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EC number: 941-652-4 | CAS number: -
The ecotoxicity databases on the effects of soluble nickel compounds to aquatic, soil- and sediment-dwelling organisms are extensive. It should be noted that the effects assessments of trinickel monocarbonate tetrahydroxide (Nickel Hydroxycarbonate)is based on the assumption that adverse effects to aquatic, soil- and sediment-dwelling organisms are a consequence of exposure to the bioavailable Ni-ion, as opposed to the parent substances. The result of this assumption is that the ecotoxicology will be similar for all soluble Ni substances used in the ecotoxicity experiments.
Due to the structural similarities of pentanickel octahydroxide carbonate to trinickel monocarbonate tetrahydroxide, any residual counter-ions in solution are similar to trinickel monocarbonate tetrahydroxide, and are not responsible for any additional ecotoxicological effects.
At present, all soluble nickel compounds registered by the nickel REACH Consortia carry harmonised classifications as being very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects (R50/53, H410). Johnson Matthey PLC intend to use this classification for pentanickel octahydroxide carbonate.
Additional testing on the water solubility of pentanickel octahydroxide carbonate is being commissioned to verify the solubility of the molecule and confirm suitability for this read-across approach. Results will be included in future updates of the dossier.
The approach for deriving PNEC values was used in the 2008/2009 European Union Existing Substances Risk Assessment of Nickel (EU RAR) (EEC 793/93). The EU RAR was jointly prepared by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA), which served as the Rapporteur of the Existing Substances Risk Assessment of Nickel, and the Nickel Producers Environmental Research Association (NiPERA), which represented the Nickel Industry in this process. The complete Environment section of the EU RAR can be found in the pdf linked to the following URL:
All of the approaches described were discussed by the Technical Committee for New and Existing Substances (TC NES), and received final approval at the TC NES I meeting in April, 2008.
Common effects assessment basis:
The ecotoxicity databases on the effects of soluble nickel compounds to aquatic, soil- and sediment-dwelling organisms are extensive. It should be noted that the effects assessments of Nickel hydroxycarbonate is based on the assumption that adverse effects to aquatic, soil- and sediment-dwelling organisms are a consequence of exposure to the bioavailable Ni-ion, as opposed to the parent substances. The result of this assumption is that the ecotoxicology will be similar for all soluble Ni substances used in the ecotoxicity experiments. Therefore, data from soluble nickel substances are used in the derivation of chronic ecotoxicological NOEC and L(E)C10 values. If both NOEC and L(E)C10 data are available for a given species, the L(E)C10 value was used in the effects assessment.
Ni hydroxycarbonate is classified as Aquatic Acute I/Chronic I in the 1st ATP to the CLP. Classification was confirmed by the results of the Tranformation/Dissolution Screening Test.
The 2ndATP to the CLP introduced the chronic (long-term) environmental toxicity endpoint as defined by the 3rdversion of the UN-GHS into the EU hazard classification and labeling scheme. The GHS and EU scheme include the concept of degradation whereby rapid degradation from the water column (greater than 70 % removal in 28 days) results in different classification cut-off values and categories. For metals and inorganic metal compounds, the rapid and irreversible removal from the water column is equated to the rapid degradation concept for organics. The current draft guidance on metals includes a proposal to apply the “rapid degradation principle for organics” measured as a 70 % removal rate in 28 days in a comparable way for metals from laboratory and field experiments or by using a recently developed model. A Unit World Model (UWM) has recently been developed specifically for metals, building on previous screening-level calculations that have been developed for organic contaminants, and is capable of assessing the fate and effects of chemicals by the simultaneous consideration of chemical partitioning, transport, reactivity, and bioavailability. With regard to hazard assessment, the UWM is capable of assessing the removal of soluble metals from the water column resulting from sorption to particulate material, settling to the sediment compartment, and subsequent changes in speciation via precipitation by sulfides naturally present in the sediment compartment.
The UWM was used to assess the rapid removal of a group metals (e.g., Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Al, Co) in a generalized lake environment resulting from metal removal from the water column and sequestration in sediment. To estimate sorption by particulate matter in the water column, the UWM can use empirical, measured distribution coefficients (Kd), or the speciation module within the UWM (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model, or WHAM) can calculate Kds. When an empirical Kd of log 4.42 was used, greater than 70% nickel removal was achieved in every loading and pH scenario. WHAM-based Kds tended to be substantially lower than empirical Kds, indicating that refinement of the WHAM approach was needed. To this end, the UWM was refined to accommodate an updated version of WHAM (WHAM 7). Additionally, the inorganic thermodynamic database used by WHAM to perform speciation calculations was updated because the previous version was found to be out of date and inaccurate. Analyses using WHAM7 and the revised inorganic thermodynamic database showed that greater than 70% nickel removal was achieved under the three pH scenarios with metal loadings at the acute and chronic ERVs at 28 days. At the upper chronic cutoff value of 1 mg/L, rapid removal was achieved for pH 6 and 8 without oxide binding and for all three pH values with oxide binding. Rapid removal was demonstrated at all pH values when loading was based on acute Ecotoxicity Reference Values (120 µg Ni/L at pH 6 and 68 µg Ni/L at pH 8) and chronic Ecotoxicity Reference Values (2.4 µg Ni/L) using calculated Kd values. Based on these results, nickel hydroxycarbonate fulfills the criteria for rapid degradation for the environmental classification scheme in the 2ndATP to the CLP.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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