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Toxicological information

Basic toxicokinetics

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
basic toxicokinetics
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
For details and justification of read-across please refer to the read-across report attached to IUCLID section 13.
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reference
Endpoint:
basic toxicokinetics
Type of information:
other: Expert statement based on peer-reviewed literature
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Objective of study:
other: Evaluation of the native biology and biochemistry of lactic acid in mammals, including humans, including metabolism.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Lactic acid is a ubiquitous and essential molecule for life. The metabolism and kinetics of lactic acid in organisms is well understood and extensively treated in handbooks and numerous research articles..
Species:
other: mammal
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
Information on endogenous lactic acid.
Details on exposure:
Information on endogenous lactic acid.
Duration and frequency of treatment / exposure:
Information on endogenous lactic acid.
Details on study design:
Information on endogenous lactic acid.
Details on dosing and sampling:
Information on endogenous lactic acid.

The role of lactic acid in metabolism has kept researchers occupied for a long time. For many years, lactic acid was considered a dead-end waste product of the glycolysis, the conversion of glucose into pyruvate (producing a relatively small amount of ATP), in the absence of oxygen. Recently, the role of lactic acid in metabolism was reconsidered, and L-lactate is considered as a functional metabolite and mammalian fuel. It was observed that lactate can be transferred from its site of production (cytosol) to neighbouring cells and other organs, as well as intracellularly, where its oxidation or continued metabolism can occur. This "lactate shuttle" results in the distribution of lactic acid to other cells, where it is directly oxidised, re-converted back to pyruvate or glucose, allowing the process of glycolysis to restart and ATP provision maintained.

Conclusions:
In the evaluation of the use of lactic acid as the active substance in biocidal products, the natural occurrence of lactic acid in human food and the human body, as well as the role of the compound in human metabolism and physiology should be taken into account. This means that, when the risk for its use in biocidal products is assessed, the natural exposure to lactic acid in food and via endogenous sources, as well as exposure via the use of lactic acid as a food additive should be considered.
In the present report it is concluded that lactic acid can no longer be considered as a “dead-end” waste product of human metabolism, but should instead be seen to play an important role in cellular, regional, and whole body metabolism. Lactic acid has been detected in blood, several other body fluids and tissues. Concentrations of lactic acid increase significantly during intense exercise. At rest, blood concentrations have been reported of 1-1.5 mMol/L (90.1-135.12 mg/L), which can increase up to 10 mMol/L (900.8 mg/L) during exercise.
External human exposure to lactic acid can occur via its natural presence in food, for example in fruit, vegetables, sour milk products, and fermented products such as sauerkraut, yogurt and beer. Based on the available information on concentrations of lactic acid in some of these products, an estimate of the daily consumption of lactic acid due to its natural presence in food was made using the ‘FAO/WHO standard European diet’. A (minimum) daily intake of 1.175 g/person/day was calculated using the available information.
Another source of external exposure is its use as food additive; as such it is authorized in Europe (E270) and the United States (generally recognized as safe = GRAS). A daily intake of 1.65-2.76 g/person/day was estimated using the “Per Capita times 10” method, based on the amount of lactic acid put onto the market (EU and USA) as a food additive by Purac.
Based on the high levels of lactic acid in the human body and in human food, and its use as food additive, the evaluation of the human health effects of lactic acid should first and for all be based on a comparison of this background exposure and the potential contribution of lactic acid in biocidal products to these levels. Therefore, a risk assessment should not be based on the comparison with effects of exposure, but on the comparison with the total daily intake of lactic acid via food, both naturally and as food additive, which was estimated to be 2.8 g/person/day. When the application of Purac’s products will not result in a systemic exposure that contributes substantially to the total systemic exposure, many of the standard human toxicological studies dealing with systemic effects are deemed superfluous.
Executive summary:

The natural occurrence of lactic acid in human food and the human body, as well as the role of the compound in human metabolism and physiology is of primary importance in the understanding of the metabolism and toxicology of lactic acid. This means that, in risk assessment, the natural exposure to lactic acid in food and via endogenous sources, as well as exposure via the use of lactic acid as a food additive should be considered.

In the present report it is concluded that lactic acid, in contrast to previously held belief, can no longer be considered as a “dead-end” waste product of human metabolism, but should instead be seen to play an important role in cellular, regional, and whole body metabolism. Lactic acid has been detected in blood, several other body fluids and tissues. Concentrations of lactic acid increase significantly during intense exercise. At rest, blood concentrations have been reported of 1-1.5 mMol/L (90.1-135.12 mg/L), which can increase up to 10 mMol/L (900.8 mg/L) during exercise.

External human exposure to lactic acid can occur via its natural presence in food, for example in fruit, vegetables, sour milk products, and fermented products such as sauerkraut, yogurt and beer. Based on the available information on concentrations of lactic acid in some of these products, an estimate of the daily consumption of lactic acid due to its natural presence in food was made using the ‘FAO/WHO standard European diet’. A (minimum) daily intake of 1.175 g/person/day was calculated using the available information.

Another source of external exposure is its use as food additive; as such it is authorized in Europe (E270) and the United States (generally recognized as safe = GRAS). A daily intake of 1.65-2.76 g/person/day was estimated using the “Per Capita times 10” method, based on the amount of lactic acid put onto the market (EU and USA) as a food additive by Purac.

Based on the high levels of lactic acid in the human body and in human food, and its use as food additive, the evaluation of the human health effects of lactic acid should first and for all be based on a comparison of this background exposure and the potential contribution of lactic acid in biocidal products to these levels. Therefore, a risk assessment should not be based on the comparison with effects of exposure, but on the comparison with the total daily intake of lactic acid via food, both naturally and as food additive, which was estimated to be 2.8 g/person/day. When the application of Purac’s products will not result in a systemic exposure that contributes substantially to the total systemic exposure, many of the standard human toxicological studies dealing with systemic effects are deemed superfluous.

