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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Several reliable studies (Klimisch 1 or 2) are available for the chronic toxicity of vanadium substances (NaVO3) to freshwater invertebrates and cover the reproduction of 3 crustacean species (Ceriodaphnia quadrangula, Daphnia dentifera, Daphnia magna), the reproduction (population size) of annelid worms (Aelosoma sp.) and the growth rate of a rotifer species (Brachionus calyciflorus). Effect concentrations range from 50 µg V/L for D. dentifera (Schiffer and Liber, 2017) to 1344 µg V/L for D. magna (Beusen and Neven, 1987).

Two reliable chronic EC10 values of 4500 and 4150 µg V/L for the emergence rate of larvae of the midge species Chironomus riparius and Chironomus dilutus are further available from water-spiked sediment toxicity tests by Schiffer and Liber (2017). Additionally, an unbound NOEC ≥ 6137 µg V/L was determined for C. riparius by Simon (2017) in a reliable, water-spiked sediment toxicity test according to OECD TG 219.

The lowest chronic NOEC/EC10 value for aquatic invertebrates of 50 µg V/L was observed in a 21-day chronic study on the effect of NaVO3 on the reproduction of Daphnia dentifera (Schiffer and Liber, 2017; Klimisch 2).

Regarding marine toxicity, reliable studies (Klimisch 2) are available for the chronic effect of V2O5 on the 48-h development of eggs of the mollusc species Crassostrea gigas and the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus (Fichet and Miramand, 1998; Klimisch 2). For Crassostrea gigas, a 48-h LOEC value of 50 µg V/L was observed, whereas the 48-h NOEC for Paracentrotus lividus amounts to 50 µg V/L. Because less than 20% effects were observed at the lowest dose of 50 µg V/L for the development of Crassostrea gigas eggs, the NOEC was calculated as LOEC/2 resulting in a NOEC of 25 µg V/L in accordance with ECHA guidance on IR & CSA, R.10 (2008). Effects on the the development of eggs are because of the critical early life-stage considered as chronic. Thus, the NOEC of 25 µg V/L for the effect of V2O5 on the 48-h development of eggs of Crassostrea gigas derived using reliable data from Fichet and Miramand (1998) is selected as key value for the chemical safety assessment in marine water.

All results are based on total dissolved V concentrations.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
50 µg/L

Marine water invertebrates

Marine water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
25 µg/L

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