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Ecotoxicological information

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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

A study was performed to assess the acute toxicity of Additin E 459 to Daphnia magna STRAUS under static conditions.

The study was conducted in accordance with the Council Regulation (EC) No 440/2008, Method C.2 ‘Acute toxicity for Daphnia’ (2008) which is equivalent to OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 202 'Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test' (adopted April 13, 2004).

The Daphnia were exposed to a limit test concentration of nominally 100 mg/L of Additin E 459 dissolved in dilution water. Auxiliaries used to prepare the test media were an ultra turrax and a magnetic stirrer.

Observations were made on the swimming ability and the immobilisation rate, respectively, after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. The following values were determined:

Time EC 50 [h] [mg/L]

24 > 100

48 > 100

No toxic effects against Daphnia were observed at a limit test concentration

of 100 mg/L under exposure conditions.

Short-term toxicity to aquatic algae

A study was performed to assess the adverse effects of Additin E 459 on the growth rate (= rate of increase in cell density with time) and the yield (= biomass at time t minus initial biomass) of the planktonic freshwater algal species Desmodesmus subspicatus (former name: Scenedesmus subspicatus) over several generations.

The study was conducted in accordance with Commission Regulation (EC) No 761/2009 amending Regulation No 440/2008, Method C.3 ‘Freshwater Alga and Cyanobacteria, Growth inhibition test’ (2009) which is equivalent to OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 201 (2006).

Exponentially growing algal cells were exposed for a period of 72 hours to a limit test concentration of nominally 100 mg/L of Additin E 459 dissolved in dilution water. Auxiliaries used to prepare the test media were an ultra turrax and a magnetic stirrer.

The cell densities were measured at 24 hour intervals. Inhibition of the algal population was measured as reduction in growth rate (index r), relative to control cultures grown under identical conditions. Growth rates were also used to calculate a No Observed Effect Concentration and a Lowest Observed Effect Concentration according to STUDENT-t test for Homogeneous Variances. The following values were determined:

Results [mg/L]:

ErC 50* (0-72 h): > 100

ErC 10* (0-72 h): > 100

NOEC [r]* (ta 0.05): = 100

LOEC [r]* (ta 0.05): > 100

No toxic effects against algae were observed at a limit test concentration of 100 mg/L under exposure conditions.

* Reduction of growth rate (ErCx, NOEC [r]) is the preferred endpoint according to OECD 201 and for regulatory purposes in the EU. Results relating to yield (EyCx, NOEC [y]) were calculated to fulfil regulatory requirements in some countries (but not in the EU) and are given in the results section of this report.

The results are expressed in terms of nominal concentrations. Effective concentrations correspond to 104.8 % of nominal values at 0 hours, and to 99.0 % of nominal values at 72 hours.

Toxicity to Microorganisms

A study was performed to assess the toxicity of Additin E 459 to bacteria.

The study was conducted in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No 440/2008, Method C.11 ”Biodegradation: Activated Sludge Respiration Inhibition Test” (2008). This test method is equal to OECD Guideline 209 (1984).

The activated sludge was exposed to Additin E 459 at different concentrations. The respiration rate of each mixture was determined after aeration periods of 3 hours.

Additin E 459 showed 13.88 % respiration inhibition of activated sludge at a test item concentration of 1000 mg/L.

The EC50 is higher than 1000 mg/L.

The effect value relates to a nominal concentration, since no analytical monitoring was performed.