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EC number: 215-608-3 | CAS number: 1333-83-1
Bone fluoride levels were determined and showed a dose-related incorporation of fluoride. No increases in micronuclei were seen in peripheral erythrocytes at either time point, and no increases in chromosome aberrations were seen in bone marrow cells when metaphase or anaphase cells were examined. A concurrent positive control, cyclophosphamide, produced significant increases in peripheral blood cell micronuclei and in chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells in metaphase. No increases in aberrations were seen in the same cyclophosphamide-treated mice when anaphase cells were examined.
The potential for sodium fluoride to cause chromosomal effects was investigated in a drinking-water study in mice. Mice were exposed for 1 or 6 weeks to sdoium fluoride. No evidence of micronuclei formation was seen in peripheral blood erythrocytes afer 1 or 6 weeks; no evidence of chromosomal aberration was seen in bone marrow cells after exposure for 6 weeks. Marked toxicity (including mortality) was seen at the highest dose level in this study.
Under physiological conditions, the substance will dissociate to form its constituent ions (i.e. sodium, hydrogen and fluoride). The hydrogen and sodium ions exist in the body at high levels and are therefore unlikely to be genotoxic. Genotoxicity data for fluoride substances are available and are referenced.
Genetic toxicity in vitro (fluoride)
No evidence of mutagenicity was seen with sodium fluoride in an Ames test (NTP, 1990). No evidence of mutagenicity was seen in a mammalian cell mutation assay (V79/HPRT) with sodium fluoride. This study was performed only in the absence of metabolic activation, however this deviation is not considered to be critical as the test substance is not metabolised. A positive result with sodium fluoride is reported in a mouse lymphoma assay (NTP, 1990). Sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberrations are reported in an additional NTP study. Caspary et al (1987) report positive results for sodium fluoride and sodium hydrogen fluoride at cytotoxic concentrations in a mouse lymphoma assay.
Genetic toxicity in vivo (fluoride)
Gerdes (1971) reports a marginally (but not statistically significant) positive response in a study in Drosophila melanogaster; positive effects in Drosophila are also reported by Mohamed et al (1971). The significance of these results is unclear; the EU RAR for HF considers the findings of these two Drosophila studies to be inconclusive. Zeiger et al (1994) report no evidence of clastogenicity, even at dose levels causing severe toxicity, in a well-conducted mouse study performed with sodium fluoride in which chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus formation was assessed. In contrast, a poorly reported inhalation exposure study performed with HF (Voroshilin et al, 1975) reports clastogenicity in the bone marrow of exposed rats but no dominant lethal effect in exposed mice.
Conclusion on the genotoxicity of fluoride
The EU RAR for HF concludes that, while the dataset on the genotoxicity of HF is limited, studies with sodium fluoride are also informative as for both substances target tissues will exposed to fluoride (either free or bound to organic molecules). The EU RAR therefore reviews the available data for NaF and HF and concludes that fluoride does not interact directly with DNA and is not genotoxic when administered via an appropriate route (i.e. by oral or inhalation exposure).
No classification is proposed. The available data indicate that fluoride does not interact directly with DNA and is not genotoxic when administered via an appropriate route (i.e. by oral or inhalation exposure). Data therefore indicate that the substance is unlikely to be genotoxic.
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