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Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.05 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
developmental toxicity / teratogenicity
Route of original study:
By inhalation
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
other:
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
30.4 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
By inhalation
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
other:
Overall assessment factor (AF):
7.5
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
other: HEC-NOAEC
Value:
228 mg/m³

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.05 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
other:
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.8 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
other:
Overall assessment factor (AF):
3.9
Dose descriptor starting point:
other: HEC-LOAEC

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
3.3 µg/cm²
Most sensitive endpoint:
sensitisation (skin)
DNEL related information
Overall assessment factor (AF):
2
Dose descriptor:
other: NOAEL
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Additional information - workers

Nickel Hydroxycarbonate CSR Table for Workers

Note 1. Exposures are always given in terms of mg nickel and NOT as mg substance.

Note 2. In cases where existing standards (OELs in case of workers, ambient air standards in case of general public) are used instead of DNEL/DMEL, the fields for Assessment factors and Corrected Dose descriptor were left blank. Further information on the air standard derivation is contained in the documents referenced in the Table below.

Note 3. Acute systemic and local effects are relevant for short-term worker’s exposure (peak exposure of 15 minutes to a few hours). Long-term systemic and local effects are relevant to long-term worker’s exposure defined as 8 hours/day and 5 days per week for a working life.

DN(M)ELs for workers

Exposure pattern

Route

Descriptor

DNEL / DMELa

AF

Corrected Dose descriptor

Most sensitive endpoint

Justification

Acute - systemic effects

Dermal

 

 

 

 

 

Not relevant, negligible absorption

Acute - systemic effects

Inhalation

DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)

30.4 mg Ni/m3

Inhalable Fractionb

7.5c

HEC-NOAEC= 228 mg Ni/m3

Inhalable Fractiond

acute toxicity (mortality)

 See footnotes

Acute - local effects

Dermal

 

 

 

 

 

No available data to derive DNEL, slightly irritating

See footnote (i)

Acute - local effects

Inhalation

DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)

0.8 mg Ni/m³

Inhalable Fractione

3.9f

HEC-LOAEC: 2.9 mg Ni/m3

Inhalable Fractiong

repeated dose toxicity

(lung inflammation)

 See footnotes

Long-term - systemic effects

Dermal

 

 

 

 

 

Not relevant, negligible absorption

Long-term - systemic effects

Inhalation

DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)

0.05 mg Ni/m³

Inhalable fractionh

 

 

developmental toxicity

 See footnotes

Long-term - local effects

Dermal

DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)

0.003 mg Ni/cm²

2i

NOAEL correctedj: 0.006 mg Ni/cm² derived from 0.00044  

mg Ni/cm² [Ni sulphate]

sensitisation (skin)

 See footnotes

Long-term - local effects

Inhalation

DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)

0.05 mg Ni/m³

Inhalable fractionh

 

 

carcinogenicity and repeated toxicity (respiratory tract- inhalation)

 See footnotes

a.       The approaches used in the derivation of DNELs are described in a report prepared by VITO Consultancy (Belgium)(Appendix C1), and in Appendices C2 (long-term DNELs) and C3 (acute DNELs).

b.       The derivation of the acute inhalation DNELs is described in detail in Appendix C3. Dosimetric modeling was used to calculate human equivalent air concentrations (HECs) for the points of departures based on effects associated with pulmonary deposited (systemic effects) or retained (local effects) nickel doses in rats. This modeling accounts for differences in pulmonary deposition of different particle sizes between rats and humans, and also allowed the incorporation of inhalable workplace particle size ranges in the calculations.

c.       Assessment Factor (AF) = 7.5. [AF interspecies differences in susceptibility (AS) = 1 for exposures expressed as concentrations mg/m3, and for lethal effects; AF interspecies remaining differences in susceptibility for respiratory tract = 2.5; AF intraspecies differences in susceptibility = 3 for substances that do not undergo metabolism, see Appendix C3 section C3.6 for more detailed justification; Overall AF = 2.5 x 3 =7.5].    

