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Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Kp- freshwater suspended particulate matter (SPM)

Reported Kp-values between water and suspended particulate matter range

from 692 to 309,030 l/kg (Log Kp: 2.84-5.49). The data are extracted from studies reporting

water/suspended matter partitioning coefficients for the Netherlands, UK, France, Czech Republic, and Italy.

 

Reported log Kp, suspended particulate matter (SPM) values for Ni in freshwater surface waters in Europe 

Location

Log Kp(l/kg)

Remarks

Reference

Four Dutch lakes

Dintel

Lake Hollandsch Diep

Lake Volkerak

Lake Zoom

 

3.91

4.20

3.98

3.94

 

 

Median

Median

Median

Median

 

 

Koelmans and Radovanovic 1998

 

Trent river, UK

Upper Swale river, UK

 

3.8

4.9

 

Modelled value

Modelled value

Tipping et al.1998

 

Calder river, UK

Nidd river, UK

Swale river, UK

Trent river, UK

 

4.00 - 5.09

3.69 - 5.32

4.24 - 5.49

2.84 - 4.45

 

min-max range

min-max range

min-max

min-max range

 

Lofts and Tipping 2000

 

Rhône, France

4.51

NA

Elbaz-Poulichet et al.1996

Humber river, UK

3.8

NA

Comber et al.(1995; in Tipping et al.,

1998)

 

Po river, Italy

4.87

median value

Pettine et al., 1994

 

Czech lakes (n=119)

4.26

Median value

Veselý et al., 2001

Conwy river, UK

4.33

NA

Zhou et al., 2003

 

Scheldt(salinity: 1.5 g/L)

3.9

Single value

Nolting et al., 1999

 

Tweed – Teviot

Tweed – Boleside

Tweed – Norham

Wear

Swale – Catterick

Swale –Manor

Nidd

Ure

Ouse –

Ouse – Acaster

Derwent

Wharf

Aire

Calder

Don

Trent

Great Ouse

Thames

 

4.26

4.55

4.36

4.74

4.96

4.78

4.65

4.72

4.69

4.64

4.95

4.80

4.38

4.53

4.15

3.93

4.29

4.33

 

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

median value

 

Neal and Robson, 2000

 

Dutch freshwater

3.90

mean

Crommentuijn et al., 1997

 

RANGE

 

2.84 – 5.49

 

 

 

NA: not available

 

The partitioning coefficients between water and SPM was fitted to a cumulative distribution function (CDF) (Heijerick and P. Van Sprang, 2004; European Nickel Risk Assessment). The 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the CDF were selected as final suspended solids partitioning coefficients for the local/regional exposure analysis:

 

Kpsusp = 26,303 l/kg (log Kp susp= 4.42 l/kg) (50th percentile)

Kpsusp,min = 5,754 (log Kpsusp min = 3.76 l/kg) (10th percentile)

Kpsusp,max = 117,490 (log Kp susp max = 5.07 l/kg) (90th percentile)

 

The 50th percentile value of the distribution function represents a typical suspended matter partition coefficient for EU waters and will be used for the derivation of local and typical regional.

 

Kp-freshwater sediment

Reported Kp-values between water and sediment are presented in the first table below (data extracted from studies reporting water/sediment partitioning coefficients for theand) and in the second table below (river sediment data compiled by Gunn et al., 1992). The Kp values reported by Gunn et al. (1992) represent the individual or mean value of British - German rivers. Individual data that were used for the determination of mean data were not reported. The observed values range from 770 to 24,300 l/kg (Log Kp: 2.89-4.39).

 

Overview of Kp-values on sediment

Water body, location

log Kp

l/kg

Remarks

Reference

 

Mersey river,

3.71

Modelled value

Turneret al.2002

 

Dutch freshwater

3.72

Modelled value

Stortelderet al. 1989; in Crommentuynet

al. 1997

 

Dutch freshwaters:

Nieuwe Merwede

Rijn - Hagestijn

Nieuwe Waterweg

Oude Maas

Waal

Rijn – Lobith

Ketelmeer

Maas- Eijsden

Ijsselmeer

Haringvliet

 

3.79

3.86

3.88

3.88

3.89

3.92

3.96

4.04

4.06

4.34

 

Mean value

Mean value

Mean value

Mean value

Mean value

Mean value

Mean value

Mean value

Mean value

Mean value

 

Van Der Kooijet al.1991

 

Range

3.71-4.34

 

 

 

 

 

Mean Kp values for nickel in river sediments (Gunn et al. 1992)

Site – river / estuarine sediments

Number of

measurements

 

Mean Kp value

l/kg

 

Log Kp sed

Reference

 

Trent (Althorpe)

3

2750

3.44

Comberet al. 1995

 

Mersey(Howley weir)

1

7690

3.89

Comberet al. 1995

 

Rhine (Lauterbourg, Fr/Ger border)

8

24300

4.39

Kernet al.1998*

Ythan (Scotland)

1

770

2.89

Comberet al. 1995

 

Ouse (Selby)

1

1000

3.0

Comberet al. 1995

 

Mean

 

7300

3.9

 

 

The partitioning coefficients between water and sediment were fitted to a cumulative distribution function (CDF) (Heijerick and P. Van Sprang, 2004; European Nickel Risk Assessment). The 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the CDF were selected as final sediment partitioning coefficients for the local/regional exposure analysis:

 

Kpsed = 7,079 l/kg (log Kpsed = 3.85) (50th percentile)

Kpsed, min = 2,138 l/kg (log Kpsed min = 3.33) (10th percentile)

Kpsed, max = 16,982 l/kg (log Kpsed max = 4.23) (90th percentile)

 

The 50th percentile value of the distribution function represents a typical suspended matter

partition coefficient for EU waters and will be used for the derivation of local and typical

regional.

