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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
04 September, 2008 through 26 February, 2009
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Temperature range during study was +1°C to +30°C (Recomended temperature range for this type of study is 22 +/- 10°C)
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
Version / remarks:
Version adopted 19 July 2006
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
NECTARYL :
Givaudan Product Code : 7446003
Lot Number : 9000751030
Purity : 96.0%
Date of Manufacture : 19 May, 2008
Best Before Date : 14 May, 2009
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Following a preliminary range-finding study, three plant species, two dicots (Soybean (Glycine max) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)) and one monocot species (Oat (Avena sativa)) were exposed to concentrations of 10, 32, 100, 320 and 1000 mg/kg. The number of seedlings emerged and any mortalities and/or morphological abnormalities were determined daily for 21 days after 50% emergence in the Solvent Control for each species.
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Stock solutions for soil spiking were prepared in Acetone for application.
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
The soil used for the study was supplied by Sporting Surface Supplies Ltd., Smallfield, Surrey, United Kingdom.

The soil characteristics are described as :
- Sand
- Organic Carbon content 0.8%
- pH 8.3

Test Species :

Soybean (Glycine max) variety Amsoy (Lot No. 2007/ppo/sp06) Planting depth : 5 - 10 mm

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) variety Orange Pixie (Lot No. 2008/we/er/01) Planting depth : 1 mm

Oat (Avena sativa) variety Banquo (Lot No. Not applicable) Planting depth : 5 - 10 mm
Test type:
seedling emergence and seedling growth test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
65 d
Remarks:
21 days post-emergence of 50% of the seedlings of the respective plant species. 50% emergence of seeds was attained after 9 days for Oat, 23 days for Soybean and 44 days for Tomato.
Test temperature:
Temperature range during study was +1°C to +30°C (Recomended temperature range for this type of study is 22 +/- 10°C).
pH:
Soil pH 8.3
Moisture:
Soil mositure conditions not reported.
Details on test conditions:
Study performed in a greenhouse :
Tempearture Range : +1°C to +30°C
Relative Humidity : 37 to 93%
Lighting : Approximately 16 hours light / 8 hours dark
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal Concentrations :

Control
Solvent Control
10 mg test item/kg (dry weight)
32 mg test item/kg (dry weight)
100 mg test item/kg (dry weight)
320 mg test item/kg (dry weight)
1000 mg test item/kg (dry weight)
Key result
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
9 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Remarks:
emergence (50% emergence of seedlings in Solvent Control 9-Days after sowing)
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Key result
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
30 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Remarks:
growth (21 days after 50% emergence in Solvent Control)
Effect conc.:
720 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
23 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Remarks:
emergence (50% emergence of seedlings in Solvent Control 23-Days after sowing)
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Key result
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
44 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Remarks:
growth (21 days after 50% emergence in Solvent Control)
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
44 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Remarks:
emergence (50% emergence of seedlings in Solvent Control 44-Days after sowing)
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Key result
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
65 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Remarks:
growth (21 days after 50% emergence in Solvent Control)
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Details on results:
Soybean (Glycine max) :
A reduction in soybean seedling vigour was observed at a test concentration of 1000 mg/kg from Day 18 onwards.
Emergence - An average of 65% emergence was observed at 1000 mg/kg c.f. 90% emergence in the Solvent Control.


Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) :
A reduction in tomato seedling vigour was observed at a test concentration of 1000 mg/kg from Day 6 onwards.
Emergence - An average of 55% emergence was observed at 1000 mg/kg c.f. 80% emergence in the Solvent Control.

Oat (Avena sativa) :
A reduction in oat seedling vigour was observed at a test concentrations of 320 and 1000 mg/kg from Day 4 onwards. In addition, epinasty (twisting of the seedling leaves / stem) was observed at test concentrations of 320 and 1000 mg/kg from Day 8, onwards.
Emergence - An average of 90% emergence was observed at 1000 mg/kg c.f. 100% emergence in the Solvent Control.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Following a preliminary range-finding study, three plant species, two dicots (Soybean (Glycine max) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)) and one monocot species (Oat (Avena sativa)) were exposed to concentrations of 10, 32, 100, 320 and 1000 mg/kg. The number of seedlings emerged and any mortalities and/or morphological abnormalities were determineddaily for 21 days after 50% emergence in the Solvent Control for each species.

Soybean :
EC50 Emergence > 1000 mg/kg
EC50 Growth > 1000 mg/kg

Tomato :
EC50 Emergence > 1000 mg/kg
EC50 Growth > 1000 mg/kg

Oat :
EC50 Emergence > 1000 mg/kg
EC50 Growth = 720 mg/kg
Executive summary:

Following a preliminary range-finding study, three plant species, two dicots (Soybean (Glycine max) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)) and one monocot species (Oat (Avena sativa)) were exposed to concentrations of 10, 32, 100, 320 and 1000 mg/kg.  The number of seedlings emerged and any mortalities and/or morphological abnormalities were determined daily for 21 days after 50% emergence in the Solvent Control for each species.

Soybean :

EC50 Emergence > 1000 mg/kg

EC50 Growth > 1000 mg/kg

Tomato :

EC50 Emergence > 1000 mg/kg

EC50 Growth > 1000 mg/kg

Oat :

EC50 Emergence > 1000 mg/kg

EC50 Growth = 720 mg/kg

Description of key information

Following a preliminary range-finding study, three plant species, two dicots (Soybean (Glycine max) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)) and one monocot species (Oat (Avena sativa)) were exposed to concentrations of 10, 32, 100, 320 and 1000 mg/kg.  The number of seedlings emerged and any mortalities and/or morphological abnormalities were determined daily for 21 days after 50% emergence in the Solvent Control for each species.

Soybean :

EC50 Emergence > 1000 mg/kg

EC50 Growth > 1000 mg/kg

Tomato :

EC50 Emergence > 1000 mg/kg

EC50 Growth > 1000 mg/kg

Oat :

EC50 Emergence > 1000 mg/kg

EC50 Growth = 720 mg/kg.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Short-term EC50 or LC50 for terrestrial plants:
720 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

The most sensitive short-term end-point was observed for the plant growth of Oat (Avena sativa) : EC50 Growth = 720 mg test item/kg dry weight in the test soil (sand) used in this study, which had an Organic Carbon content of 0.8%.

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