Registration Dossier

Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Stability:

Hydrolysis

In accordance with column 2 of Annex VIII of the REACH regulation, testing for this endpoint is scientifically not necessary and does not need to be conducted since the test substance is readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation :

Biodegradation in water

The Ready Biodegradability of test chemical was determined by the Manometric Respirometry Test according to the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, Method No. 301 F. The test chemical undergoes 71% biodegradation after 28 days in the test conditions. The 10 -day window criterion is also fulfilled (16% biodegradation on day 4 and 65% on day 14). The curves obtained with the reference substance alone and with test chemical + reference substance show no toxic effect to the micro-organisms at the test concentration (100 mg/l). Thus, the test chemical should be regarded as readily biodegradable according to this test.

 

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound. The Test chemical If released in to the environment, 15.4 % of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of the chemical in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is low whereas the half-life period of Test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into sediment is less than 1 %( i.e., reported as 0.567 %) indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediments.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of Test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 84 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low. 

Bioaccumulation:

Bioaccumulation: aquatic/sediment:

The BCFBAF Program of Estimation Programs Interface was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical. From BCFBAF Program (v3.00) model of EPI suite the estimated bio concentration factor (BCF) for Test chemical is 158.7 L/kg wet-wt which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000. Thus it is concluded that the test chemical is not expected to bio accumulate in the aquatic environment.

Transport and Ditribution:

Adsorption / desorption

The adsorption coefficient Koc in soil and in sewage sludge of test chemical was determined by the Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method according to OECD Guideline No. 121 for testing of Chemicals. The solutions of the test substance and reference substances were prepared in appropriate solvents. A test chemical solution was prepared by pipetting 4 microliter of test item and diluted with methanol up to 10 ml. Thus, the test solution concentration was 371 mg/l. The pH of test substance was 7.5.Each of the reference substance and test substance were analysed by HPLC at 210 nm. After equilibration of the HPLC system, Urea was injected first, the reference substances were injected in duplicate, followed by the test chemical solution in duplicate. Reference substances were injected again after test sample, no change in retention time of reference substances was observed. Retention time tR were measured, averaged and the decimal logarithms of the capacity factors k were calculated. The graph was plotted between log Koc versus log k. The linear regression parameter of the relationship log Koc vs log k were also calculated from the data obtained with calibration samples and therewith, log Koc of the test substance was determined from its measured capacity factor. The reference substances were chosen according to estimated Koc range of the test substance and generalized calibration graph was prepared. The reference substances were 4-chloroaniline, 4-methylaniline(p-Tolouidine), N-methylaniline, ptoluamide, Aniline, 2,5-Dichloroaniline, 4-nitrophenol, 2 - nitrophenol, 2-nitrobenzamide, 3-nitrobenzamide, Nitrobenzene, 4-Nitrobenzamide, Carbendazim, Benzoic acid phenylester, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Naphthalene, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, N,N-dimethylbenzamide, 3,5-dinitrobenzamide, N,N-dimethylbenzamide, 3,5-dinitrobenzamide, N-methylbenzamide, Benzamide, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene having Koc value ranging from 1.45 to 3.16. The Log Koc value of test chemical was determined to be 2.507± 0.0002 dimensionless at 25°C.This log Koc value indicates that the substance has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

Additional information

Stability:

Hydrolysis

In accordance with column 2 of Annex VIII of the REACH regulation, testing for this endpoint is scientifically not necessary and does not need to be conducted since the test substance is readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation:

Biodegradation in water

Various experimental studieshas been investigated for the test chemicalfor reviewing the biodegradation endpointwhich have beensummarized as below;

 

The Ready Biodegradability of test chemical was determined by the Manometric Respirometry Test according to the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, Method No. 301 F. The test chemical undergoes 71% biodegradation after 28 days in the test conditions. The 10 -day window criterion is also fulfilled (16% biodegradation on day 4 and 65% on day 14). The curves obtained with the reference substance alone and with test chemical + reference substance show no toxic effect to the micro-organisms at the test concentration (100 mg/l). Thus, the test chemical should be regarded as readily biodegradable according to this test.

 

The another Manometric Respirometry Test was conducted for test chemical to assess its percent degradation as per the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, Method No. 301 F. The Test chemical undergoes 60% biodegradation after 28 days (65% after 36 days) in the test conditions. Biodegradation exceeds 10% on day 8 and reaches only 52% at the end of the 10-day window (days 8 to 18).The curves obtained with the reference substance alone and with Test chemical + reference substance show no toxic effect of Test chemical to the micro-organisms at the test concentration (100 mg/I).Thus, Test chemical should be regarded as readily biodegradable according to this test.

