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Toxicological information

Eye irritation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
29 July, 2015 - 19 August, 2015
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study has been performed according to OECD and/or EC guidelines and according to GLP principles.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2015
Report Date:
2015

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 405 (Acute Eye Irritation / Corrosion)
Version / remarks:
(2012)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method B.5 (Acute Toxicity: Eye Irritation / Corrosion)
Version / remarks:
(2008)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 870.2400 (Acute Eye Irritation)
Version / remarks:
(1998)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (JMAFF), 12 Nousan, Notification No 8147, November 2000, including the most recent partial revisions.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
Remarks:
migrated information: powder
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): BMS-587319-03
- Appearance White powder

Test animals / tissue source

Species:
rabbit
Strain:
New Zealand White
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River France, L’Arbresle Cedex, France
- Age at study initiation: the animal was 18 weeks old
- Weight at study initiation: 3291 grams
- Housing: Individually housed in cages with perforated floors.
- Diet: Free access to pelleted diet for rabbits (Global Diet 2030 Harlan Teklad®, Italy). Hay and wooden sticks were available during the study period.
- Water: Free access to tap water.
- Acclimation period: At least 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS set to maintain
- Temperature (°C): 18 – 24
- Humidity (%): 40 - 70
- Air changes (per hr): at least 10
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Test system

Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Controls:
other: One eye of each animal remained untreated and served as the reference control.
Amount / concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL- Amount applied: 19.6 mg (a volume of approximately 0.1 mL)
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Single instillation on Day 1.
Observation period (in vivo):
The eye of the animal were examined approximately 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours and 7, 14 and 21 days after instillation of the test substance.
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
1 male
Details on study design:
WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE ANALYSIS
In the interest of animal welfare and to minimize any testing likely to produce severe responses in animals, a weight of evidence analysis was performed, prior to the start of this in vivo eye irritation study in the rabbit. As recommended in the test guidelines, all available information was evaluated (e.g. existing human and animal data, literature, substance data supplied by the Sponsor, analysis of structure activity relationships (SAR), physicochemical properties and reactivity (pH, buffering capacity) and in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo tests) to determine the need for in vivo eye testing.
Based on the available information, it was concluded that there was the need to perform this in vivo eye irritation study in rabbit in order to establish the possible eye irritating properties of the test substance.

STUDY DESIGN
The study was performed in a stepwise manner and was started by treatment of a single rabbit (sentinel). Based on the duration of the ocular lesions, the test substance could be classified without treating the two further rabbits assigned to the study.

Preemptive pain management:
One hour prior to instillation of the test substance, buprenorphine 0.01 mg/kg bw was administered by subcutaneous injection in order to provide a therapeutic level of systemic analgesia.
Five minutes prior to instillation of the test substance, two drops of the topical anesthetic alcaine 0.5% were applied to both eyes.

TREATMENT
The animal was treated by instillation of 19.6 mg of the test substance (a volume of approximately 0.1 mL), in the conjunctival sac of one of the eyes after gently pulling the lower lid away from the eyeball. The lids were then gently held together for about one second to prevent loss of the test substance. The other eye remained untreated and served as the reference control.
Immediately after the 24-hour observation, a solution of 2% fluorescein water (adjusted to pH 7.0) was instilled into both eyes of each animal to quantitatively determine corneal epithelial damage. This procedure was repeated to assess recovery. Any bright green stained area, indicating epithelial damage, was estimated as a percentage of the total corneal area.
Immediately after fluorescein examination on Day 2, in order to provide a continued level of systemic analgesia, buprenorphine 0.03 mg/kg bw and meloxicam 0.5 mg/kg bw were administered by subcutaneous injection.
Additional injections of buprenorphine 0.03 mg/kg bw were supplied on Day 2 and after the 48-hour observation (buprenorphine 0.01 mg/kg bw and meloxicam 0.5 mg/kg bw) to reduce pain and distress.
After the final observation, the animal was euthanatised by intra-venous injection of Euthasol® 20%.

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
-Washing (if done): No

OBSERVATIONS
- Mortality/Viability: Twice daily.
- Toxicity: At least once daily.
- Body Weight: Day of treatment (prior to instillation) and after the final observation.
- Necropsy: No necropsy was performed according to protocol.
- Irritation: The eyes of the animal were examined approximately 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours and 7, 14 and 21 days after instillation of the test substance. The irritation scores and a description of all other (local) effects were recorded.The irritation was assessed according to OECD 405.
Where standard lighting was considered inadequate for observing minor effects, eye examinations were performed using an ophthalmic examination lamp.

Results and discussion

In vivo

Resultsopen allclose all
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Remarks:
(opacity)
Basis:
animal #1
Remarks:
(mean)
Time point:
other: 24, 48 and 72 hrs.
Score:
2
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
not fully reversible within: 21 days
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Basis:
animal #1
Remarks:
(mean)
Time point:
other: 24, 48 and 72 hrs.
Score:
1
Max. score:
2
Reversibility:
not fully reversible within: 21 days
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Remarks:
(redness)
Basis:
animal #1
Remarks:
(mean)
Time point:
other: 24, 48 and 72 hrs.
Score:
3
Max. score:
3
Reversibility:
not fully reversible within: 21 days
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Basis:
animal #1
Remarks:
(mean)
Time point:
other: 24, 48 and 72 hrs.
Score:
2.67
Max. score:
4
Reversibility:
not fully reversible within: 21 days
Irritant / corrosive response data:
Instillation of 19.6 mg of BMS-587319-03 (a volume of approximately 0.1 mL) into an eye of one rabbit resulted in severe effects on the cornea, iris and conjunctivae which did not completely resolve within 21 days.
The corneal injury consisted of opacity and epithelial damage. Iridial irritation (max. Grade 2) was observed and the irritation of the conjunctivae consisted of redness (max. grade 3), chemosis (max. grade 3) and discharge (max. grade 2).
There was no evidence of ocular corrosion.
Other effects:
No staining of (peri) ocular tissues by the test substance was observed and no test substance remnants were seen.
No mortality occurred and no signs of systemic toxicity were observed in the animal during the test period.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
Category 1 (irreversible effects on the eye)
Remarks:
Migrated information Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
In an eye irritation study with a male rabbit, performed according to OECD 405 test guideline and GLP principles, moderate to severe irritation was observed, which was not fully reversible within 21 days (duration of the study).
Executive summary:

BMS-587319-03 was tested in an eye irritation study with a male rabbit, performed according to OECD 405 test guideline and GLP principles.

Instillation of BMS-587319-03 into an eye of one rabbit resulted in severe effects on the cornea, iris and conjunctivae which did not completely recover within 21 days. The corneal injury consisted of opacity and epithelial damage. Iridial irritation (max. Grade 2) was observed and the irritation of the conjunctivae consisted of redness (max. grade 3), chemosis (max. grade 3) and discharge (max. grade 2). There was no evidence of ocular corrosion.

Based on the results, BMS-587319-03 should be classified as Irreversible effects on the eye (Category 1) and labeled with H318: Causes serious eye damage.