero, via maternal milk or from exposure to maternal urine/faeces.
Frequency of treatment:
Once daily for 7 days in a week.
Details on study schedule:
- Age at mating of the animals in the study: Approximately 13 weeks
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
0 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Remarks:
Group 1
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Remarks:
Group 2
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Remarks:
Group 3
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Remarks:
Group 4
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose levels were based on a 28-day toxicity study in Wistar rats (RCC Project 706397) in which 50, 200 and 1000 mg/kg were tested. At 1000 mg/kg, treatment-related findings were restricted to microscopical changes in the kidneys (hyaline droplets) for males, stomach (nonglandular stomach erosion associated with inflammation, squamous cell hyperplasia and moderate hyperkeratosis) and lung (interstitial fibrosis associated with pigment-laden alveolar macrophages) for some females. It is probable that these findings were related to the mode of application rather than a direct effect of the test article. All test article-related findings noted at the end of the treatment period were fully reversible during the 14-day recovery period.
- Parturition: The females were allowed to litter normally. Day 1 of lactation was defined as the day when a litter was found completed (i.e. membranes, placentas cleaned up, nest built up and/or feeding of pups started). Females that were littering were left undisturbed.
- Identification of pups: On Day 1 of lactation, all pups were individually identified by means of subcutaneous injection of Indian ink.
Positive control:
no

Examinations

Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS
- Time schedule: At least twice daily.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS
- Time schedule: Daily from start of treatment onwards, detailed clinical observations were made in all animals. The time of onset, grade and duration of any observed sign was recorded. Signs were graded for severity.

BODY WEIGHT
- Time schedule for examinations: Males and females were weighed on the first day of exposure and weekly thereafter. Mated females were weighed on Days 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17 and 20 post-coitum and during lactation on Days 1 and 4.

FOOD CONSUMPTION
- Weekly, except for males and females which were housed together for mating and for females without evidence of mating. Food consumption of mated females was measured on Days 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17 and 20 post-coitum and on Days 1 and 4 of lactation.

FOOD EFFICIENCY
- (average food consumption [per animal per day]/average body weight per cage)x1000

WATER CONSUMPTION
No. Subjective appraisal was maintained during the study, but no quantitative investigation introduced as no effect was suspected.

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION
No.

HAEMATOLOGY
No.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
No.

URINALYSIS
No.

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION
No.

GENERAL REPRODUCTION DATA
- Male number paired with, mating date, confirmation of pregnancy, and delivery day was recorded.
- Pregnant females were examined to detect signs of difficult or prolonged parturition, and cage debris of these females was examined to detect signs of abortion or premature birth.
- Any deficiencies in maternal care (such as inadequate construction or cleaning of the nest, pups left scattered and cold, physical abuse of pups or apparently inadequate lactation or feeding) were examined.
Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
Not determined.
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
Slides of the testes were prepared for histopathological staging of spermatogenesis for all males of the control and high dose group and animals suspected to be infertile.
Litter observations:
PARAMETERS EXAMINED
The following parameters were examined in F1 offspring:
number and sex of pups, stillbirths, live births, postnatal mortality, presence of gross abnomalies, weight gain, physical or behavioural abnormalities.

- Mortality: The numbers of live and dead pups on Day 1 of lactation and daily thereafter were determined. If possible, defects or cause of death were evaluated.
- Clinical signs: At least once daily, detailed clinical observations were made in all animals.
- Body weights: Live pups were weighed on Days 1 and 4 of lactation.
- Sex: Sex was determined for all pups on Days 1 and 4 of lactation (by assessment of the ano-genital distance).

GROSS EXAMINATION OF DEAD PUPS
Yes, if possible, defects or cause of death were evaluated.
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
GROSS PATHOLOGY:
- All animals were deeply anaesthetised and subsequently exsanguinated. The animals were not deprived of food overnight.
- According to test guidelines

ORGAN WEIGHTS
- All males: Epididymides and testes

HISTOPATHOLOGY:
- According to test guidelines
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
SACRIFICE
Pups surviving to planned termination were killed by decapitation on lactation Days 5 - 7.

GROSS NECROPSY
All pups were sexed and descriptions of all external abnormalities were recorded. The stomach was examined for the presence of milk. If possible, defects or cause of death were evaluated.

HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGHTS: No.
Statistics:
The following statistical methods were used to analyze the data:
- If the variables could be assumed to follow a normal distribution, the Dunnett-test (Ref. 1; many-to-one t-test) based on a pooled variance estimate was applied for the comparison of the treated groups and the control groups for each sex.
- The Steel-test (Ref. 2; many-to-one rank test) was applied if the data could not be assumed to follow a normal distribution.
- The Fisher Exact-test (Ref. 3) was applied to frequency data.
All tests were two-sided and in all cases p < 0.05 was accepted as the lowest level of significance. Group means were calculated for continuous data and medians were calculated for discrete data (scores) in the summary tables. Test statistics were calculated on the basis of exact values for means and pooled variances. Individual values, means and standard deviations may have been rounded off
before printing. Therefore, two groups may display the same printed means for a given parameter, yet display different test statistics values.

References:
Ref. 1 Dunnett C.W., A Multiple Comparison Procedure for Comparing Several Treatments with a Control, J. Amer. Stat. Assoc. 50, 1096-1121 (1955).
Ref. 2 Miller R.G., Simultaneous Statistical Inference, Springer Verlag, New York (1981).
Ref. 3 Fisher R.A., Statistical Methods for Research Workers, Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh (1950).
Reproductive indices:
For each group, the following calculations were performed:
- Mating index: Number of females mated/Number of females paired x 100
- Fertility index: Number of pregnant females/Number of females paired x 100
- Conception index: Number of pregnant females/Number of females mated x 100
- Gestation index: Number of females bearing live pups/Number of pregnant females x 100
- Duration of gestation: Number of days between confirmation of mating and the beginning of parturition.
Offspring viability indices:
- Percentage live males at First Litter Check: Number of live male pups at First Litter Check/Number of live pups at First Litter Check x 100
- Percentage live females at First Litter Check: Number of live female pups at First Litter Check/Number of live pups at First Litter Check x 100
- Percentage of postnatal loss Days 0-4 of lactation: Number of dead pups on Day 4 of lactation/Number of live pups at First Litter Check x 100
- Viability index: Number of live pups on Day 4 of lactation / Number of pups born alive x 100

Results and discussion

Results: P0 (first parental generation)

General toxicity (P0)

Clinical signs:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
No clinical signs of toxicity related to test substance treatment were noted during the observation period. Dark faeces noted for all animals treated at 1000 mg/kg was considered due to the staining properties of the test substance (black), and not regarded toxicologically relevant. Alopecia was noted for two females. This occurred within the range of background findings to be expected for rats of this age and strain which are housed and treated under the conditions in this study. At the incidence observed, these were considered signs of no toxicological relevance.
Mortality:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence):
No mortality occurred during the study period. During the anesthesia procedure (just before necropsy) one female receiving 100 mg/kg died by accident. Deaths due to anesthesia are considered to be of incidental nature.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Body weights and body weight gain of treated animals remained in the same range as controls over the treatment period.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Food consumption before or after allowance for body weight was similar between treated and control animals.
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Treatment-related microscopic findings were noted in the kidneys of rats treated at 1000 mg/kg and consisted of:
- the presence of hyaline droplets at minimal (8/10) to slight degree (2/10) in males. The hyaline droplets were considered to represent alpha-2μ-globulin, a normal protein in male rats which undergoes re-absorption in the proximal cortical tubules. A range of chemicals are known to increase hyaline droplet formation. This protein is not present in higher mammals, including man. As the presence of hyaline droplets was not accompanied by degenerative tubular alterations this finding was considered to be a non-adverse finding.
- the presence of intracellular tubular (red)brown pigment in 10/10 males (minimal) and 7/7 females (up to moderate). This was not accompanied by other indicators of kidney pathology. The remainder of the microscopic findings recorded were within the normal range of background pathology encountered in Wistar Han rats of this age and strain.
Other effects:
not examined

Reproductive function / performance (P0)

Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not examined
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
no effects observed
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There were two couples treated at 100 mg/kg, three couples treated at 300 mg/kg and two couples treated at 1000 mg/kg that failed to sire or deliver healthy offspring and were therefore selected for histopathological examination of the reproductive organs. For male no. 20 the cause of infertility consisted of marked seminiferous atrophy with absence of elongating spermatids in the testes and massive oligospermia in the epididymides and testes. Based on the absence of these specific findings or treatment–related findings in the remaining rats, these findings were considered to be within background. Spermatogenic staging profiles were normal for all males examined, besides one male at 100 mg/kg. The females that were not pregnant all had a histologically normal cycling female reproductive tract.