 

It should be noted that the distribution in the above tables is based on data that, with the exception of one value, only represent surface waters located in The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The representativity of this distribution for the general case is evaluated using the distribution functions of ambient Ni-concentrations in water and sediments that were generated using extensive EU-monitoring data sets (European Union Nickel Risk Assessment, 2008/2009). Based on the 5th/95th, 50th/50th, and 95th/5th percentiles of the distributions of Ni in water/sediment, respectively, a range of theoretical Kp-values was defined, with a median log Kp of 4.07 and an estimated 10/90th percentile range of 3.62-4.56. These percentiles are in line with the values given and indicate that the natural variability of Kp sediment is well covered in this distribution. Studies conducted after the completion of the EU RA were not included in this analysis. Data and analysis from the conclusion i) sediment program will be included after the evaluation and subsequent discussions are completed by DEPA.

Kp-Marine (SPM and Sediment)

Marine partitioning coefficients for sediment and SPM are based on the study by Stuer-Lauridsen et al (1996). The following table represents the data used to derive the marine partitioning coefficients:

Partitioning coefficients Kp in Danish brackish coastal water:

Location (1995)

Sediment

Suspended matter

Total water

Filtrate

Porewater

Sediment/total water

SPM/filtrate

Sediment/

porewater

Mg Ni/Kg dw

Mg Ni/kg dw

ug Ni/L

ug Ni/L

ug Ni/L

Kp, l/kg

Kp, l/kg

Kp, l/kg

Roskildefjord l

16.40

2.97

0.52

0.79

26.47

15710

3070

620

Roskildefjord ll

15.80

5.60

0.66

0.45

2.04

23910

8840

7680

Øresund

 

18.07

7.40

2.56

1.06

0.53

7070

6960

34260

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

15563        (log 4.2)

6290          (log 3.8)

14190             (log 4.2)

 

In Danish coastal waters (Table above) three locations Kpsusp ranged 3070 to

8840 l/kg with a mean value 6290, i.e. logKpsusp.marin3.8.

 

In the Danish study on coastal water, the range from three locations had Kd values from 7070 to

23910 l/kg with the average 15560 (Table above), i.e. logKpsed.marin4.2

Kp- aquatic to STP:

Partitioning coefficients for aquatic to STP are based on the studies by Moriyama et al. (1998), Comber and Gunn (1992, 1994) and Gould and Genetelli (1992). The table below represents the data used to derive the aquatic to STP partitioning coefficient of LogKp= 3.4

Partition coefficients Kp for STP:

STP

 Coefficient

 Range, l/kg

 Value, l/kg

 Log value

 Reference

Kprs

solids-water in raw sewage sludge (m3/m3)

1720 – 2569

2333 ***

3.4

Moriyamaet al.1989, Comber and Gunn 1994

Kpa

solids-water in activated sewage sludge (m3/m3)

126 – 1259

453 – 1935

1000

3

Gould and Genetelli 1982

Comber and Gunn 1992

*** No published data available om Kp for raw sewage – data obtained from combination of total Ni in raw sewage and Ni in faeces, assuming 100 mg/l SS

Nickel removal rates used for determining the STP removal parameter were limited to those reported after 2000 because removal rates increased with time for Denmark and the Netherlands. Ni removal rates in sewage treatment plants from recent years (2000-2002) are situated between 41% (DEPA, 2002) and 50% (CBS, 2004). Based on the available data, the value 40% removal represents a reasonable worst case removal of Ni in STP in the EU.

Kp- Soil:

The variation observed in the American log Kp soil values may relate to the variation in pH values. The log Kp average was 2.08 in 11 soils with a pH range 4.3 to 4.85 (Buchter et al 1989) whereas the log Kp average was 0.77 in 15 soil with a pH range 4.2 to 6.5 (King 1988). Anderson et al. (1988) reported log Kp values in spiked Danish agricultural soils varying between 1.0 and 3.0. As the equilibration times in the Buchter et al. (1989) and King (1988) studies were relatively short, the studies performed by Janssen et al. (1997), De Groot et al. (1998) and Sauvé et al. (2000), describing field-derived partitioning coefficients, are more relevant to the risk assessment. The Janssen et al. (1997) study on 20 contaminated Dutch soils found a median value log Kp 3.17. This value is close to the log Kp value of 2.86 (Aqua regia digestion) found by De Groot et al. (1998). Sauvé et al. (2000) reported a median log Kp value of 3.37 for a wide range of soil types. However, since it is clear that the Kd levels derived in this study are high compared to other studies and it is unclear what type of extraction techniques exactly are used, it is assumed that stronger digestion methods such as HF extraction or X-ray fluorescence -determining the metal fraction built into the crystal structure of the soil minerals, and hence not relevant for RA purposes- may be incorporated in these results.As the De Groot et al. (1998) study covered 46 European soils, although mainly Dutch soils, and aqua regia extraction was used as digestion method, this value is preferred for the risk assessment. The partition coefficient determined by aqua regia extraction is selected since for environmental purposes, the absolutely maximum fraction that may be released in time-determined through aqua regia digestion- is of interest (FOREGS Geochemical Baseline Programme – Analytical Manual, 2001). This digestion method is harmonised as an International Standard (ISO 11466) and is applied in most EU-countries. This extraction method is also applied in the ongoing scientific research program on Ni toxicity and bioavailability in soils. The log Kpsoil of 2.86 (Aqua regia extraction) is used as input value for the exposure modelling,

i.e.log Kpsoil 2.86