d.       The HEC-LOAEC of 228 mg Ni/m3 (inhalable fraction) was derived from the LOAEC of 0.47 mg Ni/m3 (MMAD=2.6µm) by applying a dosimetry adjustment as described in Appendix C3.

e.       For acute local effects after inhalation, the DNEL data from nickel subsulphide is read across to nickel hydroxycarbonate.This read-across was chosen based on similar Ni release rates in lung interstitial fluid for these two compounds. The 24 hs release of Ni fromthe Ni hydroxycarbonate sample was 0.52% (expressed as % Ni released/ gram sample), compared to the release of Ni (II) ion from Ni subsulphide (2.65%) and from Ni sulphate (10.7%) (see KMHC, 2010 and Appendix B2).Taking into account all of the available information, the bioaccessibility of Ni hydroxycarbonate in lung fluids is most similar to that of Ni subsulphide and hence local respiratory toxicity effects via inhalation is read-across from Ni subsulphide.

f.        AF = 3.9. [AF interspecies difference (AS) = 1 local respiratory effects. AF interspecies difference in susceptibility = 1 (for respiratory toxicity effects after inhalation of particles of nickel or most metal-containing substances in the respirable range, rats seem to be more susceptible to toxicity effects than mice, primates or humans; AF intraspecies differences in susceptibility=3 for substances that do not undergo metabolism. AF for conversion of LOAEC to NAEC=3 based on steep dose-response for nickel toxicity. An AF for exposure duration = 1/2.3 was applied to extrapolate from 16 day repeated exposures to a single exposure. Overall AF= 1 X 3 X 3 X 1/2.3 = 3.9]. See Appendix C3 section C3.6.2 for more detailed justification of AF selection.Read-across to Ni hydroxycarbonate from the Ni subsulphide DNEL for this local respiratory toxicity endpoint is warranted by the bioelution data verified with in vivo data.

g.       The HEC-LOAEC of 2.9 mg Ni/m3 (inhalable fraction) was derived from the LOAEC of 0.47 mg Ni/m3 (MMAD=2.6µm) by applying a dosimetry adjustment as described in Appendix C3.

h.       The justification for the use of an inhalable OEL of 0.05 mg Ni/m3 is provided in Appendix C2. This value is based on the SCOEL proposed inhalable OEL for nickel compounds of 0.01 mg Ni/m3 (June 2011) with further adjustments for differences in particle size distributions between animal experiments and workplace exposures and differences in sampling efficiency between workplace 37-mm and inhalable samplers. The SCOEL value was based on epidemiological data on cancer effects. The registrant-derived inhalable value of 0.05 mg Ni/m3 is based on carcinogenicity effects in the respiratory tract observed in human studies, as well as toxicity local effects observed in the lungs of rats after inhalation. Both registrant and SCOEL consider nickel compounds to be genotoxic carcinogens with a practical threshold. These values are also protective against possible reproductive effects. For detailed description of the DNEL derivation and selection of AF, see Appendices C1 and C2.

i.        AF =2. For the water insoluble compounds like Ni hydroxycarbonate, the uncertainty in the relative bioelution data compared to Ni sulphate relates to the repeatability (within labs) and reproducibility (between labs) of bioelution results and the relevance of the test conditions to the human exposure in the patch test and in the workplace. Based on good repeatability and reproducibility of bioelution data and relevancy of testing conditions to in vivo situation an assessment factor no greater than 2 is justified (see Appendix B3). The derivation of a DNEL for dermal sensitization by nickel hydroxycarbonate is a conservative approach since no classification appears to be warranted for this endpoint based on Ni release in sweat. The derived DNEL is protective of both acute and long-term local dermal effects.The derived DNEL is likely to overestimate risk compared to workplace 8 h exposure without occlusion

