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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Description of key information

Titanium carbide was not tested for toxicity to terrestrial plants and read-across to titanium trichloride (TiCl3) was used for this endpoint. Available results were obtained in solution culture of Phaseolus vulgaris. Ti was highly toxic at 4.79 mg/L, no effects on were observed at 0.479 mg Ti/L and 0.0479 mg Ti/L. Toxic effects are reported at concentrations much higher than realistically possible release of Ti ions from TiC (release was below the method detection limit of 0.4 µg/L in the T/D test). Thus TiC is considered to be non-hazardous to terrestrial plants. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Influence of Ti (applied as TiCl3) on yield of leaves, stems and roots of Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated in solution culture in the available supporting study (Wallace et al., 1977). The plants were exposed for a total of 21 days to Ti concentrations of 0, 10E-06 M, 10E-05 M, and 10E-04 M. Endpoint for the assessment of toxic effects was yield of the different plant parts. Ti was toxic to Phaseolus vulgaris at 10E-04 M (= 4.79 mg/L) in solution culture. No adverse effects could be observed at 10E-06 M (= 0.0479 mg/L), whereas slight toxicity could be observed at 10E-05 M (= 0.479 mg/L).


Due to reporting deficiencies and an unsuitable test system (solution culture), this study cannot be considered as a key study. Any other studies qualifying as a key study are not available. However, additional testing is not required as in accordance with REACH Annex IX, 9.4, column 2, the equilibrium partitioning method (EPM) based on aquatic data may be applied to assess the hazard to soil organisms in the absence of reliable toxicity data for terrestrial plants. A hazard for aquatic organisms was not identified, and thus no hazard is identified for soil organisms via EPM. In addition, the available supporting study does not indicate toxic effects for terrestrial plants at concentrations at which Ti ions are released from TiC (< 0.4 µg/L). Toxicity to Phaseolus vulgaris was observed at much higher concentrations of 4.79 mg Ti/L. Thus, release of ecotoxicologically relevant amounts of soluble Ti compounds are not expected.

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