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Toxicity to fish

The key study (BASF AG, 1987) was conducted with Leucisdus idus (German Industrial Standards DIN 38412, part 15) over 96-hour and revealed a LC50 between 21.5 and 46.4 mg/L benzylamine. After a recalculation in 2011 (BASF SE, 2011), the geometric mean between the LC0 and the LC100 shows an LC50 (96h) of 31.58 mg/L if the pH is not adjusted. In case of an adjustment of the pH, the LC50 value is beyond the hightest test concentration of 100 mg/L. Therefore, the acute toxicity of benzylamine to fish is >100 mg/L since the toxicity is considered as a pH effect. The key study is supported by a publication of Geiger et al. (1990). In an acute fish toxicity test with Pimephales promelas, they stated a LC50 of 102 mg/L and an EC50 (equilibrium of the test organisms) of 98 mg/L benzylamine after 96h.

Toxicity to invertebrates

The short-term toxicity of Benzylamine to Daphnia was assessed in one investigation which was conducted in compliance with OECD guideline 202 and, in addition, one investigation from publicly available literature is available. The guideline compliant study is considered most reliable regarding toxicity of benzylamine to daphnids and was, therefore, defined as key study, whereas the publication is considered less reliable, due to lack of detailed method descriptions.

In the study performed in accordance with the Method C.2 ‘Acute toxicity for Daphnia’ (2008) which is equivalent to OECD 202, the Daphnia were exposed to a range of concentrations (12.5 - 100 mg/L) of Benzylamine. Observations were made on the swimming ability and the immobilisation rate and the EC50 values were determined at >100 mg/L after 24 and 48 hours, respectively.

From the publicly available literature, the toxicity threshold for Benzylamine was stated to be 60 mg/L for Daphnia magna, but no information on the concentration ranges tested is provided.


Toxicity to algae

The potential of Benzylamine to induce toxic effects in algae was investigated in one study which was performed according to OECD 201.

In the study conducted in accordance with Method C.3 ‘Freshwater Alga and Cyanobacteria, Growth inhibition test’ (2009) which is equivalent to OECD 201, exponentially growing algal cells were exposed for a period of 72 hours to a range of Benzylamine concentrations (3.1 - 100 mg/L). Inhibition of the algal population was measured as reduction in growth rate, relative to control cultures grown under identical conditions and the EC 50 value was determined at 50.0 mg/L and the EC 10 value at 17 mg/L after 72 hours.

Algae is the most sensitive trophic level among the acute toxicity tests.

Toxicity to microorganisms

The toxicity of benzylamine (CAS 100-46-9) to microorganisms was investigated in a 40-h growth inhibition test with Tetrahymena pyriformis (Schultz, 1997) conducted to generally accepted scientific principles. Based on nominal test concentrations, a 40-h IC50 of 186 mg/L was determined; the study is acceptable for assessment and is selected as key data.

The key study is supported by two read-across studies on the structurally similar substance benzyldimethylamine (CAS 103-83-3). With this substance, a respiration inhibition test with activated sludge according to the OECD guideline 209 was conducted. As the EC20 after 30 min was determined at the highest test concentration of 575 mg/L, the EC50 is concluded to be beyond this concentration (BASF AG, 1987). However, the activated sludge in this study was taken from an industrial source instead of a domestic sewage treatment plant. In the second study with benzyldimethylamine (CAS 103-83-3), a growth inhibition test with Pseudomonas putida (according to Bringmann-Kuehn), an EC50 value was determined at 750 mg/l after 17 h.

 In addition a supporting guideline study (OECD 209) was conducted with the structurally similar substance methylbenzylamine (CAS 3886-69-9). An EC20 value was determined at 550 mg/L after 30-min, the EC50 was beyond the highest test concentration of 1000 mg/L (BASF AG, 1998). All validity criteria were fulfilled; the activated sludge was taken from a domestic source.

Based on the available data, toxic effects on microorganisms are not to be expected for benzylamine.