Data source

Materials and methods

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Lactic acid
EC Number:
200-018-0
EC Name:
Lactic acid
Cas Number:
50-21-5
Molecular formula:
C3H6O3
IUPAC Name:
2-hydroxypropanoic acid

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

The role of lactic acid in metabolism has kept researchers occupied for a long time. For many years, lactic acid was considered a dead-end waste product of the glycolysis, the conversion of glucose into pyruvate (producing a relatively small amount of ATP), in the absence of oxygen. Recently, the role of lactic acid in metabolism was reconsidered, and L-lactate is considered as a functional metabolite and mammalian fuel. It was observed that lactate can be transferred from its site of production (cytosol) to neighbouring cells and other organs, as well as intracellularly, where its oxidation or continued metabolism can occur. This "lactate shuttle" results in the distribution of lactic acid to other cells, where it is directly oxidised, re-converted back to pyruvate or glucose, allowing the process of glycolysis to restart and ATP provision maintained.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
In the evaluation of the use of lactic acid as the active substance in biocidal products, the natural occurrence of lactic acid in human food and the human body, as well as the role of the compound in human metabolism and physiology should be taken into account. This means that, when the risk for its use in biocidal products is assessed, the natural exposure to lactic acid in food and via endogenous sources, as well as exposure via the use of lactic acid as a food additive should be considered.
In the present report it is concluded that lactic acid can no longer be considered as a “dead-end” waste product of human metabolism, but should instead be seen to play an important role in cellular, regional, and whole body metabolism. Lactic acid has been detected in blood, several other body fluids and tissues. Concentrations of lactic acid increase significantly during intense exercise. At rest, blood concentrations have been reported of 1-1.5 mMol/L (90.1-135.12 mg/L), which can increase up to 10 mMol/L (900.8 mg/L) during exercise.
External human exposure to lactic acid can occur via its natural presence in food, for example in fruit, vegetables, sour milk products, and fermented products such as sauerkraut, yogurt and beer. Based on the available information on concentrations of lactic acid in some of these products, an estimate of the daily consumption of lactic acid due to its natural presence in food was made using the ‘FAO/WHO standard European diet’. A (minimum) daily intake of 1.175 g/person/day was calculated using the available information.
Another source of external exposure is its use as food additive; as such it is authorized in Europe (E270) and the United States (generally recognized as safe = GRAS). A daily intake of 1.65-2.76 g/person/day was estimated using the “Per Capita times 10” method, based on the amount of lactic acid put onto the market (EU and USA) as a food additive by Purac.
Based on the high levels of lactic acid in the human body and in human food, and its use as food additive, the evaluation of the human health effects of lactic acid should first and for all be based on a comparison of this background exposure and the potential contribution of lactic acid in biocidal products to these levels. Therefore, a risk assessment should not be based on the comparison with effects of exposure, but on the comparison with the total daily intake of lactic acid via food, both naturally and as food additive, which was estimated to be 2.8 g/person/day. When the application of Purac’s products will not result in a systemic exposure that contributes substantially to the total systemic exposure, many of the standard human toxicological studies dealing with systemic effects are deemed superfluous.
Executive summary:

The natural occurrence of lactic acid in human food and the human body, as well as the role of the compound in human metabolism and physiology is of primary importance in the understanding of the metabolism and toxicology of lactic acid. This means that, in risk assessment, the natural exposure to lactic acid in food and via endogenous sources, as well as exposure via the use of lactic acid as a food additive should be considered.

In the present report it is concluded that lactic acid, in contrast to previously held belief, can no longer be considered as a “dead-end” waste product of human metabolism, but should instead be seen to play an important role in cellular, regional, and whole body metabolism. Lactic acid has been detected in blood, several other body fluids and tissues. Concentrations of lactic acid increase significantly during intense exercise. At rest, blood concentrations have been reported of 1-1.5 mMol/L (90.1-135.12 mg/L), which can increase up to 10 mMol/L (900.8 mg/L) during exercise.

External human exposure to lactic acid can occur via its natural presence in food, for example in fruit, vegetables, sour milk products, and fermented products such as sauerkraut, yogurt and beer. Based on the available information on concentrations of lactic acid in some of these products, an estimate of the daily consumption of lactic acid due to its natural presence in food was made using the ‘FAO/WHO standard European diet’. A (minimum) daily intake of 1.175 g/person/day was calculated using the available information.

Another source of external exposure is its use as food additive; as such it is authorized in Europe (E270) and the United States (generally recognized as safe = GRAS). A daily intake of 1.65-2.76 g/person/day was estimated using the “Per Capita times 10” method, based on the amount of lactic acid put onto the market (EU and USA) as a food additive by Purac.

Based on the high levels of lactic acid in the human body and in human food, and its use as food additive, the evaluation of the human health effects of lactic acid should first and for all be based on a comparison of this background exposure and the potential contribution of lactic acid in biocidal products to these levels. Therefore, a risk assessment should not be based on the comparison with effects of exposure, but on the comparison with the total daily intake of lactic acid via food, both naturally and as food additive, which was estimated to be 2.8 g/person/day. When the application of Purac’s products will not result in a systemic exposure that contributes substantially to the total systemic exposure, many of the standard human toxicological studies dealing with systemic effects are deemed superfluous.

This information is used in a read-across approach in the assessment of the target substance. For details and justification of read-across please refer to the read-across report attached to IUCLID section 13.