Registration Dossier

Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2003-03-18 to 2003-09-24
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Nonanal
- Appearance: clear liquid
- Lot No.: 2F4107
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: March 2003
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
No data
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Chemical name of vehicle: Dimethylformamide
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution): The solvent control contained 0.1 mL/L dimethylformamide, the same concentration that was added to the 6.0 mg/L nonanal test solution.
- Evidence of undissolved material: Insoluble material was not observed during the definitive toxicity test.

A 24-hour stability test conducted in sealed containers with no head space resulted in recoveries that were below the detection limit at 0.20 mg/L, and recoveries that averaged 31 ± 4.2% at 2.0 mg/L and 76 ± 2.6% at 20 mg/L. These low recoveries precluded the use of a toxicity test in sealed containers with daily renewal of the test solutions.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Source: Produced from an in-house culture by adult daphnids that were maintained under test conditions at the test laboratory for 27 days.
- Age at study initiation: <24 hours old
- Weight at end of study: average wet weight of control daphnids: 0.16 mg
- Method of breeding: No data
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: at least 7 days
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): The daphnid culture was maintained in 100% dilution water under static, renewal conditions.
- Type and amount of food: Test organisms were fed the freshwater algae, Selenastrum capricornutum and a mixture of yeast and trout chow.
- Feeding frequency: Once per day
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): During the 48 hours prior to the beginning of the test, there was no mortality and at the beginning of the test organisms were apparently free of disease, injuries and abnormalities.
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
Water was adjusted to a hardness of 160 to 180 mg/L as CaCO3.
Test temperature:
19.7 - 20.4 °C (mean 20.0 °C)
pH:
7.3 - 7.6
Dissolved oxygen:
8.1 - 9.2 mg/L (mean 8.7 mg/L)
Salinity:
No data
Nominal and measured concentrations:
- Nominal concentrations: 0, 0.79, 1.3, 2.2, 3.6 and 6.0 mg/L
- Mean measured concentrations: 0, 0.320, 0.706, 1.12, 2.14 and 3.48 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: the beakers were loosely covered
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 1 L glass beakers equipped with screened overflows that contained approximately 0.8 L of test solution (media depth was approximately 11 cm).
- Aeration: No data
- Type of flow-through: intermittent flow proportional diluter
- Renewal rate of test solution: During the test the diluter was activated approximately 292 times, resulting in an average of 91 volume additions per 24 hours in each test vessel (i.e. test solutions were renewed approximately every 16 minutes). This high flow rate was required to maintain any nonanal in test solutions.
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10 daphnids per replicate
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: Approximately 0.02 g/L

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Carbon filtered, deionised water collected at T.R. Wilbury Laboratories in Marblehead, Massachusetts.
- Total organic carbon: 0.7 mg/L
- Particulate matter: <10 mg/L
- Metals:
- Aluminium: 0.04 mg/L
- Arsenic: Not detected (ND)
- Boron: 0.011 mg/L
- Cadmium: ND
- Calcium: 23.4 mg/L
- Chromium: ND
- Cobalt: 0.0002 mg/L
- Copper: 0.0007 mg/L
- Iron: ND
- Lead: ND
- Magnesium: 21.3 mg/L
- Mercury: ND
- Nickel: ND
- Potassium: 4.0 mg/L
- Silver: ND
- Sodium: 46.1 mg/L
- Zinc: ND
- Pesticides: Not detected above the detection limit of 0.33 mg/L
- Chlorine: <0.01 mg/L total residual chlorine
- Alkalinity: Start of test: 106 mg/L as CaCO3; End of test: 104 mg/L as CaCO3
- Ca/mg ratio: Approximately 1:1
- Conductivity: 570 - 580 µmhos/cm (mean 570 µmhos/cm)
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Full analysis of the water was performed twice per year. Dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity and temperature were measured and recorded in all test vessels after 0, 24, and 48 hours. The temperature in a control vessel was recorded continuously during the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Prior to use the pH was adjusted to <8.0 with 5% H3PO4.
- Photoperiod: A 16 hour light and 8 hour dark photoperiod was automatically maintained with cool-white fluorescent lights.
- Light intensity: 45 footcandles (6 μEin/m2sec)

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: The numbers of surviving organisms, the occurrence of immobility and sublethal effects, and the presence of insoluble material were determined visually and recorded after 0, 24, and 48 hours. Dead test organisms were removed at 24 hour intervals.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study: performed under static conditions in sealed containers without head space
- Test concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, 10 and 100 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: After 48 hours there was 100% survival in the control and at 0.10 and 1.0 mg/L, and 0% survival at 5.0, 10, and 100 mg/L. No insoluble material was observed.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 3.48 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 3.48 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.54 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 1.23 - 1.97 mg/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
3.48 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 2.14 - >3.48 mg/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.706 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
- Mortality of control: 95% survival occurred in the controls and no control sublethal effects were noted during the exposure period.
- Any observations that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: Insoluble material was not observed during the definitive toxicity test. Mean measured concentrations ranged from 41 to 59% of nominal concentrations in the flow-through vessels even though the media was replaced an average of 91 times per day. Low recoveries during this flow-through test reflect the extreme instability of nonanal in water under test conditions. Water quality was within the normal range throughout the toxicity test.