 

The above results were supported by Biodegradation study conducted according to OECD Guideline 301 B (Ready Biodegradability: CO2 Evolution Test) for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance. The percentage degradation of the test substance was determined to be 75.4% by using CO2 evolution parameter. Thus, based on percentage degradation of test chemical, the chemical was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

By considering results of all the studies mentioned above it can be concluded that the test chemical can be expected to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

 

Biodegradation in water and sediment

The predicted data of test chemical for Biodegradation in water and sediment endpointhave beensummarized as below;

 

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound. The Test chemical If released in to the environment, 15.4 % of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of the chemical in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is low whereas the half-life period of Test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into sediment is less than 1 %( i.e., reported as 0.567 %) indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediments.

 

According to Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model, the test compound If released in to the environment, 14% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test substance in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.515%), indicates that the test chemical is not persistent in sediment.

 

Based on the available data,it can be concluded that the testchemical is not persistent in water and sediment.

                                           

 

Biodegradation in soil

The predicted data of test chemical for Biodegradation in soil endpointhave been summarized as below;

 

The half-life period of Test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 84 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low. 

 

According to Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, Level III Fugacity; 2017) prediction model, If released into the environment, 85.5% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

 

Based on the available data, it can be concluded that the testchemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Bioaccumulation:

Bioaccumulation: aquatic/sediment:

Various predicted data for the target compound were reviewed for the bioaccumulation end point which are summarized as below:

 

The BCFBAF Program of Estimation Programs Interface was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical. From BCFBAF Program (v3.00) model of EPI suite the estimated bio concentration factor (BCF) for Test chemical is 158.7 L/kg wet-wt which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000. Thus it is concluded that the test chemical is not expected to bio accumulate in the aquatic environment.

 

The above result is supported by the bioaccumulation study in fish was conducted for estimating the BCF (bioaccumulation factor) value of test chemical. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) value was calculated using a log Kow of 3.85 and a regression derived equation. The BCF (bioaccumulation factor) value of test chemical was determined to be 161 dimensionless, which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the test chemical is considered to be non-accumulative in aquatic organisms.

 

The overall result is further supported by the predicted data estimated for test chemical using BCFBAF Program (v3.00) model of EPI suite (2017). According to the predicted model, the estimated bio concentration factor (BCF) for test chemical is 161.1 L/kg wet-wt at 25 deg. c which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000. Therefore it is concluded that test chemical is non bioaccumulative in food chain.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical (from modelling databases,2017), it can be concluded that the test chemical is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Transport and Ditribution:

Adsorption / desorption

The adsorption coefficient Koc in soil and in sewage sludge of test chemical was determined by the Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method according to OECD Guideline No. 121 for testing of Chemicals. The solutions of the test substance and reference substances were prepared in appropriate solvents. A test chemical solution was prepared by pipetting 4 microliter of test item and diluted with methanol up to 10 ml. Thus, the test solution concentration was 371 mg/l. The pH of test substance was 7.5.Each of the reference substance and test substance were analysed by HPLC at 210 nm. After equilibration of the HPLC system, Urea was injected first, the reference substances were injected in duplicate, followed by the test chemical solution in duplicate. Reference substances were injected again after test sample, no change in retention time of reference substances was observed. Retention time tR were measured, averaged and the decimal logarithms of the capacity factors k were calculated. The graph was plotted between log Koc versus log k. The linear regression parameter of the relationship log Koc vs log k were also calculated from the data obtained with calibration samples and therewith, log Koc of the test substance was determined from its measured capacity factor. The reference substances were chosen according to estimated Koc range of the test substance and generalized calibration graph was prepared. The reference substances were 4-chloroaniline, 4-methylaniline(p-Tolouidine), N-methylaniline, ptoluamide, Aniline, 2,5-Dichloroaniline, 4-nitrophenol, 2 - nitrophenol, 2-nitrobenzamide, 3-nitrobenzamide, Nitrobenzene, 4-Nitrobenzamide, Carbendazim, Benzoic acid phenylester, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Naphthalene, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, N,N-dimethylbenzamide, 3,5-dinitrobenzamide, N,N-dimethylbenzamide, 3,5-dinitrobenzamide, N-methylbenzamide, Benzamide, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene having Koc value ranging from 1.45 to 3.16. The Log Koc value of test chemical was determined to be 2.507± 0.0002 dimensionless at 25°C.This log Koc value indicates that the substance has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.