j.        Corrected dose descriptor = 0.006 mg Ni/cm2 [0.44 µg Ni/cm2 x 13.6 = 6 µg Ni/cm2); 13.6-fold less release of Ni (from available nickel) from nickel hydroxycarbonate than from completely dissolved Ni sulphate after 24 hours, 37C in sweat (KMHC, 2010). The DNEL for dermal sensitization/elicitation is based on a patch test study with Ni sulphate where exposure lasted for 48hs under occlusion. This correction was applied because the amount of Ni (II) ions released from one gram of Ni on the skin will be much lower if the dust is made of nickel hydroxycarbonate than it would be if the dust is made of nickel sulphate (100% dissolved). For nickel hydroxycarbonate, 0.068 g of Ni (II) ion/g Ni dust (consisting of 100% Ni hydroxycarbonate) were released in sweat while 1 g of Ni (II) ion was available per g of Ni applied in the patch test (consisting of 100% Ni sulphate). The ratios are 1/0.068 = 14.7. This DNEL is protective of both acute and long-term local dermal effects (Appendix B3).

 

 

Appendix C1= Derivation of DNELs for 4 Ni Reference substances 

Appendix C2= Background Document in Support of Long-term Inhalable DNELs for Nickel Metal and Nickel Compounds

Appendix C3 = Background Document in Support of Acute DNELs and Guidance Values for Nickel Metal and Nickel Compounds

 

 

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
20 ng/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
developmental toxicity / teratogenicity
Route of original study:
By inhalation
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
other:
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
2.5 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
By inhalation
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
12.5
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
other: HEC-NOAEC
Value:
31.5 mg/m³

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
20 ng/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
other:
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.06 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
6.5
Dose descriptor starting point:
other: HEC-LOAEC

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Additional information - General Population

Nickel Hydroxycarbonate CSR Table for General Population

Note 1. Exposures are always given in terms of mg nickel and NOT as mg substance.

Note 2. In cases where existing standards (OELs in case of workers, ambient air standards in case of general public) are used instead of DNEL/DMEL, the fields for Assessment factors and Dose descriptor Starting Points were left blank. Further information on the Standard derivation is contained in the documents referenced in the Table below.

Note 3. Acute systemic and local effects are relevant for short-term exposure (peak exposure of 15 minutes to a few hours). Long-term systemic and local effects are relevant to long-term exposure defined as 24 hours/day and 7 days per week for a life-time.

DN(M)ELs for general population (MvE)

Exposure pattern

Route

Descriptor

DNEL / DMELa

AF

Corrected Dose descriptor

Most sensitive endpoint

Justification

Acute - systemic effects

Dermal

 

 

 

 

 

Not relevant, negligible exposure and absorption

 

Inhalation

DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)

2.5 mg

Ni/m³b

 

12.5c

HEC-NOAEC: 31.5 mg Ni/m3 d

acute toxicity (mortality)

 See footnotes

 

Oral

 

 

 

 

 

Not relevant, negligible oral exposure

Acute - local effects

Dermal

 

 

 

 

 

Not relevant, not irritant

 

Inhalation

DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)

0.06 mg Ni/m³e

6.5f

HEC-LOAEC: 0.4 mg Ni/m3 g

repeated dose toxicity

(lung inflammation)

 See footnotes

Long-term - systemic effects

Dermal

 

 

 

 

 

Not relevant, negligible exposure and absorption

 

Inhalation

DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)

0.00002  

mg Ni/m3h

 

Calculated NAEC 0.11 mg Ni/m3

reproductive developmental toxicity

 See footnotes

 

Oral

 

 

 

 

 

Not relevant, negligible oral exposure

Long-term - local effects

Dermal

 

 

 

 

 

Not relevant, negligible exposure

 

Inhalation

DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)

0.00002  

mg Ni/m3h

 

CSTEE (ambient air standard) = 0.00002  

mg Ni/m3

repeated dose toxicity (lung inflammation)

carcinogenicity

 See footnotes

a.       The approaches used in the derivation of DNELs are described in a report prepared by VITO Consultancy (Belgium)(Appendix C1), and in Appendices C2 (long-term DNELs) and C3 (acute DNELs).

