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Toxicity to birds

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Several long-term studies have evaluated the effects of a test substance containing a mixture of normal, iso-, and cyclic paraffins with carbon numbers ranging from C10 to C19 to Mallard ducks and eggs. The effects measured have included survival, growth, organ weight, development, sex ratio, blood parameters. For all endpoints evaluated, the paraffin mixtures did not produce any toxic effects, based on statistical analyses between the control and treatment populations. These data suggest that hydrocarbons, C14-C19, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics, would not produce toxic effects to Mallard ducks and eggs under the same test conditions.

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Several long-term studies have evaluated the effects of a test substance containing a mixture of normal, iso-, and cyclic paraffins with carbon numbers ranging from C10 to C19 to Mallard ducks and eggs. The effects measured have included survival, growth, organ weight, development, sex ratio, blood parameters. For all endpoints evaluated, the paraffin mixtures did not produce any toxic effects, based on statistical analyses between the control and treatment populations. These data suggest that hydrocarbons, C14-C19, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics, would not produce toxic effects to Mallard ducks and eggs under the same test conditions.

Adult Mallard ducks were fed a diet containing a 1.0% paraffin mixture (equal parts (wt.) of decahydronaphthalene (C10), 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl heptane (C12), n-tridecane (C13), n-pentadecane (C15), n-hexadecane (C16), 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane (C16), n-heptadecane (C17), n-octadecane (C18), 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl pentadecane (C19)) for 26 weeks. No statistical differences were seen between treatment and control duck body weight, organ (liver, kidney, and spleen) weights, and blood parameters (hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma sodium, potassium, cholesterol and triglycerides, plasma enzyme activities glutamic oxalacetic transaminase - GOT, lactated deshydrogenase - LDH, alpha-hydroxybutiric acid dehydrogenase - HBDH, and orinithine carbamyl transferase - OCT). There was also no statistical difference between treatment and control duck egg endpoints (number of eggs laid, eggshell thickness, fertility, and egg viability).

Adult Mallard ducks were fed a diet containing a 1.0% paraffin mixture (equal parts (wt.) of decahydronaphthalene (C10), 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl heptane (C12), n-tridecane (C13), n-pentadecane (C15), n-hexadecane (C16), 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane (C16), n-heptadecane (C17), n-octadecane (C18), 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl pentadecane (C19)) for 28 weeks.

No mortality nor visible symptoms of toxicity occurred in any of the tests. No statistical differences were seen between treatment and control duck body weight, organ (liver and testes) weights, and blood parameters (hematocrit, plasma sodium, plasma potassium, and the plasma enzyme activity - glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT)).

Mallard duck eggs were coated with 5ul of a paraffin mixture (equal parts (wt.) of decahydronaphthalene (C10), 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl heptane (C12), n-pentadecane (C15), n-hexadecane (C16), 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane (C16), n-heptadecane (C17), n-octadecane (C18), nonadecane (C19), and 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl pentadecane (C19)) for 18 days.

There were no effects on embryonic survival and weight, sex ratio, and development (crown-rump and beak lengths) in eggs that had the paraffin mixture applied to the shell surface in comparison to control eggs.