Effect levels (P0)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: see 'Remark'

Target system / organ toxicity (P0)

Critical effects observed:
no

Results: F1 generation

General toxicity (F1)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Two pups of the control group, three pups at 300 mg/kg and four pups at 1000 mg/kg were found dead or missing during the first days of lactation. Pups missing were most likely cannibalised. No toxicological relevance was attributed to these dead/missing pups since the mortality incidences remained within the range considered normal for pups of this age.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Sexual maturation:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings:
not examined

Details on results (F1)

DEVELOPMENTAL DATA
No toxicologically relevant effects on gestation index and duration, parturition, maternal care and early postnatal pup development (mortality, clinical signs, body weight and macroscopy) were observed.

OBSERVATIONS
At first litter check, one pup of the control group showed a pale appearance and missing tail and right hindleg. This pup was missing on Day 3 of lactation. As it concerned a control pup it was not treatment related. Incidental findings consisted of blue spot on the nose or abdomen, a wound on the back, scabbing of the back or nose. For the two pups that were found dead at first litter check absence of milk in the stomach was noted at macroscopic examination. The nature and incidence of these findings remained within the range considered normal for pups of this age, and were therefore considered to be of no toxicological relevance.

Effect levels (F1)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No toxicity was observed up to the highest dose level tested (1000 mg/kg).

Target system / organ toxicity (F1)

Critical effects observed:
no

Overall reproductive toxicity

Reproductive effects observed:
no

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
No reproduction and developmental toxicity was observed for treatment up to 1000 mg/kg and a reproduction and developmental NOAEL of at least 1000 mg/kg was derived.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to assess the effects on read-across substance FAT 40571/C on reproductive system. The study was based on the following guidelines:


1) OECD 421, Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, July 1995.


2) OPPTS 870.3550, Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, July 2000.


Based on the results of a 28-day toxicity study, the dose levels for this reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test were selected to be 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg. After acclimatization, four groups of ten male and ten female Wistar Han rats were exposed by oral gavage to the test substance at 0, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg. Males were exposed for 28 days, i.e. 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to termination. Females were exposed for 41-53 days, i.e. during 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during post-coitum, and during at least 4 days of lactation. The following observations and examinations were evaluated: mortality / viability, clinical signs (daily), body weight and food consumption (at least at weekly intervals), macroscopy at termination, organ weights and histopathology on a selection of tissues, and reproduction/developmental parameters, consisting of mating, fertility and conception indices, precoital time, number of corpora lutea and implantation sites, gestation index and duration, parturition, maternal care, sex ratio and early postnatal pup development (mortality, clinical signs, body weights and macroscopy). Formulations were analyzed once during the study to assess accuracy, homogeneity and stability. 


Results/discussion


Accuracy, homogeneity and stability of formulations were demonstrated by analyses.


Parental results:


There were treatment-related macroscopic findings at 300 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, which consisted of reddish, dark red, purple or black discolouration of the testes, epididymides, skin(subcutis), spleen, and/or kidneys. Due to the fatty characteristics of the test substance, the discolorations in the epididymides, testes, spleen and skin(subcutis) were most likely to be present in adipose tissue. The discolourations disappeared during the histology staining process and therefore could not be microscopically correlated. Recorded microscopic findings in these organs were considered not to be treatment related. Because of these reasons, the macroscopic discolouration of these organs were not considered to be toxicologically adverse. There were treatment-related microscopic findings in the kidneys of all rats treated at 1000 mg/kg consisting of minimal to moderate intracellular tubular (red)brown pigment, correlated to the discolouration noted in the kidneys. In the present study this was not accompanied by indicators of kidney pathology. 


Reproductive results: No reproduction toxicity was observed up to the highest dose level tested (1000 mg/kg).


Developmental results: Up to 1000 mg/kg, no developmental toxicity was observed.


Conclusion


Treatment with FAT 40571/C by oral gavage in male and female Wistar Han rats at dose levels of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg revealed parental findings in the kidneys at 1000 mg/kg. No reproduction and developmental toxicity was observed for treatment up to 1000 mg/kg. Based on the absence of functional or morphological disturbances supporting the changes noted in the kidneys for this duration of treatment (males 28 days and females 41-53 days), a parental NOAEL of at least 1000 mg/kg was established. In addition, a reproduction and developmental NOAEL of at least 1000 mg/kg was derived.

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