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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No guideline study, but well performed and well documented.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Selenium uptake and transfer in an aquatic food chain and its effects on fathead minnow larvae
Author:
Bennett WN, Brooks AS, Boraas ME
Year:
1986
Bibliographic source:
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 15: 513-517

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Laboratory study investigating the accumulation of dietary selenium by feeding selenium-laden rotifers to fish larvae.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Selenious acid
EC Number:
231-974-7
EC Name:
Selenious acid
Cas Number:
7783-00-8
Molecular formula:
H2O3Se
IUPAC Name:
selenous acid
Details on test material:
- 75-Se selenious acid (New England Nuclear)
Radiolabelling:
yes

Sampling and analysis

Details on sampling:
ROTIFERS
- before being used in fish feeding experiments, after being exposed to selenium-laden algae: harvested from stage 3 vessel (see experimental design), washed and resuspended in 50 mL of control medium
- for selenium analysis: separated from algae (in stage 2 vessel) by filtering 40 mL samples through a 57 µm mesh Nitex screen, washed and immediately heat killed at 50 °C; filtered through 10 µm-polycarbonate filter and washed

LARVAE
- selenium-activity was measured daily by removing the larvae from the test chambers, wash them and measure 75-Se activity during 20 minutes

Test solutions

Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
- Lake Michigan water (as Milwaukee, WI dechlorinated tap water)

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
FISH
- age: larvae
- obtained from breeding pairs maintained in the laboratory

ROTIFERS
- adult females obtained from existing cultures
- Brachionus calyciflorus

ALGAE
- Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Study design

Route of exposure:
feed
Test type:
static
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Total exposure / uptake duration:
7 d

Test conditions

Hardness:
no data
Test temperature:
no data
pH:
no data
Dissolved oxygen:
no data
TOC:
no data
Salinity:
not applicable
Details on test conditions:
- test vessel is a 3-stage chemostat system with
1) 3 14-L algal culture vessels
2) 3 14-L rotifer vessels (rotifers are feeding on selenium-exposed algae)
3) vessel collected overflow of rotifers at second stage (sampling see above)
- rotifers were allowed to feed on selenium-laden algae for 5 h (with a algae:rotifer ratio of 57:240 µg algae/mL to µg rotifer/mL)
- 47 fish larvae were used in this test
- larvae were initially fed rotifers raised on control algae
- at 4 days post-hatch, test fish were fed Se-contaminated rotifers for 7 days
Nominal and measured concentrations:
measured concentration in rotifers: > 70 mg/kg
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
The biomagnification factor was calculated as the ratio of selenium concentration in fish larvae to the concentration in rotifers.

Results and discussion

Bioaccumulation factor
Type:
BMF
Value:
< 0.61 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body d.w.
Calculation basis:
steady state
Remarks on result:
other: Conc.in environment / dose:> 70 mg Se/kg
Details on kinetic parameters:
no data

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
Reliable study (Klimisch 2) investigating the accumulation of dietary selenium in fathead minnow larvae. A biomagnification factor of < 0.61 was obtained for larvae fed selenium-laden rotifers for 7 days starting from 4 days post-hatch.

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