Table 1:Survival and sub-lethal effect data

Mean measured concentration of Nonanal (mg/L)

Replicate

Number Alive

Number Affected1

0 h

24 h

48 h

0 h

24 h

48 h

Control

1

10

10

9

0

0

0

2

10

10

10

0

0

0

Solvent Control

1

10

10

10

0

0

0

2

10

9

9

0

0

0

0.320

1

10

9

9

0

0

0

2

10

10

10

0

0

0

0.706

1

10

9

8

0

0

0

2

10

10

10

0

0

0

1.12

1

10

8

8

0

0

1

2

10

7

7

0

0

0

2.14

1

10

8

7

0

2

5

2

10

10

9

0

2

3

3.48

1

10

10

6

0

3

6

2

10

7

4

0

0

3

1Affected daphnids were immobilised

 

 

Table 2:Measured concentrations of nonanal in test media

Nominal concentration of Nonanal (mg/L)

Measured concentration of Nonanal (mg/L)

Percent of nominal

0 h

24 h

48 h

0 (control)

ND1

ND

ND

--

0 (solvent control)

ND

ND

ND

--

0.79

0.343

0.297

0.320

41

1.3

0.736

0.676

0.706

54

2.2

1.09

1.15

1.12

51

3.6

2.11

2.16

2.14

59

6.0

3.42

3.53

3.48

58

Secondary stock solution2

6.0

3.20

4.36

3.78

62

Matrix spike samples3

2.2         replicate 1

2.77

2.32

2.83

128

               replicate 2

2.57

3.67

--

--

Laboratory control sample4

2.2

2.63

2.50

2.57

117

1ND = none detected at or above the limit of quantitation

2This stock solution was prepared in water by the proportional diluter approximately every 16 minutes

3Standards prepared in water from a control solution from the toxicity test

4Standard prepared in dilution water

 

 

Table 3:Water quality parameters

Mean measured concentration of Nonanal (mg/L)

Replicate

Dissolved oxygen concentration (mg/L)

Conductivity (µmhos/cm)

Temperature (°C)

pH

0 h

24 h

48 h

0 h

24 h

48 h

0 h

24 h

48 h

0 h

24 h

48 h

Control

1

9.2

8.7

8.9

570

570

570

19.8

19.8

19.7

7.3

7.5

7.5

2

9.2

8.7

9.0

570

570

570

20.0

20.0

19.9

7.3

7.5

7.5

Solvent Control

1

9.2

8.8

9.0

570

570

570

20.0

20.0

19.9

7.4

7.6

7.5

2

9.1

8.8

9.0

570

570

570

20.1

20.0

19.9

7.4

7.6

7.5

0.320

1

9.0

8.8

8.7

570

570

570

20.1

19.8

19.9

7.4

7.5

7.5

2

8.9

8.7

8.7

570

570

570

20.0

19.8

19.8

7.4

7.5

7.5

0.706

1

8.9

8.7

8.7

570

580

570

20.0

19.8

19.8

7.4

7.6

7.5

2

8.8

8.7

8.6

570

580

570

20.0

19.9

19.9

7.4

7.6

7.5

1.12

1

8.7

8.6

8.6

570

580

570

19.9

19.9

19.9

7.4

7.6

7.5

2

8.6

8.6

8.5

570

580

570

19.9

19.9

19.9

7.4

7.6

7.5

2.14

1

8.6

8.5

8.4

570

580

570

20.0

19.9

20.0

7.4

7.6

7.5

2

8.5

8.5

8.4

570

580

570

20.0

19.9

20.0

7.4

7.6

7.5

3.48

1

8.6

8.5

8.2

570

580

570

20.1

20.0

20.3

7.4

7.6

7.5

2

8.5

8.4

8.1

570

580

570

20.3

20.0

20.4

7.4

7.6

7.5

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The acute toxicity of nonanal to the daphnid, Daphnia magna was performed according to OECD guideline 202 under flow-through conditions. Exposure of daphnids to nonanal resulted in a 48 hour median effective concentration (EC50) of 1.54 mg/L (95% confidence interval = 1.23 to 1.97 mg/L) and a 48 hour median lethal concentration (LC50) of 3.48 mg/L (95% confidence interval = 2.14 to >3.48 mg/L). The 48 hour no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.706 mg/L nonanal.

Description of key information

The acute toxicity of nonanal to the daphnid, Daphnia magna was performed according to OECD guideline 202 under flow-through conditions.  

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
1.54 mg/L

Additional information

The acute toxicity of nonanal to the daphnid, Daphnia magna was performed according to OECD guideline 202 under flow-through conditions. Exposure of daphnids to nonanal resulted in a 48 hour median effective concentration (EC50) of 1.54 mg/L (95% confidence interval = 1.23 to 1.97 mg/L) and a 48 hour median lethal concentration (LC50) of 3.48 mg/L (95% confidence interval = 2.14 to >3.48 mg/L). The 48 hour no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.706 mg/L nonanal.