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EC number: 932-420-3 | CAS number: -
Transfer into organs:
There were no significant time trends in Al burdens in extrapulmonary tissues in either the exposed group or the control group, and there was no significant difference between the groups. Therefore, the values of Al burden were pooled over time. For the control group, one value pooled over weeks 0-38 is reported and for the exposed group – 2 values are reported, one pooled over the exposure period (weeks 0-19) and the other - pooled over the post-exposure period (weeks 20-38).
Tissue burdens of aluminium in µg Al/g tissue wet weight (mean±SE) were reported in the article. The highest levels in both the unexposed and exposed animals were in bone with 2.63±0.36 µg Al/g, 2.41±0.19 µg Al/g, and 2.07±0.16 µg Al/g in the unexposed, the exposed during the exposure period, and the exposed at weeks 20 to 38 (post-exposure period), respectively. Levels in brain were 1.36±0.10 µg Al/g, 1.55±0.40 µg Al/g, and 1.30±0.17 µg Al/g in the unexposed, the exposed during the exposure period, and the exposed at weeks 20 to 38 (post-exposure period), respectively. Levels in the kidneys were 0.39±0.03 µg Al/g, 0.71±0.07 µg Al/g, and 0.66±0.05 µg Al/g in the unexposed, the exposed during the exposure period, and the exposed at weeks 20 to 38 (post-exposure period), respectively. Aluminium levels in the liver of the unexposed rats was 0.17±0.05 µg Al/g, with no significant increase observed in the exposed rats during the exposure (0.27±0.08 µg Al/g) or post-exposure periods (0.18±0.04 µg Al/g). Levels in the spleen were 0.66±0.26 µg Al/g in the unexposed rats.
This study examined the pattern of alumina accumulation and retention in the lungs, and its translocation to other organs in Sprague-Dawley rats that received weekly intratracheal instillation of alumina (MMAD=1.2 µm) at a dose of 1 mg alumina/kg body weight for 20 weeks and were followed for 19 weeks post-exposure. Control animals received concurrent intratracheal instillation of vehicle (0.9% sodium chloride). No information is provided on environmental conditions and animal health monitoring. The rats’ diet contained 290 ppm aluminium. Contribution from Al in the diet was taken into account by means of determining baseline Al levels in the tissues of control rats. Tissue samples (lung, brain, bone, kidney, liver spleen) were taken 1 week following 1, 5, 10 and 15 instillations and weekly beginning 1 week after the last instillation. Two exposed and two control rats were sacrificed at each time point. Blood and urine were not collected. Standard flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used for Al determination in lung tissue and a more sensitive graphite furnace AAS technique – for Al determination in other tissues. The possibility of external Al contamination was reduced by acid-washing of beakers and centrifuge tubes. The analytical procedure was validated using two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standards. Analysis of covariance was used to test for time trends in the accumulation or clearance of Al and for differences between the exposed and the control rats.
There was a significant difference between the exposed and the control animals in time trends of lung Al burden (p<0.01). Al burden in the lung of the control animals remained virtually unchanged during the experiment. Al burden in the lung of the exposed animals significantly increased during the exposure period (the estimated increase was 32.855 µg Al/g lung per week, significantly greater than zero). There was no statistically significant clearance of Al from the lung of the exposed animals after exposure termination. The (non-significant) negative slope for the post-exposure period suggests that Al was removed from the lung at a rate of 2.6 µg per gram lung tissue per week. The estimated removal of Al from the lung during the entire post-exposure period was 47 µg/g lung tissue, i.e ~9% of the lung burden at the end of exposure). There was no evidence of translocation of alumina from the lung to extrapulmonary tissues: no significant time trends in Al burdens in any examined organ of the exposed animals, and no significant difference between the groups. This suggests that any alumina that was transferred from the lungs to the systemic circulation was likely small in amount and effectively removed from the blood by renal clearance avoiding any build up in extrapulmonary tissues. However, as Al levels in blood and urine were not measured, the actual amount of systemic absorption cannot be estimated.
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