b.       The derivation of the acute inhalation DNELs is described in Appendix C3. Dosimetric modeling was used to calculate human equivalent air concentrations (HECs) for the points of departures based on effects associated with pulmonary deposited (systemic effects) or retained (local effects) nickel doses in rats. This modeling accounts for differences in pulmonary deposition of different particle sizes between rats and humans. HECs were calculated using particle size of animal aerosol that reasonably correspond to the PM10 aerosol fraction of ambient air.

c.       Assessment Factor (AF) = 12.5. [AF interspecies differences in susceptibility (AS) = 1 for exposures expressed as concentrations mg/m3, and for lethal effects; AF interspecies remaining differences in susceptibility for respiratory tract = 2.5; AF intraspecies differences in susceptibility =5 for substances that do not undergo metabolism, see Appendix C3 section C3.6 for more detailed justification; Overall AF = 1 x 2.5 x 5 =12.5].

d.       The HEC-NOAEC of 31.5 mg Ni/m3 (ambient air) was derived from the NOAEC of 26 mg Ni/m3 (MMAD=2.1µm) by applying a dosimetry adjustment as described in Appendix C3.

e.       For acute local effects after inhalation, the DNEL data from nickel subsulphide is read across to nickel hydroxycarbonate.This read-across was chosen based on similar Ni release rates in lung interstitial fluid for these two compounds. The 24 hs release of Ni fromthe Ni hydroxycarbonate sample was 0.52% (expressed as % Ni released/ gram sample), compared to the release of Ni (II) ion from Ni subsulphide (2.65%) and from Ni sulphate (10.7%) (see KMHC, 2010 andAppendix B2). Taking into account all of the available information, the bioaccessibility of Ni hydroxycarbonate in lung fluids is most similar to that of Ni subsulphide and hence local respiratory toxicity effects via inhalation is read-across from Ni subsulphide.

f.        AF = 6.5 [AF interspecies difference (AS) = 1 local respiratory effects. AF interspecies difference in susceptibility = 1 (for respiratory toxicity effects after inhalation of particles of nickel or most metal-containing substances in the respirable range, rats seem to be more susceptible to toxicity effects than mice, primates or humans. AF intraspecies differences in susceptibility=5for substances that do not undergo metabolism. AF for conversion of LOAEC to NAEC=3, based on steep dose-response for nickel toxicity. An AF for exposure duration= 1/2.3 was applied to extrapolate from 16 day repeated exposures to a single exposure.See Appendix C3 section C3.6.2 for more detailed justification of AF. Overall AF= 1 X 5 X 3 X 1/2.3 = 6.5].

g.       The HEC-LOAEC of 0.4 mg Ni/m3 (ambient air) was derived from the LOAEC of 0.47 mg Ni/m3 (MMAD=2.6µm) by applying a dosimetry adjustment as described in Appendix C3.

h.       The DNEL values for long-term effects after inhalation are superseded by the CSTEE, EU Scientific Committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment (2001) proposed ambient air guidance value of 0.00002 mg Ni/m3 as discussed inAppendix C1. We used the CSTEE, EU Scientific Committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment (2001) ambient air recommended nickel value of 20 ng/m3. The CSTEE value is based on considerations of both respiratory toxicity and carcinogenicity and it is also protectivefrom possible reproductive effects (see Appendix C1 and Appendix D5).

Appendix C1= Derivation of DNELs for 4 Reference Ni substances

Appendix C2= Background Document in Support of Long-term Inhalable DNELs for Nickel Metal and Nickel Compounds

Appendix C3= Background Document in Support of Acute DNELs and Guidance Values for Nickel Metal and Nickel Compounds

Appendix D5= Man Via the Environment Risk Assessment

 

Sensitive subpopulations. Sensitive subpopulations are not separately addressed. The inhalation DNEL value used corresponds to the ambient air guidance value derived by CSTEE for the EU general public. This value was derived based on a linear extrapolation for possible cancer effects, There is now acceptance that nickel compounds have a practical threshold for carcinogenicity. Therefore, this value is very conservative and it is expected to protect the most sensitive individuals in the population.