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Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

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Based on the data, literature and assessments reported in the REACH CSRs for copper and iodine, it is considered that copper iodide has a low potential for bioaccumulation.

Summary information on bioaccumulation of copper and iodine is presented below and in IUCLID Sections 5.3.1 and 5.3.2.


Due to the specific rules for adaptation of the data requirements in column 2 of endpoint 9.3.2 of Annex IX no additional testing for bioaccumulation in aquatic species has been performed. Iodine has a log Pow of 2.49; this value is below the criteria for indication of bioaccumulative potential. Furthermore, the waiving of this test complies with the notion of animal welfare as no further knowledge gain is to be expected.

Iodine is present in all aquatic compartments and is known for its biological importance in animals and plants/algae. Thus, iodine trends to enrich in living organisms in higher concentrations as in the ambient (environmental) aquatic medium. In the report of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services several bioconcentration factors for iodine are summarized. Based on former studies these factors in fresh water are 40 (algae), 5 (invertebrates), and 15 (fish); in salt water, these factors are 4,000–10,000 (algae), 50–100 (invertebrates), and 10–20 (fish). Additionally, certain seaweeds and algae can concentrate iodine to levels as high as 0.8–4.5 g/kg of dried material; these high levels are usually associated with the relatively high levels of iodine in seawater (50 μg/kg). However, the exact physiological function and possible changes in speciation of iodine during the absorption and metabolism in different kinds of organisms are still quite unclear.

Based on the presented BCF values bioaccumulation in fish is not to be expected.


Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2004. Toxicological profile for iodine.